ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
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Work in pairs. Look at the products in the pictures. What do you think makes their design good or bad?
Why do you think design is necessary in industry?
3. Read the text and find the expressions which mean:
a. the art and science involved in the creation of machine-made products;
b. farm machinery, industrial tools, transportation equipment;
c. air conditioners, irons, electrical kettles, microwave ovens and other domestic electrical devices.
Industrial design is the art and science involved in the creation of machine-made products. It is concerned with aesthetic appearance as well as with functional efficiency. The successful design gives profit to its manufacturer and pleasure to its owner.
The term industrial design was originated in 1919 by the American industrial designer Joseph Sinel. Initially, industrial designers dealt only with machine-made consumer products. Eventually, however, they started designing capital goods, such as farm machinery, industrial tools, transportation equipment, and the planning of exhibitions, commercial buildings and packaging.
CRITERIA. Under prevailing standards of design, a product should have beauty of line, color, proportion, and texture; high efficiency and safety of operation; convenience or comfort in use; ease of maintenance and repair; durability. A consideration basic to all good design is the factor of realistic cost.
PRODUCT DESIGN. Today industrial design has been applied to practically all consumer products, notably to home appliances, such as air conditioners, irons, office equipment, such as typewriters, dictaphones, electronic communications equipment, such as radios, television sets, and others.
METHODS. Every design problem requires special procedures, timing, and techniques, but there is a general routine applicable to all. After the industrial designer is informed of the needs of the client, specialists associated with the designer conduct a study of competitive products. A design program is planned, and preliminary designs of the proposed product are then sketched on the basis of the available plant facilities. Rough sketches are chosen for further refinement and study, and the client is then presented with design studies, often in the form of a small model. Following the selection of the approved design, working drawings indicating the choice of materials and the specifications for finishing and assembly are prepared. A handmade working model is then manufactured and submitted to the client for approval. In the case of an automobile, for example, one or several are handmade and tested at proving grounds before final machine dies are ordered and production begins.
4. Complete the sentences with the appropriate words from the text:
1. After the industrial designer is informed of the needs of the client, specialists associated with the _______ conduct a study of competitive products.
2. Industrial _______ is concerned with aesthetic appearance as well as with functional efficiency.
3. The term _______ design was originated in 1919 by the American industrial designer Joseph Sinel.
4. Today industrial design has been applied to practically all _______ products, notably to home appliances.
5. Every design _______ requires special procedures, timing, and techniques, but there is a general routine applicable to all.
6. Industrial Design is the art and science involved in the _______ of machine-made products.
7. The success of a design is measured by the profit it yields its _______ and the service and pleasure it affords its owner.
5. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the words from the list below. Use each word only once:
designers, creator, product, industrial, change, creation, design, modifications, system, products, method
The industrial designer is essentially the 1) _______ of a pattern to guide the operations of skilled persons or machines. The development of 2) _______ design led to the 3) _______ of new procedures, such as the method of encasing a product to be redesigned in soft modeling clay, in order that the 4) _______ in the design may be molded directly from the old 5) _______. Another industrial-design 6) _______ is based on the fact that small models do not reflect accurately the design characteristics of the full-scale 7) _______. Distortion often occurs in magnification as a result of highlights and shadows that 8) _______ basic spatial relationships. To view the 9) _______ in full scale, the profession employs a photographic 10) _______ in which a small drawing is projected to full scale on a section of a wall. Revisions of the design are then made directly on the wall projection by the industrial 11) _______.
6. Match the English words with their Ukrainian equivalents:
1. maintenance a) створення
2. convenience b) відбір
3. creation c) пристрій
4. efficiency d) поточний ремонт
5. selection e) безпека
6. appliance f) ефективність
7. safety g) зручність
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