Match the first part of the sentence (1-7) with the second one (A-G).




ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Match the first part of the sentence (1-7) with the second one (A-G).



1. In the United States, any new and useful art, machine …..

2. In some cases, although two individuals working independently achieved the same innovation .….

3. Today most modern inventions and discoveries take place in .….

4. In most countries, certain classes of inventions are legally recognized,.....

5. In the United States, any new and useful written material, …..

6. For example, the American inventors Elisha Gray and .....

7. The machine age, which began with the Industrial Revolution …..

 

a) ….. and their use is temporarily restricted to the control of the inventor.

b) ….. Alexander Graham Bell applied for a patent on the telephone on the same day.

c) ….. paintings, sculpture, and photographs may be protected by copyright.

d) ….. simultaneously, only one was recognized for the discovery.

e) ….. and continues to this day, developed from a group of inventions.

f) ….. large research organizations supported by universities, government agencies.

g) ….. manufacture, or material may be protected by patent.

 

 

5. Find mistakes in the following statements and correct them:

1. Early inventors were usually isolated and able to support themselves through their inventions.

2. Credit for the discovery of the writing was fought for bitterly by the Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

3. The earliest artifacts make evidence of human inventiveness.

4. The names of the great archaeological ages are derived from the inventive use of iron and metal implements.

5. Invention is production of new devices, objects, ideas, or procedures useful in accomplishing human objectives.

6. An example of collective effort in producing an important invention is the discovery of the electronic digital computer.

7. The period of recorded history began with the invention of letters.

6. Match each adjective from the text with its antonym:

1. new a) small

2. useful b) antiquated

3. internal c) old

4. industrial d) public

5. modern e) useless

6. large f) external

7. private g) agricultural

 

7. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the words from the list below. Use each word only once:

title, invention, term, system, inventor, unique, device, definition

In common usage the 1) _______ invention is applied only to the production of new materials or operable devices, and the term 2) _______ is applied to a person who has produced a new 3) _______ or material. Less frequently, the term 4) _______ is applied to a new procedure; thus a person may be said to have invented a new game or a new 5) _______ of accounting. Under strict definition, however, anything produced by humans that is new and 6) _______ is an invention; this 7) _______ was recognized by Johann Sebastian Bach, who gave the 8) _______ Inventions to a series of his short keyboard compositions.

8. Read the clues and complete the crossword:

  1 2                 3        
                               
4                              
                               
          5         6          
                               
    7                          
                               
                               
      8                        
9                              
                               
                               
    10                          
                               
                               
                               
                               

 

 

Across:
A fact or thing that has been discovered.
Having or showing the ability to invent or think in new and different ways.
A paper from a government office giving someone the right to make or sell a new invention for a certain number of years.
A person who invents something new, especially one whose job is to invent things.
A new idea, method or invention; the introduction of new things.
Something produced by human invention or imagination.

 

Down:
The act of inventing; something invented.
Serious and detailed study of a subject, that is aimed at learning new facts, scientific laws, testing ideas.
Something which gives knowledge in the form of facts, news, etc.
A picture in the mind; conception.
The right in law to be the only producer or seller of a book, play, film or record for a fixed period of time.

 

LISTENING

9. Pre-listening: match the English words with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1. injury a) рідкий
2. threat b) розробляти
3. handgun c) куля
4. liquid d) загроза
5. develop e) пістолет
6. fibers f) жилет
7. bullet g) травма
8. vest h) волокна

Listen to the text and answer the following questions.

1. What is Kevlar?

2. Where is Kevlar used?

3. Who invented Kevlar?

4. What was the basis for a new fiber material?

5. What company financed the development of a new fiber material?

SPEAKING

Discuss the following questions in small groups.

What is the definition of the term “invention”?

What is the difference between the invention and the discovery?

3. What are the most important inventions of the 20th century?

12. Work in pairs. Choose the invention that to your mind is the most important for the mankind and discuss the following questions:

What invention have you chosen?

Who was the inventor?

When did he/she make the invention?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of this invention?

WRITING

Imagine that you are a researcher and you have to make a report about different inventions. Read the text again and give subtitles to each paragraph of the text in order to use them in your report.

GRAMMAR IN USE

These exercises can help you to practise the Pronouns: some / any / no (See Appendix 1 p. 200 – 202) and do the following exercises.

Choose the proper item.

1. Under strict definition, however, ….. produced by humans that is new and unique is an invention.

a) anything b) nothing c) anywhere

2. ….. knows that he is a great inventor.

a) No b) Something c) Everybody

3. In the United States, ….. new and useful art, machine, manufacture, or material may be protected by patent.

a) no b) anything c) any

4. ….. inventions are very important.

a) Some b) Any c) No

5. ….. needed a phonograph before Edison invented it.

a) Nothing b) Nobody c) Everything

6. ….. public campaigns have expressed a concern for patent protection.

a) Any b) Some c) No

7. ….. invention ideas that have never been made in reality can obtain patent protection.

a) Some b) Something c) No

15. Fill in the gaps with some, any, no or one of their compounds.

1. A: Are you doing ….. at the weekend?

B: No, I haven’t made any plans yet.

2. A: I think there’s ….. else in this envelope.

B: Take it out and see what it is.

3. A: Are you off work next week?

B: Yes, but I’m not going ….. . I’m going to stay at home.

4. A: The meal was a great success last night.

B: I know. There was ….. food left over, either.

5. A: Where is our professor?

B: He’s gone ….. with students.

6. A: Did you enjoy your visit to the museum?

B: Yes, but there was ….. to tell us about the exhibits.

7. A: The bus was really very crowded today. There was ….. to sit.

B: I know. I wish I had my own car.

 

16. Fill in the gaps with any + noun, anyone or anything.

Example. The seats aren’t reserved. You can have any seat you like.

I don’t mind what we do today. We can do anything you want.

1. If it’s your meeting, you can invite ….. you like

2. I don’t mind what he invents. He can invent ….. he wants.

3. All tickets are free. You can choose ….. you want.

4. All the buses go into the town centre. Take ….. that comes along here.

5. This car is available in lots of colours. You can have ….. you like.

6. He has the television on all the times. He’ll watch TV ….. he wants.

7. It doesn’t matter which day you phone. Ring ….. you like.

 

Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Розкажіть нам все про ваш винахід.

2. Ніхто не знав нічого про Америку до того як Колумб відкрив її.

3. Хтось вчора залишив журнал у нашій аудиторії.

4. Чи є тут хтось хто знає англійську мову?

5. Деякі винаходи покращили життя людей.

6. Вони нічого не сказали.

7. Чи є в будинку хто-небудь? – Так, там є хтось.


UNIT 18

TYPES OF ENGINES

LEAD-IN

 





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