In pairs, discuss the benefits and problems of recycling technologies in manufacturing.




ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

In pairs, discuss the benefits and problems of recycling technologies in manufacturing.



 

A B

READING

Read the text and decide whether the statements that follow are true or false.

Manufacturing

Manufacturing is producing goods that are necessary for modern life from raw materials. Originally manufacturing was accomplished by hand, but most of today's modern manufacturing operations are highly mechanized and automated.

There are three main processes involved in virtually all manufacturing: assembly, extraction, and alteration. Assembly is the combination of parts to make a product. For example, an airplane is assembled when the manufacturer puts together the engines, wings, and fuselage. Extraction is the process of removing one or more components from raw materials, such as obtaining gasoline from crude oil. Alteration is modifying or molding raw materials into a final product—for example, sawing trees into lumber.

TYPES OF MANUFACTURING. Manufacturing processes can produce either durable or nondurable goods. Durable goods are products that exist for long periods of time without significant deterioration, such as automobiles, airplanes, and refrigerators. Nondurable goods are items that have a comparatively limited life span, such as clothing, food, and paper.

FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES. Manufacturing systems today are designed to recycle many of their components. For example, in the automotive industry, excess steel and aluminum can become scrap stock for new metal, rubber tires can be chopped and mixed with asphalt for new roadways, and engine starters can be remanufactured and sold again.

Emission control will be a critical issue for future manufacturers. Smoke scrubbers must remove dangerous gases and particulates from industrial plant discharges, and manufacturing facilities that dump chemicals into rivers must develop methods of eliminating or reusing these waste products.

The economically advantageous automated factory has become the norm. Most automobile engines are manufactured using robotic tools and handling systems that deliver the engine to various machining sites. Computers with sophisticated inventory tracking programs make it possible for items to be assembled and delivered at the manufacturing facility only as they are needed.

Engineers use computers to help them design new products efficiently. The Boeing 777 jet, for example, was developed in record time by having its entire design and manufacturing systems created on a computer database rather than using traditional blueprints.

 

1. Extraction is the combination of parts to make a product.

2. Most automobile engines are manufactured using robotic tools and handling systems that deliver the motor to various machining sites.

3. Manufacturing systems today recycle many of their components.

4. Manufacturing is manufacturing goods that are necessary for modern life from raw materials.

5. Extraction is the process of removing one or more components from raw materials, such as receiving gasoline from crude oil.

6. There are three main processes involved in virtually all manufacturing: separation, extraction, and alteration.

7. Assembly is modifying or molding raw materials into a final product—for example, sawing trees into lumber.

 

T T T T T T T
F F F F F F F

 

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

 

4. Find Ukrainian equivalents to the following English words and word combinations:

goods, necessary, modern life, raw materials, manufacturing operations, involve, assembly, extraction, alteration, combination of parts, product, manufacturer, engine, wing, fuselage, gasoline, crude oil, lumber, produce, durable or nondurable goods, exist, significant deterioration, item, comparatively, limited life span, recycle, industry, steel, scrap stock, rubber.

 

5. Fill in the gaps with the proper item from the text:

1. Most automobile _______ are manufactured using robotic tools and handling systems that deliver the engine to various machining sites.

a) machines b) devices c) engines d) mechanisms

2. There are three main _______ involved in virtually all manufacturing: assembly, extraction, and alteration.

a) processes b) systems c) methods d) modes

3. Nondurable _______ are items that have a comparatively limited life span, such as clothing, food, and paper.

a) items b) goods c) things d) products

4. Originally manufacturing was accomplished by hand, but most of today's _______ manufacturing operations are highly mechanized and automated.

a) modern b) antique c) outdated d) fashion

5. _______ is the process of removing one or more components from raw materials, such as obtaining gasoline from crude oil.

a) cleaning b) extraction c) assembly d) alteration

6. _______ goods are products that exist for long periods of time without significant deterioration, such as automobiles, airplanes, and refrigerators.

a) durable b) expensive c) nondurable d) cheap

7. _______ is modifying or molding raw materials into a final product—for example, sawing trees into lumber.

a) breakage b) assembly c) alteration d) extraction

 

6. Find mistakes in the following statements and correct them:

1. Manufacturing processes today are designed to recycle many of their components.

2. Manufacturing system can produce either durable or nondurable goods.

3. Alteration is the combination of parts to make a product.

4. The economically disadvantageous automated factory has become the norm.

5. Manufacturing is producing goods that are necessary for modern life from different materials.

6. Emission control will be a critical issue for modern manufacturers.

7. Engineers use computers to help them control new products efficiently.

7. Match the English phrases with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1. nondurable goods a) товари тривалого використання

2. emission control b) сировина

3. computer database c) значне погіршення

4 raw materials d) життєвий період

5. significant deterioration e) товари недовгого користування

6. durable goods f) комп’ютерні дані

7. life span g) контроль виділень

8. Read the clues and complete the crossword:

1   2                    
                         
3                        
                         
4                        
                        5
  6           7          
                         
        8     9          
                         
                         
    10     11              
                         
  12                      
                         
                         
  13                      
                         

 

Across:
Anything from which something is or can be made; natural or man-made substance.
An arrangement or system that makes a particular activity possible.
A firm that manufactures goods.
A photographic copy of a plan for making a machine or building a house or other structure.
A drawing or pattern showing how something is to be made; the art of making such drawings or patterns.
An electronic machine that can be supplied with a program and can store and recall information, and perform various processes on it.
A building or group of buildings where goods are made, especially in great quantities by machines.
Articles for sale.

 

Down:
A branch of knowledge dealing with scientific and industrial methods and their practical use in industry; practical science.
A factory or other place where an industrial process is carried out.
The production of goods for sale, especially in factories or of materials that can be used in the production of goods.
A single thing on a list or among a set.
A particular system or treatment of materials used especially in producing goods.

 

 

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