Choose one correct sentence for each picture. There are more sentences than you need.




ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Choose one correct sentence for each picture. There are more sentences than you need.



1. 2. 3.

 

4. 5. 6.

 

a) You must go to this point if there is a fire.

b) You are required to wear a hard hat at this area.

c) Authorized personnel are obliged to enter.

d) You mustn’t consume this.

e) A fire extinguisher needs to be placed here.

f) People without authorization are prohibited from entering

g) You can get fire fighting equipment here.

h) Smoking is not allowed after this point.

17. Complete the sentences with should or shouldn't and the words in brackets.

1. (You / to download) ….. tracks from illegal sites. It damages the music industry.

2. If you want quality pictures, (you / to buy) ….. a digital camera.

3. I think (you / to share) ….. tracks with friends. It's illegal.

4. I don't think (you / to buy) ….. a VCR. They're out-of-date. Buy a DVD player.

5. (You / to give) ….. your password to anyone.

6. (You / to update) ….. your virus protection software.

7. It's easy to damage a flat screen. (You / to touch) ….. it.

Underline the correct verb forms and complete the sentences.

1. You need not / must not wear a seat belt all the time.

2. You must not / need not take me to the station. I know the way.

3. Is your telephone all right now? May / Can you hear me again?

4. It must / cannot be Greg. Greg is much taller.

5. Be careful! You must not / need not fall over again.

6. Don't panic. You must / may pass the exam next time.

7. I don't want to go out now. I may / must dust the furniture first.

 

Each of the following sentences contains a mistake. Find the mistakes and correct them.

1. Machines should to make our lives easier in many ways.

2. You should to enclose the invoice.

3. Machines can to do all kinds of jobs today.

4. By choosing the size of the gears, the speed and direction of the rotation of the axles can controlled.

5. The customer has pay import duty before he can get the goods.

6. Do I may come in?

7. This new monitor should displays more than two thousand colours.


UNIT 11

METALS

LEAD-IN

 

Look at the objects in the pictures. What metals do you think they are made of?

A B C D

 

Name as many metals as you can? Where are they used?

READING

Read the text and correct the statements that follow.

Metals

One basis of classification of the elements groups them into metals and non-metals. It is now 2,000 years since Julius Caesar was stabbed in a small auditorium known as Pompey's Curia and his body cremated in the Roman Forum. Since that time, many changes have taken place, but many things have remained the same. Steel is still the basic material of armaments, although, it is not used in the manufacture of shields and short swords. Gold, silver, and copper are, as 2,000 years ago, the coinage metals. Bronze is still used for objects intended to resist the corrosive action of the atmosphere.

Knowledge of the metals, of course, has increased, greatly since Caesar's day. The Roman world knew, at least, copper, lead, gold, silver, tin, iron, mercury, and zinc (in a copper alloy). To this list, the twentieth-century's man in the street might add aluminium, magnesium, nickel, chromium, cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, uranium, and one or two others.

The first metals which were used by primitive man were those that are found free in nature to a comparatively large extent. These are gold, silver, and copper. Tin entered the metal picture when someone discovered, probably accidentally, that if it was mixed with copper the resulting substance was harder. So there came into being the alloy that we call bronze, a material which was so important in the ancient world that its name is given to one of the cultural stages in human development. The Bronze Age began in Egypt around 3,000 BC and in Europe some 500 or 1,000 years later.

Since almost no iron exists free in nature, it undoubtedly came into general use somewhat later than those just mentioned. As soon as methods were developed for separating iron from its ores in reasonably large quantities and at fairly low cost, it ceased to be classed as a precious material and began its career as the world's most valuable metal from the standpoint of actual use.

Metals are mostly solids at ordinary temperature and have comparatively high melting points with the exception of mercury. They are for the most part good conductors of heat and electricity. They can be drawn into fine wires and hammered into thin sheets, characteristics that are called ductility and malleability, respectively. An ounce of gold can be drawn into a wire almost 50 miles long or hammered into a sheet that has an area of between 175 and 200 square feet.

From the point of tonnage produced and used, iron is the world's most common metal, followed in turn by copper, zinc, lead and aluminium.

 

1. Bronze is still the basic material of armaments, although, it is not used in the manufacture of shields and short swords.

2. The Roman world knew, at least, copper, lead, gold, silver, tin, iron, mercury, aluminium and zinc.

3. Non-metals are mostly solids at ordinary temperature and have comparatively high melting points.

4. The Bronze Age began in Europe around 3,000 BC and in Egypt some 500 or 1,000 years later.

5. One basis of classification of the elements groups them into solids and liquids.

6. Gold, silver, and bronze are, as 2,000 years ago, the coinage metals.

7. Iron is still used for objects intended to resist the corrosive action of the atmosphere.

 

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

 

4. Match the English phrases with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1. melting point a) основний матеріал

2. ordinary temperature b) низька вартість

3. basic material c) хороший провідник

4. human development d) квадратний фут

5. good conductor e) звичайна температура

6. square foot f) точка плавлення

7. low cost g) людський розвиток

 

5. Match up the words in column A with the words in column B to form meaningful phrases, translate them into Ukrainian:

Column A Column B

1. basic a) metal

2. corrosive b) temperature

3. valuable c) feet

4. actual d) point

5. ordinary e) action

6. melting f) material

7. square g) use

 





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