Перефразируйте высказывания, продолжив предложения.



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Перефразируйте высказывания, продолжив предложения.



a)

· Old formations are generally harder than the younger ones.

· The older the formations, ______.

b)

· Rich organic material is usually darker than poor organic matter.

· The darker the organic matter, ______.

c)

· Large sand grains are less subjected to friction than small particles.

· The larger the sand grains, ______.

d)

· Old formations are normally more difficult to study than the younger structures.

· The younger the formations, ______.

 

Ex. 16.

Определите, какой частью речи, глаголом или существительным, являются подчёркнутые слова.

  1. Glacial deposits have almost no relation to the character of the underlying rocks.
  2. Glaciers deposit their loads on land or in the sea.
  3. The change in fossil forms results from the change in conditions.
  4. The formation of clay minerals is the direct result of weathering.
  5. An earthquake is any vibration of the earth’s surface due to natural causes.
  6. Some natural causescause the vibration of the earth’ surface.
  7. Gravity causes weathered rocks to move downhill.

 

Ex. 17.

Закончите предложения, используя информацию исходного высказывания.

a)

· Glaciers deposited their loads on land, in fresh water or in the sea.

· Glacial loads ______.

b)

· The remains of plants and animals are usually contained in sedimentary rocks.

· Sedimentary rocks ______.

c)

· The history of the geologic periods is recorded in rock deposits.

· Rock deposits ______.

d)

· The remains of plants form some rocks.

· Some rocks ______.

 

Ex. 18.

Выделите значение подчёркнутого существительного (группы существительных), используя усилительную конструкцию “It is … that …”. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

  1. During this period sedimentations became the leading process in the formation of the geological record.
  2. Sedimentation became the leading process in the formation of the geological record.
  3. Metamorphism changes the original characteristics of rocks.
  4. Geological process shape the lands.
  5. Plants and animals cause great changes in the chemical composition of rocks.
  6. Many of the islands were formed by volcanic activity.

 

Ex. 19.

Перефразируйте высказывания, употребив вместо выделенных слов-заместителей нужные существительные.

  1. Igneous rocks may be divided into those crystallizing within the earth and those solidifying at the surface.
  2. Earthquakes cause much more trouble in areas of unconsolidated materials than in those with solid rock exposed at the surface. Greater amplitudes of vibrations are possible in the former than in the latter.
  3. In a moist, warm climate rock decay is rapid. In a dry oneit is slower.
  4. Material deposited in this way will be stratified, but all of it will be fine-grained.
  5. Basic lavas move faster than acidic ones because the former are less viscous.
  6. The water carries particles of rock and these finally are dropped in lakes, rivers and oceans to form beds of sand and mud.
  7. The ration between the densities of granite and basalt is comparable to that existing between those of ice and water.

 

Ex. 20.

Употребите вместо подчёркнутых слов слова-заместители: one, that, those, ones, the former, the latter, etc.

  1. The shape of sand particles may vary from completely rounded grains to angular fragments. The rounded grains are rare and are found generally in desert regions.
  2. As a rule, river sands are more angular than sands found in lake and marine deposits.
  3. Some water deposits are grouped into two main types: marine sediments and continental sediments. Marine sediments are deposited in the sea and continental sediments are deposited in fresh water.
  4. This volcano is relatively weak as compared with that volcano.
  5. Topography shaped by glaciers differs sharply from the topography shaped by running water.
  6. Naturally, hard minerals will offer more resistance to mechanical weathering than soft minerals.
  7. The geological influence of the sun up on the Earth is far greater than the geological influence of the Moon.

 

Ex. 21.

Откорректируйте тексты, избегая, по возможности, повторений. Используйте слова-заместители.

А:

The top most layers of the earth are called the crust. Its thickness and composition are not constant, but vary between the continental crust and the oceanic crust. The continental crust is much thicker than the oceanic crust and consists of light rocks; the oceanic crust is made up of dark rocks.

В:

It is known that certain animals and plants are confined to definite physical areas. The animals of the mountains are different from the animals on the plateaus; and the animals of the plateaus, in turn, have characteristics which distinguish them from the creatures of the low plains. The animals of the strand are not the same as the animals inhabiting the open ocean; the floras and faunas of fresh-water lakes are not the same as the floras and faunas found in the seas.

 

Ex. 22.

Прочитайте текст. Тезисно сформулируйте сходства и различия между ледниками и потоками воды.

Glaciers are defined and often popularly referred to as streams of ice. In shape and in the fact that they run downhill, they are like streams of water, but there most similarity ends. Glaciers are aggregates of ice which move slowly. The effects of glaciations, like those of all other surface processes, are erosion of the highlands and filling of the low places. There is therefore both abrasion and deposition.

There are very significant differences between the behavior and the properties of glaciers and streams. A glacier is an accumulation of crystalline solid ice. It is essentially a rigid body. A river is a stream of liquid which has no rigidity, which has none of the properties of a solid. A glacier can support upon and within itself masses of rock which are of greater specific gravity than ice; streams cannot carry in suspension large masses of materials of a higher specific gravity than water. Water can never run uphill; glaciers can move uphill very commonly. Water which meets loose materials flows over or around it, while ice can push this material in front of it. Water will run over a cliff in a continuous stream; ice in such a circumstance breaks into separate pieces which fall as individual blocks, broken from a solid mass. Water which flows slowly over an uneven surface conforms itself to its irregular bed; a glacier going over irregularities cannot bend and therefore cracks. These differences directly result from the fact that a river is liquid and a glacier is a rigid, crystalline solid.

 

Ex. 23.

Прочитайте текст «What is quicksand» и ответьте на следующие вопросы:

  1. What is quicksand?
  2. What are the main properties of quicksand?
  3. What is the difference between sand and quicksand?
  4. Why does quicksand contain water?
  5. How does the form of grains of quicksand differ from that of sand?
  6. Why is quicksand unable to support solid objects?
  7. Does quicksand always contain sand?
  8. Is quicksand dangerous for people?

 

 

What is quicksand?

 

What is quicksand? It is a light, loose sand which is mixed with water. It does not look different from sands which might be right next to it. But there is a difference: quicksand will not support heavy ob­jects.

Quicksand usually occurs near the mouths of large rivers and on flat shores where there is a lay­er of stiff clay under it. Water is collecting the sand because the underlying clay keeps the water from draining away. This water may come from many different places, such as river currents or pools.

The grains of quicksand are different from or­dinary grains of sand because they are round in­stead of being angular or sharp. The water gets between the grains and separates and lifts them, so that they tend to flow over one another. This makes them unable to support solid objects.

Some quicksand is not even made of sand. It can be any kind of loose soil, a mixture of sand and mud, or kind of pebbly mud.

People who step into quicksand do not sink out of sight. Since it contains so much liquid, it will enable them to float. And since quicksand is heavier than water, people can float higher in it than they do in water.

The important thing is to move slowly in quick­sand. This is to give it time to flow around the body. Once it does this, it will act like water in which you are swimming.

 

Unit X. Test Section.

Ex. 1. Выберите правильный вариант из предложенных в скобках.

  1. The more (soluble/solution/solvent) salts tend to stay in solution longer.
  2. Being less dense than mantle, the (melts/melting/molten) crustal material rises toward the ocean floor.
  3. The phenomenon is rather complicated and the process (involving/involved/was involved) is not yet clear.
  4. Land features on the continents may (to be divided/dividing/be divided) into mountains, plateaus, and plains.
  5. The attraction of the moon is the chief force (causes/caused/causing) the tides.
  6. The rotation of the earth (causes/is caused) day and night.
  7. Erosion requires transportation of rock waste to a new (locate/ location/local).
  8. In lakes the material (brings/brought/is brought) down by the stream settles on the bottom.
  9. Metamorphism (change/changes/to change) the original char­acteristics of the rocks and minerals.
  10. Earthquakes are geological (phenomena/phenomenon) that attend the deformation of the earth's crust.
  11. Geological hazards frequently (result/cause/effect) in injuries or loss of life and property.
  12. The highest rate of motion is observed in the middle of the ice stream, approximately along its (axis/axes/axe).
  13. (Weather/whether) conditions also play a part in erosion.
  14. Mountains result from the folding of rocks which were (formal­ly/former/formerly) flat.
  15. Whena rock is subjected (to/at/by) great pressure it splits into thin sheets.
  16. All the given (datum/dates/data) show that erosion started long ago.
  17. The destructive (effect/affect/effort) is much greater on uncon­solidated structures than it is on firm rock.
  18. The (way/road/path) in which rocks deform under stress is de­termined by (their/there) composition.
  19. Thewind carries (lose/loose/losses) particles and with sand help to wear away rocks.
  20. Water soaks into rocks, (solves/dissolves) and alters minerals.
  21. The winds carry (much/many) sand and dust.
  22. An earthquake usually folds the (strata/straight) of the rocks.
  23. Any snow (layer/liar) on a mountain side tends to creep down the slope under the influence of gravity.
  24. The heat of the sun causes the rocks (to expand/to extend).
  25. Rocks are (affected/effected) by alternate heating and cooling.
  26. Tides (cause/are caused) by the attraction of the moon and the sun.
  27. There is (little/few) hope that geologic hazards can be eliminated completely.
  28. The change in fossil forms (causes/results/leads) from the change in conditions.
  29. (Some/same) of the newest soils of the world are the glacial de­posits.
  30. It is most important to realize that changes are (continue/continual/continually) taking place on the surface of the earth.
  31. (Frequency/frequent/frequently) such stones roll into irregular depressions.
  32. The greater (move/movements/movable) of the earth are of two kinds.
  33. Soils of this type contain a lower proportion of minerals (resist/ resistant/resistance) to alteration.
  34. In (some/same) regions glaciation has smoothed the topography and made the land more suitable for agriculture; in others it has pro­duced such roughness as to make the land useless.
  35. Water has a strong (solve/solution/solvent) action on parts of the earth's crust.
  36. The (loosen/loosening/loose) and removal of rock material by any process at the earth's surface is erosion.
  37. The earth movements that cause the earthquakes may be either volcanic or tectonic; the (latter/late/later) type is more common.
  38. Ground water is very (different/difference/differently) from rain water.
  39. Volcanism includes all (phenomenon/phenomena) that are con­nected with molten rock matter and its movements.
  40. (Like/likely) the earth the sun both rotates and revolves.
  41. Metamorphism (changes/is changed) the original characteristics of the rocks and minerals.
  42. Movements of the atmosphere (are caused/cause) important mod­ifications of the land.
  43. Sometimes landslides (caused/are caused) by rain water.
  44. Tsunami (is caused/caused) by an earthquake taking place on the ocean bed.
  45. The forces of erosion carry away particles of (erode/eroded/eroding) rock.
  46. Most of the land surface of the earth (covered/is covered) with soil.
  47. Running water (affects/is affected) the landscape.
  48. The sand particles (carried/are carried) along by wind.
  49. At night when it gets very cold the water in the cracks freezes and its (expand/expansion/expansive) causes the cracks to widen.
  50. Tides (cause/are caused) by the attraction of the moon and the sun.
  51. Fold mountains (formed/forming) by folding in the earth crust.
  52. The winds carry (much/many) sand and dust.
  53. Chemical weathering is a (most/much more/much) complicated process than physical weathering.
  54. The change in fossil forms (causes/results/leads) from the change in conditions.
  55. Mountains result (in/from) the folding of rocks.
  56. All the given (datum/dates/data) show that erosion started long ago.
  57. Glaciers (like/likely) rivers and wind wear away the surface over which they move.
  58. What causes such a (phenomenon/phenomena) as the magnetic field of the earth?
  59. Alluvial diamond deposits in southern Africa were traced to the well known (course/source/cause), the Kimberlite pipes near the city of Kimberly.
  60. There is (little/few) hope that geologic hazards can be eliminated completely.
  61. When a rock is subjected (to/at/by) great pressure it splits into thin sheets.
  62. The disturbance and dislocation of the earth's crust lead (from/ in/to) diastrophism.
  63. An earthquake usually folds the (strata/straight) of the rocks.
  64. Water soaks into rocks, (solves/dissolves) and alters minerals.
  65. The formation of clay minerals is the direct result (at/of/from) weathering.
  66. Rocks are (affected/effected) by alternate heating and cooling.
  67. The process is (named/referred/called) to as denudation.
  68. The distance the material travels depends (of/on/in) the size of the particle and the strength of the wind.
  69. A glacier moves slowly down under the force of (gravity/gravel).
  70. Erosion also proceeds (rapid/rapidly) along the lines of weakness.
  71. Volcanic action may (create/creature/creative) islands, mountains and plateau.
  72. Principle causes of land-surface subsidence are removal of solids or fluids from the land surface either (nature/naturally/natural) or ar­tificially.
  73. The (transmit/ transmission/transmissible) of heat by the move­ment of particles themselves is known as convection.
  74. Temperature (relationship/relative/relatively) is also important.
  75. (Since/science) 1631 Vesuvius has been in a state of almost con­stant mild activity.
  76. The greater (move/movements/movable) of the earth are of two kinds.
  77. Erosion requires transportation of rock waste to a new (locate/ location/local).
  78. Soils with a lower proportion of minerals are (resist/resistant/ resistance) to alteration.

 

Ex. 2. Изложите содержание следующих текстов по-английски

Text 1

Геодинамические процессы

 

Как известно, Земля подвергается постоянным изменениям. Эти изменения можно условно разделить на две группы. На протяжении своего существования Земля прошла длинный ряд изменений. Она изменялась и продолжает изменяться непрерывно. Изменяются её состав, физическое состояние, внешний вид и т. д.

Первая группа - это те изменения, или процессы, которые протекают внутри Земного шара, которые подчиняются силам, заложенным внутри Земли, и которые мало зависят от внешних влияний. Такие процессы носят название эндогенных. Они вызывают различные движения земной коры. Эти движения называются тектоническими. Все эндогенные процессы тесно связаны друг с другом.

Вторая группа изменений вызвана по преимуществу внешними силами и проявляется на поверхности Земли. Эти процессы объединяются под термином экзогенные процессы. Эндогенные и экзогенные процессы действуют одновре­менно, они связаны друг с другом, обусловливают друг друга, отражают сложность, разнообразие, но и единство сил, дейст­вующих на Земле.

 

Text 2

Выветривание

 

Под выветриванием понимается совокупность физиче­ских, химических и биохимических процессов преобразования горных пород и слагающих их минералов в приповерхностной части земной коры. Это преобразование зависит от многих факторов: колебаний температуры, химического воздействия воды и газов, воздействия органических веществ. Все процес­сы выветривания тесно связаны с взаимодействием верхней части земной коры с атмосферой, биосферой и гидросферой.

В зависимости от преобладания тех или иных факторов выделяют два взаимосвязанных типа выветривания: физиче­ское и химическое.

Физическое выветривание связано с суточными и сезон­ными колебаниями температуры, что вызывает то нагревание, по охлаждение поверхностного слоя горных пород. Вследствие этого происходит дезинтеграция (физическое разрушение) горных пород и образование трещин.

В образовавшиеся трещины проникает вода и газы, что ведет к процессам химического изменения пород с образова­нием новых минералов.

 

Text 3



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