Заполните пропуски соответствующими по смыслу словами из колонки справа.


The lithosphere ______ of solid, rocky material. It ______ by far the greatest portion of the Earth, ______ not only the lands, but ______ rocky material ______ the oceans. The lithosphere is of supreme importance to the geologists ______ the ______ of the wonderful events of the earth’s history are ______ in the rocks. under also records constitutes recorded including because consists


The partial envelope ______ all the waters ______ and ______ the earth’s surface is called the hydrosphere. ______ of the waters ______ are in the oceans, ______ streams, lakes and ______ waters are also important. Water is one of the greatest of all geological ______. most but comprising by far but agencies on underground near


The gaseous ______ of the Earth is called ______. The chief ______ of the air are nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour and carbon dioxide. ______ of the atmosphere cause important ______ of the lands and make possible ______ (rainfall and snowfall). constituents movements envelope atmosphere modifications precipitations



Выберите эквивалент подчеркнутому слову.

1. The lithosphere makes up about 29% of the earth’s surface.

a. deposits

b. penetrates

c. effects

d. builds

2. The hydrosphere is composed of salt water, fresh water, ice and snow.

a. consists of

b. deals with

c. results in

d. is concerned with

3. Ocean waters contain many minerals.

a. envelop

b. influence

c. include

d. complete

4. The earth consists of three quite different parts: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the lithosphere.

a. is included

b. is formed

c. constitutes

d. builds up

5. Almost all rocks include two or more minerals.

a. change

b. constitute

c. increase

d. comprise

6. Ocean waters contain many elements.

a. consist

b. constitute

c. form

d. include

7. Magma comprises large quantities of both oxygen and hydrogen.

a. forms

b. constitutes

c. contains

d. occurs

8. The waters of the Earth include the waters of oceans, lakes and streams.

a. occur

b. comprise

c. divide

d. modify



Заполните пропуски, выбрав правильный вариант из предложенных:


a) stratum

b) strata

c) stratification

d) stratified

e) stratigraphy

1. One of the most distinctive features in sedimentary rocks is that they are ______.

2. The thinnest layer of a ______ rock form lamina.

3. A number of lamina may be united in a ______ or bed, which may vary in thickness.

4. The study of the relation of layers to each other is called ______.

5. The deposits made directly by the ice are characterized by an absence of ______.

6. Stratigraphy studies the relation of ______ to each other.

1– 3– 5–
2– 4– 6–



a) origin

b) original

c) originally

d) originate

1. As a result of changes of level sedimentary rocks which were ______ deposited in the ocean now form parts of the continents.

2. In some places the soil is mainly of organic ______.

3. Most earthquakes ______ beneath the sea.

4. Some rocks change their ______ qualities under high tº and pressure.

5. There are many minerals which ______ deep in the earth and are unstable under surface conditions.

1– 3– 5–
2– 4– 6–



Определите, какой частью речи является подчеркнутое слово.

1. Some rocks are formed from the remains of plants.

2. The origin of life on Earth remains one of the most interesting problems in modern science.

3. A glacier deposits its loads on land or in the sea.

4. Rock deposits may be stratified.

5. Metamorphism changes the original characteristics of rocks.

6. Temperature and pressure cause great changes in the chemical composition of rocks.

7. In some places the wind forms sand dunes.

8. Sand dunes may be of different forms.

9. Geological processes shape the lands.

10. This rock is of irregular shape.



Выберите нужный по смыслу вариант из приведенных в скобках.

1. The real difference between the centre of Africa and the centre of America is that in the (former/formerly) water is water and in the (later/latter) water is ice.

2. In general, waves are of two types: swell waves and storm waves. Both are generated by the wind but the (letter/latter) more directly than the (farmer/former).

3. The earth warmed up and cooled off several times. In comparison to some (former/formal) eras of geologic history today we live in one of the “ice age”.

4. It was (formally/formerly) supposed that the entire interior of the Earth was liquid.

5. Molten magma contains large quantities of both oxygen and hydrogen. In cooling they combine to form water. The (later/latter) is an extremely active agent.



Вставьте нужные предлоги.

1. All rocks are composed ___ minerals.

2. Minerals are ___ great importance ___ the geologists.

3. The oceanic crust is made up ___ dark rocks.

4. Any material which was formed ___ liquid rock is called igneous rock.

5. This area is now covered ___ sedimentary rock.

6. This layer of sedimentary rock lies ___ the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the earth’s crust.

7. The word “metamorphic” comes ___ two Greek words.



Дополните следующие предложения нужными по смыслу словами из предложенных в рамке.

1. It is believed that some of the molten material cooled ______ the crust.

2. The wind carried away particles of eroded rock and set them down in layers ______ on dry land ______ under the water.

3. The continental crust ______ light rocks, the oceanic crust ______ dark rocks.

4. Minerals are ______ of the earth’s crust.

5. Rocks are classified on the basis of their ______.

6. The term “rock” ______ all the solid constituents of the earth’s surface.

7. The thickness of the earth’s crust under the oceans is ______ than under the continents.

less, consists of, origin, to form, is made up of, either…or, constituents, is referred to.



Выберите вариант, соответствующий выделенному слову.

1) In some places много carbon dioxide (CO2) escapes from the earth.

a. many

b. much

c. more

d. most

2) In the world there are много amazing phenomena.

a. many

b. most

c. much

d. more

3) There is very мало free hydrogen present in the earth now.

a. few

b. a few

c. a little

d. little

4) In несколько places Antarctica extends north of the Antarctic Circle.

a. few

b. a few

c. little

d. a little

5) To understand the geological history of the country we must know немного of world geology.

a. few

b. a few

c. little

d. a little

6) There are мало rivers in desert regions.

a. few

b. a few

c. little

d. a little

7) The Antarctica is composed of a continent and много small islands.

a. much

b. many

c. most

d. more

8) Although there is много snow in Antarctica, there is almost no fresh water.

a. much

b. more

c. most

d. many




Подберите пары предложений, эквивалентных по смыслу.


1. Igneous rocks are formed from molten material.   2. Igneous rocks formed from molten material are divided into two types. 3. It is igneous rocks that are formed from molten material.   4. It is known that igneous rocks are divided into two types. 5. It is known that there are two types of igneous rocks. 1. Изверженные породы, сформированные из расплавленного материала, подразделяются на два типа. 2. Известно, что изверженные породы подразделяются на два типа. 3. Изверженные породы сформированы из расплавленного материала. 4. Известно, что существует два типа изверженных пород. 5. Именно изверженные породы сформированы из расплавленного материала.


1–… 2–… 3–… 4–… 5–…



1. Постоянно изменяясь, Земля никогда не бывает стабильной. 2. Существуют факторы, постоянно изменяющие Землю. 3. Поверхность Земли постоянно изменяется. 4. Именно геологические факторы изменяют поверхность Земли. 5. Известно, что существуют геологические факторы, которые постоянно изменяют поверхность Земли. 1. There are agencies constantly changing the Earth. 2. It is known that there are geological agencies that constantly change the surface of the Earth. 3. Constantly changing the Earth is never stable. 4. The surface of the Earth is constantly changing. 5. It is geological agencies that change the surface of the Earth.


1–… 2–… 3–… 4–… 5–…



Прочитайте текст и определите, какие из приведенных ниже высказываний соответствуют его содержанию. Отметьте приведенные ниже высказывания как соответствующие (+) или несоответствующие (–) содержанию текста.

The feldspars are probably more widely-distributed than any other group of rock-forming minerals. They occur in most of the igneous rocks, such as granites and lavas; in certain sandstones and conglomerates among sedimentary ones; and in gneisses of metamorphic rocks.

Feldspar is a family name, and not that of a single mineral. It constitutes one of the most, if not the most, important group of rock-forming minerals; nearly 60% of the earth’s crust is composed of feldspar. Feldspar exhibits a variety of colours. Feldspar is frequently the dominant colouring mineral in granites.

1. The feldspars are the most widely-distributed rock-forming minerals (……….).

2. The feldspars occur in all groups of rocks (……….).

3. Feldspar is the name of a single mineral (……….).

4. The feldspar constitutes more than half of the Earth’s crust (……….).

5. The feldspar is a colourless mineral (……….).




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