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Unit II. Minerals and Gemstones


Focus on:

1. Терминологическая и понятийная лексика (слова и выражения, обозначающие структуру, состав, происхождение, встречаемость, изменчивость веществ в зависимости от условий среды);

  1. Устойчивые словосочетания (in various ways, under different conditions, etc.)
  2. Употребление many, much, little, few, a few, a little с исчисляемыми и неисчисляемыми существительными.
  3. Значения и употребление «most».
  4. Способы образования некоторых частей речи:

high – height – to heighten

broad – breadth – to broaden

wide – width – to widen

long – length – to lengthen

  1. Связующие элементы: although, however, because, because of, consequently, like/unlike.

7. Построение дефиниций.

 

 

Text Study.

Minerals are the basic naturally occurring inorganic homogeneous units having definite physical and chemical properties which are combined in various ways and under different conditions to form rocks.

Most minerals consist of elements combined as chemical compounds although a few may occur as native elements, – for example, gold, silver, copper, and carbon (diamond and graphite).

Minerals form under many different conditions, but for each mineral there is a specific range of temperature, pressure, and other conditions under which it is stable.

Stated in a different way, minerals are stable only in the environment in which they are formed. For example, olivine forms at depth; it commonly crystallizes from magma under relatively high temperatures and pressures. If olivine is exposed to the temperature, pressure, and humidity of the earth’s surface, it is no longer stable and the crystal structure disintegrates.

If clay minerals which formed at the surface of the earth are deeply burred or subjected to heat and pressure, they change to micas which are stable under new conditions.

A few minerals, such as quartz, are stable under a range of conditions. However, most minerals are not, and since conditions at specific places on the earth’s surface commonly change, minerals change too. Because of crustal movements, minerals which formed at the surface are commonly subjected to the conditions at depth, and minerals which formed at depth are commonly exposed at the surface.

Consequently, change, not stability is the rule.

 

Notes: to occur [E`kE:] – occurrence [E`kQrEns]

 

 

Ex.1.

Найдите в тексте английские соответствия следующим словам и словосочетаниям:

встречающиеся в природе; однородные (гомогенные) единицы; различным образом; при различных условиях; хотя; несколько; особый диапазон температурных условий; иначе говоря; на глубине; при высокой температуре; на поверхности; подвергаться давлению и температуре; однако; так как; из-за; следовательно.

 

Ex.2

Вставьте нужный пропущенный предлог.

1) Many minerals form – depth

a. at

b. in

c. on

d. under

2) Some minerals crystallize – high temperature and pressure

a. on

b. at

c. under

d. above

3) Clay minerals form – the surface

a. under

b. above

c. at

d. in

4) Most minerals become unstable – new conditions

a. at

b. on

c. in

d. under

 

Ex.3.

Выберите варианты, соответствующие подчеркнутому слову. Обратите внимание на употребление much, little, a little с неисчисляемыми существительными и many, few, a few – с исчисляемыми.

1) (Много) minerals form at depth. (many/much)

2) (Некоторые) minerals occur as native elements. (few/a few)

3) (Мало) minerals remain stable under high temperature and pressure. (little/few)

4) There is very (мало) free hydrogen present in the earth now. (few/little)

5) To understand the origin of minerals we must know (много) of their composition. (much/many)

6) We have (мало) information as to the origin of these minerals. (little/few)

 

Ex.4.

Переведите предложения. Выберите наиболее подходящее значение слова “most”

a) самый;

b) весьма, крайне;

c) большая часть, большинство;

A:

1. Most minerals consist of elements, combined as chemical compounds.

2. Mineralogy is a most interesting branch of geology.

3. Oxygen is the most abundant element.

4. Most of minerals are not stable under high temperature and pressure.

5. The most fundamental combination of elements is their union with oxygen.

6. The topmost layers of the earth are called the Earth’s crust.

B:

1. Геофизика – весьма важная область геологической науки.

2. Происхождение Земли – самый трудный вопрос естественных наук.

3. Большинство минералов изменяют свои первоначальные свойства под воздействием высокой температуры и давления.

 

Ex.5.

Составьте ряды однокоренных слов, заполнив таблицу.

прилагательное наречие существительное глагол
high
deeply
breadth
to widen

 

high, to widen, deeply, wide, breadth, widely, depth, height, broad, deep, to broaden, to deepen, highly, to heighten, broadly, width.

 

Ex.6.

Выберите правильный, на Ваш взгляд, вариант. Переведите предложение.

1. Most minerals consist of elements ______ there are a few which occur as native elements.

a. because

b. since

c. although

d. if

2. ______ a mineral is exposed to high temperature and pressure, it often changes its structure.

a. however

b. although

c. because of

d. if

3. Some minerals are stable under a range of conditions ______ most minerals are not.

a. however

b. consequently

c. since

d. because

4. Many minerals change their form ______ crustal movements.

a. because

b. because of

c. if

d. however

5. Change, not stability is the rule ______ the Earth is constantly changing.

a. consequently

b. however

c. because of

d. because

6. ______ conditions at different places on the Earth commonly change, the minerals change too.

a. although

b. since

c. because of

d. consequently

7. The conditions at specific places on the Earth’s surface commonly change ______ the minerals change too.

a. although

b. since

c. because

d. consequently

1. … 2. … 3. … 4. … 5. … 6. … 7. …

 

Ex.7.

На основании информации текста дайте развернутые определения следующим веществам:

1) Olivine is ______ which ______

2) ______ which ______ is referred to as olivine

3) Clay minerals are ______

4) ______ are referred to as clay minerals

5) Micas are ______

6) ______ are referred to as micas

 

Ex.8.



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