Stage I: Отметьте, какие из следующих высказываний, на ваш взгляд, верные, а какие нет. Stage II: Проверьте правильность своих ответов, прочитав текст.



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Stage I: Отметьте, какие из следующих высказываний, на ваш взгляд, верные, а какие нет. Stage II: Проверьте правильность своих ответов, прочитав текст.



  Stage I Stage II
  + / – + / –
1. Salt is the most common mineral in the Earth’s crust.    
2. The commercial salt is the salt we use at home.    
3. Rock salt may be deposited in layers.    
4. Rock salt strata are usually very thin.    
5. Salt springs are formed by the filtering of water through the beds of rock salt.    
6. Most commercial salt is produced from sea water.    

 

Salt is one of the most common minerals. Chemically, salt is a compound of sodium and chlorine. The common salt we use at hone is produced in many ways: from sea water, or the water of salt lakes, from salt springs, and from deposits of rock salt.

Beds of rock salt are found in various parts of the world and are sometimes very thick. Salt springs may be formed by the filtering of water through these beds of rock salt.

Most commercial salt is produced from sea water.

 

Ex.21.

Составьте текст из следующих предложений, расположив их в логической последовательности.

· Pure water is pumped down to the rock salt through a pipe.

· There are salt beds.

· The water dissolves the salt.

· Wells are drilled down to salt beds.

· The brine is evaporated.

· The brine, or salt water, is forced up to the surface through another pipe.

· The grains are dried and graded.

· The grains are formed.

· Table salt has a very fine grain.

 

Unit V. Test Section

(1) Выберите правильный вариант из приведенных в скобках. Объясните свой выбор.(or.)

(2) Запишите предложение, подчеркнув выбранный Вами вариант.(wr.)

(3) Переведите предложение на русский язык.(or./wr.)

 

1. Sedimentary rocks (originate/are originated) from other types of rocks by the processes of erosion.

2. Sedimentary rocks (are referred/referred) to as stratified rocks.

3. The three main divisions of the earth(are/there are): the crust, the mantle, and the core.

4. Molten magma (contains/is contained) large (quantities/qualities) of both oxygen and hydrogen.

5. Hydrogen is the lightest element (known/is known).

6. The (phenomena/phenomenon) is rather complicated and the process (involves/involved) is not yet clear.

7. Rocks deep in the crust (brought/are brought) to the surface by volcanic action.

8. The component grains of sandstone (there are/are) chiefly quartz.

9. Some sandstones (forms/are formed) from particles of sand by wind.

10. Metamorphism (changes/is changed) the (original/origin) characteristics of the rocks and minerals.

11. (They are/There are) some other (hypothesis/hypotheses) dealing with the (origin/original) of the Earth.

12. Soils usually (contain/constitute) a great variety of minerals.

13. (There are/There is) a great variety of minerals which (comprise/constitute) rocks.

14. The variation of temperature (varies/various) with (high/height).

15. The (mean/means) temperature of surface water on the Earth (vary/varies) from region to region.

16. The earth is (comprised/composed) of three major zones.

17. Earthquakes are geological (phenomena/phenomenon).

18. Due (to/of) its high degree of activity oxygen (occurs/contains) in the magma only in (combination/composition) with other elements.

19. Limestone (consists/includes) of calcium carbonate.

20. Geology is a (science/since) which deals (with/within) the history of the earth.

21. Three quarters of the earth’s surface (contain/consist) of water.

22. Oxygen and hydrogen combine to form water; the (later/latter) is an extremely active agent in the interior lithosphere.

23. (Some/Same) magma crystallizes to rocks (composing/composed) of one mineral only.

24. In (composition/combination) with hydrogen an carbon oxygen forms very widely spread (compounds/constituents) – water and carbonic acid gas.

25. Chemical substances may be (divided/described) into 3 classes: mixtures, compounds and elements.

26. The process is (called/referred) to as oxidation.

27. The winds carry (much/many) sands and dust.

28. Seismic (analyze/analysis) is based on different techniques.

29. Rock is one of the (hard/difficult) materials of which the earth’s crust is mainly (consists/composed).

30. The chief (compounds/components) of the air are nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour and carbon dioxide.

31. (Most/Much) minerals (consist/contain) of the elements (combined/combining) as chemical (composition/compounds).

32. (Mineralogically/Mineralogical) emerald is beryl.

33. Three large groups of rocks are commonly recognized on the basis of their (original/origin).

34. Only about 20 minerals are abundant (constitution/constituents) of the earth’s crust.

35. Rock may come into existence (through/though) the deposition.

36. Specific gravity (varies/various) with chemical composition.

37. In the crust of the earth (there/this) is a great (vary/variety) of minerals and rocks.

38. (They/These) conclusions are (base/based) on X-ray analysis (datum/data).

39. The exact (composition/compound) of this gas is not known.

40. Rock is one of the (solid/solidify) materials of which the earth’s crust is mainly (composed/compose).

41. Green transparent beryl is (calls/called) emerald.

42. The pearl (consisted/consisting) of calcium carbonate is formed within an oyster.

43. (There is/It is) some water vapour in the air.

44. Oxygen (knows/is known) as a stable element.

45. Rocks are solid (natural/naturally) (formed/forming) substances (made/making) up of minerals.

46. The earth’s solid part (is known/known) as the lithosphere is mainly (consists/built) up of rocks.

47. Usually magma (forms/is formed) minerals.

48. The rocks of the crust (are classified/classify) into three groups according to their (originate/origin).

49. Scientific data (is/are) analyzed by (scientists/sciences).

50. (Due to/because) (its/it’s) (high/height) (activity/action) oxygen (occurs/occurrence) in magma only in (combination/composition) with (another/other) elements.

 

 


Active Vocabulary (Units 1 – 5)

Nouns

 

A

accumulation

act

action

activity

age

agency

agent

analysis(es)

animal

application

atmosphere

 

B

background

basis

behavior

branch

 

C

change

character

chemist

chemistry

classification

climate

coal

colleague

collection

combination

communication

composition

concept

conclusion

constitution

construction

continent

course

creativity

crust

cycle

 

D

damage

datum(a)

degree

deposit

development

direction

discipline

discussion

distribution

dynamics

 

E

earth

earthquake

ecology

effect

element

employment

energy

environment

eruption

event

evolution

experience

expert

exploration

expression

 

F

fact

flood

form

formation

fossil

foundation

 

G

gas

gemstone

generalization

geologist

geology

geophysicist

geophysics

glacier

 

H

hazard

heat

hydrocarbons

hydrologist

hydrology

hypothesis(es)

 

I

identification

illustration

imagination

importance

indicator

interior

 

K

knowledge

 

L

land

landscape

landslide

layer

location

 

M

magma

mankind

material(s)

mathematician

mathematics

matter

measurement

mechanism

metal

meteorite

method

mineral

mineralogist

mineralogy

mitigation

modeling

monitoring

movement

 

N

nature

 

O

object

observation

ocean

oil

organism

origin

 

P

paleontologist

paleontology

part

petroleum

petrologist

petrology

phenomenon(a)

physicist

physics

plant

potential

prediction

process

production

project

property

provision

 

R

range

reaction

reality

reason

record

region

relation

relationship

remains

resource(s)

rift

risk

 

S

science

scientist

sea

sediment

sedimentologist

sedimentology

seismologist

seismology

shape

soil

stratum(a)

stream

structure

study

subject

substance

surface

surrounding(s)

system

 

T

theory

time

training

transportation

type

 

U

use

utilization

 

V

value

variety

volcano

 

W

water

way

weather

wind

world

 

Z

zonation

zone

 


Verbs

 

A

to accumulate

to act

to analyze

to apply

 

C

to call

to change

to characterize

to classify

to collect

to combine

to communicate

to compose

to concern

(to be concerned)

to conclude

to constitute

to construct

to contain

to create

 

D

to damage

to deal with

to deduce

to deposit

to develop

to differ from

to direct

to discuss

to distribute

to diversify

to divide

 

E

to erupt

to evaluate

to evolve

to experience

to explore

to express

 

F

to find

to flood

to form

 

 

G

to generalize

 

H

to heat

 

I

to identify

to illustrate

to imagine

to include

to indicate

to involve

 

K

to know

 

L

to locate

 

M

to make up

(to be made up of)

to measure

to mitigate

to move

 

O

to observe

to operate

to originate

 

P

to predict

to preserve

to process

to produce

to provide

 

R

to realize

to refer

(to be referred to a)

to relate

to remain

 

S

to shape

to study

to subject

to surround

to systematize

 

T

to train

to treat of

to try

 

U

to understand

to use

to utilize

 

V

to value

to vary

 


Adjectives / Adverbs

 

A

active (ly)

analogous

 

C

challenging

chemical (ly)

complete (ly)

complex

creative (ly)

 

D

different (ly)

diverse

dynamic

 

E

essential (ly)

 

F

formal (ly)

 

G

general (ly)

geological (ly)

 

I

important (ly)

informal (ly)

interesting (ly)

 

M

major

minor

modern

multiple

 

N

natural (ly)

 

O

original (ly)

 

P

permanent (ly)

 

R

real (ly)

 

 

S

scientific (aly)

seismic

similar (ly)

specific (aly)

static (aly)

stimulating

systematic (aly)

 

T

theoretic (aly)

 

V

valuable

various (ly)

vital (ly)

 


Активный словарь

Существительные

 

анализ, анализы

ветер

вода

возраст

вывод

выражение (чего-либо)

геологический фактор (2 сл.)

гидрогеолог

гидрогеология

гипотеза

данные (ед., мн.)

действие

действительность

деятельность

диапазон

занятость

землетрясение

земля

извержение

изменение

ископаемые остатки

использование (2 сл.)

климат

коллега

концепция

кора (Земли)

летопись (геологич.)

математик

математика

материя (2 сл.)

месторождение

мир

море

наводнение

накопление

направление

наука

нефть

обсуждение

окружающая среда (2 сл.)

опыт

осадки

отношение

отрасль

перенос

поведение

поверхность

погода

поток

почва

путь

развитие (2 сл.)

разнообразие

разрушение

район

распределение

ресурсы

связь

связь

сейсмика

слой (и) -2 сл.

событие

состав

сочетание

степень

строение

творчество

теория

уголь

физик

физика

форма (2 сл.)

характер

химик

химия

ценность

цикл

 


Глаголы

 

вовлекать (включать) 2 сл.

воздействовать

выражать

двигать (ся)

действовать (2)

делать выводы

извергать (ся)

изменять

измерять

изучать

иметь дело с (2)

использовать (2 сл.)

классифицировать

наблюдать

нагревать

называть

находить

обобщать

обсуждать

определять

отличаться от

оценивать

предсказывать

производить

происходить (образовываться)

развивать (2 сл.)

разделять

разрушать

распределять

снабжать, обеспечивать

собирать (2 сл.)

содержать

создавать (2)

составлять

сохранять

творить

толковать

указывать

уменьшать последствия

формировать (2 сл.)

характеризовать

 


Прилагательные

 

активный

важный

второстепенный

главный

действительный

интересный

научный

основной

особенный

отличный от

первоначальный

постоянный

похожий (сходный)

природный

разнообразный (2)

сейсмичный

сложный

современный

творческий

теоретический

химический

ценный

 


Наречия

 

активно

в основном

научно

полностью

постоянно

сходно (аналогично)

формально

химически

 

Section III.

Geological Processes

Unit I. The Leading Geological Processes

Focus on:

1. общенаучная и терминологическая лексика

2. суффиксы различных частей речи

3. глаголы, выражающие причинно-следственные отношения: to result in, to result from, to lead to, to cause, etc.

4. слова заместители: that; those.

5. «trouble spot!»: source, course, cause, stores, etc.

6. построение дефиниций

 

Text Study

The leading geological processes fall into two contrasted groups. The first group — denudation and deposition — includes the processes which act on the crust or at or very near its surface, as a result of the movements and chemical activities of air, water, ice and living organisms. Such processes are essentially of external origin. The second group — earth movements, igneous activity and metamorphism — includes the processes which act within the crust, as a result of the physical and chemical activities of the materials of the substratum (or mantle) and of gases and magmas in the crust or passing through it. Such processes are essentially of internal origin.

Both groups of processes operate under the control of gravitation (including attractions due to the sun and moon), co-operating with the earth’s movements — rotation about its axis and revolution around the sun.

Each group of processes requires an additional source of energy. The processes of external origin are specifically maintained by the radiation of heat from the sun. Those of internal origin are similarly maintained by the liberation of heat from the stores of energy locked within the earth.

 

Ex.1.



Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-04-07; Нарушение авторского права страницы; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы!

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 3.235.11.178 (0.074 с.)