ТОП 10:

Insert the prepositions where it is necessary.



 

1) The number…. freelancers has soared ….the crisis-related layoffs.

2) Freelancers account ….500,000 …600,000 people ….Russia’s 70 million-member work force, triple the figure ….the recession hit …late 2008.

3) Twenty-two percent …Russian freelancers work solely …freelancers.

4) Fifty-eight percent …all Russian freelancers are young –…18 and 26.

5) For most… freelancers, interest …the work takes precedence ….the salary.

6) Freelancers are …sharp contrast ….traditional full-time workers, 96 percent …whom identify their salaries …their top criterion …choosing a workplace.

7) Freelancers show initiative …work, tend to be workaholics and do not care much ….job.

8) However, freelancers often run ….obstacles when trying to get a loan …a bank, applying …a visa to go abroad or doing anything that requires documented sources …income.

9) In the US freelancers often act ….independent contractors and can easily access all information ….the taxes they have to pay.

 

3. Match the words in column a) with their synonyms in column b).

a)contractor; contingent; to soar; recession; to boast; solely; to take precedence; to identify; average; unpredictability; income; to cheat; associate; accumulation; benefits; obstacles; to access; to lag behind

 

b) provider; barriers; to drag behind; to be superior over; to equate; usual; accidental; to rise; to deceive; partner; to be proud of; decline; impossible to predict; earnings; gains; exclusively; fund; to receive

 

 

4. Match the word combinations with their English equivalents in the text:

 

Следить за; независимый подрядчик; человек на временной работе; увольнения, связанные с кризисом; насчитывать; рабочая сила; наступил упадок; работать исключительно на договорной основе; предприниматели; иметь постоянную работу; доминировать над; склонны быть; рабочий график; демонстрировать инициативу;

иметь оборотную сторону; задержки выплат; подвергаться обману со стороны партнеров; не иметь никаких льгот; сталкиваться с препятствиями.

 

5. Translate from Russian into English:

 

1) Число независимых подрядчиков – консультантов людей работающих неполный рабочий день, на временных условиях, свободных предпринимателей за последнее время значительно выросло.

2) Более половины людей, работающих исключительно на договорной основе, имеют высшее образование.

3) Для большинства из них удовлетворение, получаемое ими от работы – важнее заработка, что резко отличает их от тех, кто работает на постоянной основе.

4) Однако, свободный график и независимость имеют свою оборотную сторону.

5) Даже если дело оказывается выгодным, заработки свободных предпринимателей – как в России так и в других странах – нерегулярны, и задержки случаются довольно часто. К тому же, половина свободных предпринимателей боятся, что их обманут партнеры.

6) Я думаю, что пенсионные отчисления – пусть и небольшие лучше, чем когда этих отчислений нет вообще.

Контрольная работа № 3.

Var. I

Text.

 

Nobel prize in economics goes to social scientists.

 

In a departure from prevailing economic theory, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science was awarded Monday to two social scientists for their work in demonstrating that business people, including competitors, often develop implicit relationships that supplement and resolve problems that arise from free-market competition.

Elinor Ostrom of Indiana University was cited “for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons,” and Oliver E. Williamson of the University of California, Berkeley, “for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm.”

Ms. Ostrom becomes the first woman to win the prize for economics. Her background is in political science, not economics. “It is part of the merging of the social sciences,” Robert Schiller, an economist at Yale, said of the awards Monday. “Economics has been too isolated, and these awards are a sign of the greater enlightenment going around today. We were too stuck on efficient markets, and it was derailing our thinking.”

The prize committee, in making the awards, seemed to be influenced by the credit crisis and the severe recession that in the minds of many mainstream economists have highlighted the shortcomings of an unregulated market-place, in which “economic actors”, left to their own devices, will act in their own self-interest. Classical free-market theory holds that in doing so they enhance everyone’s well-being.

The committee, in effect, said that theory was too simplistic and ignored the unstated relationships and behaviors that develop among companies and within companies that compete. “Basically there is a common understanding that develops even among competitors when they are dealing with each other”, Mr Schiller said, adding that “when people make business contact, even competitors, they can’t anticipate everything, so an element of trust comes in.”

In its announcement, the committee said that Ms Ostrom “has challenged the conventional wisdom that common property is poorly managed and should be better regulated by central authorities or privatized. Based on numerous studies of user-managed fish stocks, pastures, woods, lakes and groundwater basins, Ms Ostrom concludes that the outcomes are, more often than not, better than predicted by standard theories.”

Mr. Williamson’s research, the committee said, found that “when market competition is limited, firms are better suited for conflict resolution than markets.”

The economics prize was created in 1969 by the Swedish central bank in honor of Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, who established the awards for achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, peace and literature.

 

Tasks:

1. Answer the questions:

 

1) How many people were awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences this year?

2) Who is the first woman to win the prize in economics? Does she specialize in economics?

Where does she come from?

3) Why was she awarded the prize?

4) Why is the classical free-market theory considered to be too simplistic nowadays?

5) What kind of relations do people who make business contract have?

6) What view does Ms Ostrom challenge?

7) What does she base her conclusions on?

8) Who was the second scientist to win the prize in economics? Where does he come from?

9) What does his research show?

10) Whom was the economics prize created by?

 

2. Insert the prepositions where it is necessary:

 

1) The Nobel Memorial Prize …Economic Science was awarded Monday …two social scientists ….their work …demonstrating that business people, including competitors, often develop…. implicit relationships that supplement and resolve…. problems that arise ….free-market competition.

2) Economics has been too isolated, and these awards are a sign …the greater enlightenment going ….today.

3) …. the minds …many mainstream economists the credit crisis and the severe recession have highlighted …the shortcomings …an unregulated market-place.

4) Economic actors, left ….their own devices, act …their own self-interest.

5) The theory ignored the unstated relationships and behaviors that develop ….companies and ….companies that compete.

6) Common understanding develops even ….competitors when they are dealing ….each other.

7) Based …numerous studies …user-managed fish stocks, pastures, woods, lakes and groundwater basins, Ms Ostrom concludes that the outcomes are, more often ….not, better ….predicted ….standard theories.

8) The economics prize was created …1969 …the Swedish central bank …honor …Alfred Nobel, the inventor …dynamite, who established …the awards …achievements …some field.

 

3. Match the words in column a) with their synonyms in column b).

a) to prevail; departure; including; competitor; to supplement; to resolve; to arise; to cite; governance; boundaries; background; to merge; enlightenment; to be stuck on; to derail; recession; mainstream; highlight; shortcoming; unregulated; enhance; trust; to challenge; conventional; outcome; predict; suited for; establish

b) free; dominate; result; education; rival; common; deviation; management; improve, increase; comprising; fit for; foresee; defect; to add; customary; to originate; bounds, limits; to emphasize; chief direction; to refer to; to settle; decline; to dispute, argue; expertise, specialization; to unite; to set up; to be crazy about; to lead to a disaster; chief; confidence

 

4. Match the word combinations with their English equivalents in the text:

 

В отход от общепринятой экономической теории; включая конкурентов; подспудно развивать отношения; возникать из рыночной конкуренции; управление экономикой; полномочия фирм; завоевать награду; специализация в; соединение общественных дисциплин; более просвещенный взгляд на ситуацию; зациклиться на эффективности рынка; ограничивать мышление; острый экономический спад; улучшать всеобщее благосостояние; слишком примитивный; подспудные отношения; вести деловые контакты; государственная собственность; угодья, находящиеся в руках тех, кто работает на них; решение конфликтов; в честь; достижения в деле борьбы за мир

 

 

5. Translate from Russian into English:

 

1) В отход от общепринятой экономической теории, Нобелевская Преимя в области экономики была в присуждена в этом году двум ученым занимающимся общественными дисциплинами.

2) Ученым удалось доказать, что между различными предпринимателями – даже в условиях конкуренции часто устанавливаются подспудные отношения, которые способствуют развитию бизнеса и помогают справиться с проблемами, возникающими при конкуренции свободного рынка.

3) Принимая решение о присуждении премии, нобелевский комитет учитывал кризис в банковской системы и условия экономического упадка, которые по мнению многих видных ученых-экономистов выявили недостатки нерегулируемого рынка, участники которого действуют в собственных интересах.

4) Когда люди заводят деловые контакты – даже если они и конкуренты – они не могут рассчитать все до мелочей, поэтому им приходится в какой-то мере опираться на честность партнеров и доверять им.

5) Когда рыночная конкуренция ограничена, фирмы решают спорные проблемы эффективнее чем рынок.

 

Var. II

Text.

 

Customs staff compensation.

 

Staff compensation is a crucial factor in HR management. It should be sufficiently high to attract and retain staff with necessary qualifications to start work at customs. However, overall staff salaries are often inadequate and the difference between the compensation of management and lower level staff is much narrower than what prevails in the private sector. While compensation is not the only motivating factor for doing a good job, it certainly ranks high. Developing esprit de corps and pride in the office are complementary motivators that are often not sufficiently emphasized.

In most cases customs does not have much flexibility in setting salary levels and must adhere to the civil service pay scale. Frequently, fiscal stringency has caused this pay scale to lag substantially behind the prevailing pay scale for equally qualified staff in the private sector. This situation discourages staff and often leads them to seek out facilitation money. It is not unusual for the most valuable staff members to leave the service, often to use their acquired knowledge to work as brokers. Inside knowledge of the customs service and familiarity with customs staff can both facilitate trade formalities for their customers, and potentially undermine integrity. The integrity risk has led some countries to prevent customs staff from providing customs brokerage services for several years after ending employment with customs.

A partial solution to the salary scale rigidities is to provide bonuses to staff. While many customs services pay bonuses, only a few pay them in a way that enhances effectiveness and efficiency. To do so, bonuses must be large enough to begin to bridge the gap between what private sector workers earn (discounted for the job security in the public sector), and satisfy a number of stringent criteria. Bonuses must have internal and external legitimacy, and be objective, transparent, and easy to administer. In addition, they should be SMART, that is, Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Timed.

Internal legitimacy requires that customs staff perceive the bonus system to be distributed justly, without favoritism, with transparency, and with possibilities to appeal. External legitimacy refers to the acceptability of the bonuses outside customs, a requirement for allocating the necessary budget resources that pay for these bonuses. In the absence of either internal or external legitimacy, the bonus system will not be sustainable.

An alternative to providing substantial bonuses would be to put revenue staff on a higher pay scale than the rest of the civil service, in light of the crucial importance that resource mobilization plays in running the government. Better pay would also protect customs staff somewhat against the temptations of accepting bribes from traders. A higher pay scale would need to be combined with overall customs reforms that provide guarantees of enhanced effectiveness and efficiency.

 

Tasks:

1. Answer the questions:

 

1) What is a crucial factor in HR management?

2) Why do customs officers feel discouraged and seek out facilitation money?

3) How does staff use their acquired knowledge?

4) How do customs administrations in some countries cope with the situation of staff turnover?

5) How can bonuses prevent staff from leaving the public service?

6) Why should bonuses have internal legitimacy?

7) What does external legitimacy refer to?

 

2. Insert the prepositions where it is necessary:

 

1) …most cases customs does not have much flexibility ….setting salary levels and must adhere ….the civil service pay scale.

2) Fiscal stringency has caused the current pay scale to lag substantially ….the prevailing pay scale ….equally qualified staff ….the private sector.

3) The integrity risk has led some countries to prevent customs staff ….providing customs brokerage services ….several years …..ending employment ….customs.

4) A partial solution ….the salary scale rigidities is to provide bonuses ….staff.

5) Internal legitimacy requires that customs staff perceive the bonus system to be distributed justly, ….favoritism, ….transparency, and ….possibilities to appeal.

6) External legitimacy refers ….the acceptability ….the bonuses ….customs, a requirement ….allocating the necessary budget resources that pay …these bonuses.

7) An alternative ….providing substantial bonuses would be to put revenue staff …a higher pay scale than the rest …the civil service, ….light …the crucial importance that resource mobilization plays ….running the government.

8) Better pay would also protect customs staff somewhat …..the temptations ….accepting bribes ….traders.

 

3. Match the words in column a) with their synonyms in column b).

a)crucial; sufficiently; to retain; to prevail; to rank; esprit de corps; complementary; to emphasize; flexibility; to adhere; stringency; to discourage; facilitation; to undermine; integrity; to enhance; legitimacy; transparent; to administer; to allocate

b)to allot; to stick to; team spirit; lawfulness; to hold; significant; to dissuade; honesty; enough; to improve; to rate; to weaken; open; to triumph; to dispense; compliance; aid; additional; to accent; strictness

4. Match the word combinations with their English equivalents in the text:

 

Важный фактор; управление персоналом; необходимые навыки; зарплата в целом; стимулирующее средство; цениться высоко; чувство солидарности; устанавливать уровень зарплаты; ограниченность финансовых средств; существенно отставать; дополнительные деньги; подвергать испытанию честность; маклерство; частичное решение; жесткая шкала в зарплате; внутренняя и внешняя законность; объективны и открыты; возместить разницу; существенные вознаграждения; конкретные и умеренные; жизнеспособная система; соблазн брать взятки; усовершенствованная эффективность

 

5. Translate from Russian into English:

1) Как правило зарплата работников таможни недостаточно высока и разница между оплатой труда менеджера и обычных работников гораздо меньше чем в частном секторе.

2) Пока еще недостаточно ценится та роль, которую играют честь мундира и профессиональная гордость в привлечении нового персонала.

3) Недостаток финансовых средств приводит к тому, что работники одной и той же квалификации в государственном и частном секторе получают разные зарплаты.

4) Знание системы работы таможни изнутри и знакомство с персоналом таможни может помочь работнику частного сектора ускорить таможенное оформление груза или багажа потенциального клиента, а это часто сопряжено с подделкой документов.

5) Бонусы должны иметь внутреннюю и внешнюю законность и быть объективными, прозрачными и простыми в распределении.

 

 

Контрольная работа № 4.

Var. I







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