ТОП 10:

Аветисян К.А., Алексеева И.А.,



Аветисян К.А., Алексеева И.А.,

Вдовенко Т.В., Прияткина Е.В.

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ-ЗАОЧНИКОВ

 

Санкт-Петербург

 

От авторов

CONTENTS

Preface……………………………………………………………………………….2

Section I…………………………………………………………………………… 4

Module 1. Managing Human Resources………………………………………… 4

Module 2. Social Problems. Human Rights…………………………………….. 8

Module 3. World Economics. Customs Role……………………………………. 16

Module 4. Law Issues…………………………………………………………….. 25

Section II. Grammar…………………………………………………………….. 38

Nouns………………………………………………………………………………. 38

Pronouns…………………………………………………………………………… 40

Adjectives, Degrees of Comparison………………………………………………. 49

Verb………………………………………………………………………………… 54

Tenses………………………………………………………………………………. 55

Modal Verbs……………………………………………………………………….. 67

Direct and Indirect Speech……………………………………………………….. 73

Gerund …………………………………………………………………………….. 78

Infinitive …………………………………………………………………………… 81

Participle……………………………………………………………………………. 90

Passive Voice……………………………………………………………………….. 96

Conditionals………………………………………………………………………….101

Prepositions…………………………………………………………………………. 104

Section III. Tests.

Test 1…………………………………………………………………………………. 105

Test 2…………………………………………………………………………………. 109

Test 3…………………………………………………………………………………..114

Test 4…………………………………………………………………………………. 118

Test 5…………………………………………………………………………………..122

SECTION I.

MODULE I.

MANAGING HUMAN RESOURCES

Text 1.

Managing Human Assets.

 

In order for a corporation to meet its obligations to shareholders, employees, and society, its top managers must develop a relationship between the organization and employees that will fill the changing needs of both parties. At a minimum, the organization expects employees to perform the tasks assigned to them and to follow the rules that have been established to govern the workplace. Management often expects much more: that employees take initiative, supervise themselves, learn new skills, and be responsive to business needs. At a minimum, employees expect the organization to provide fair pay, safe working conditions, and fair treatment. Like management, employees often expect more, depending on the strength of their needs for security, status, involvement, power and responsibility.

Human resource management (HRM) involves all management decisions and actions that affect the nature of the relationship between the organization and employees – its human resources. General managers make important decisions daily that affect this relationship, but that are not thought of as HRM decisions: introducing new technology into the office in a particular way, or approving a new plant with a certain arrangement of production operations, each involves important HRM decisions. In the long run, both the decisions themselves and the manner in which those decisions are implemented have a profound impact on employees: how involved they will be in their work, how much they trust management, and how much they will grow and develop new competencies on the job. Deciding how fast a company should grow in response to market demand is another important HRM decision made by general managers. A decision on growth affects the stress employees will experience as circumstances change, as well as the probabilities that employees will be able to avoid obsolescence and that the organization will have employees with the required talents and skills for the future. Similarly, general management decisions concerning financing, geographic location of facilities, business strategy all have important implications for the human resources of the firm. Finally, the manager in which supervisors deal with their subordinates, particularly in the expectations they create, the feedback they provide, the trust they generate, and the responsibility they delegate, can do more than any personal policy or system to shape and reshape the employee-organization relationship. Their actions can reinforce the effective utilization of human resources by the organization; they can also undermine that effectiveness.

 

Words to be memorized:

 

Shareholder – акционер, пайщик

Employee – служащий, работающий по найму

Employer – работодатель, наниматель

Party – сторона, участник

To assign - назначать, определять

To perform, to implement – выполнять, делать

To establish – устанавливать

To govern – управлять, влиять

To supervise – контролировать, наблюдать

To provide – предоставлять, обеспечивать

Fair – честный, справедливый

Involvement – to involve - вовлеченность, участие – задействовать, вовлекать

Responsibility – ответственность, обязательство

To affect – воздействовать, влиять

To introduce – вводить, включать

Particular – particularly – особенный, частный, конкретный – особенно

To approve – одобрять, утверждать

Arrangement – систематизация, расположение, организация; договоренность; соглашение

Profound – глубокий

Impact – воздействие, влияние

Trust – доверие

Competency – способность, знания

To experience - испытывать, чувствовать, переживать

Obsolescence - устаревание, постепенное угасание, износ

Require – требовать, нуждаться

Facilities - удобства

Implications – to imply – смысл – предполагать, подразумевать

To deal with – иметь дело с…

Subordinate – подчиненный

Feedback – отклик, отзыв, обратная связь

To delegate – поручать, уполномочить

To reinforce – укреплять, усиливать

To utilize – utilization – использовать, расходовать, употреблять – использование, употребление

To undermine - подрывать основы, разрушать

Effective – effectiveness – действенный, эффективный – эффективность, результативность, производительность

 

In order for… to… - для того, чтобы… сделал(а) что-то

In the long run – в конечном счете

At a minimum – как минимум,

Depending on - в зависимости от

To meet obligations – чтобы выполнить обязательства

To fill the needs – чтобы удовлетворить нужды

In response to – в ответ на…

Similarly – аналогично, сходным образом, точно так же

Сoncerning – касательно, относительно

 

Tasks:

I. Questions:

 

1. What tasks does the organization expect the employees to perform?

2. What do the employees expect the employers to do?

3. What decisions do general managers make daily? Are they always thought of as HRM decisions?

4. In what way do the general managers’ decisions affect the employees?

5. How do the general managers’ actions affect the utilization of human resources by the organization.

 

II. Translate from Russian into English:

 

1. Любая корпорация должна выполнять свои обязательства по отношению к пайщикам, работающим по найму и обществу.

2. Отношения между руководством и служащими в организации должны удовлетворять нужды обеих сторон.

3. Менеджеры ожидают, что служащие, как минимум, будут выполнять поставленные перед ними задачи.

4. В зависимости от статуса, участия, способностей и ответственности потребности служащих могут быть различными.

5. Менеджеры, занимающиеся людскими резервами, ежедневно принимают решения, которые влияют на отношения между руководством и служащими организации.

6. В конечном итоге, любое решение менеджеров по персоналу оказывает глубокое воздействие на жизнь служащих организации.

7. Решение генерального руководства о географическом расположении завода имело важное значение для всего персонала.

8. Решение о финансовой политике повлияло на всю систему взаимоотношений руководства и служащих компании.

9. Аналогично, деловая стратегия компании имела мощный отклик среди служащих.

10. Решение менеджера по персоналу усилило эффективное использование людских ресурсов.

 

Text 2.

Managing Outflow.

 

The central dilemma for managers is how to balance the needs and rights of employees for employment security with the requirements of the corporation to use personnel outflow as a means of cost reductions and renewal. Research evidence and experience demonstrate that employees who become insecure because of work force reductions are less productive. On the other hand, unless corporations take extraordinary care in the selection, training, and internal movement of personnel, legislative barriers to outflow can erode competitive position. How can corporations and society obtain the benefits of employee security without incurring the costs of overstaffing and stagnation?

Lifelong Employment/ Termination for Poor Performance.

 

Lifelong systems guarantee employment only if performance is maintained. If performance declines, so does pay, and employees are pressured either to improve their performance or to reexamine their relationship with the company.

Lifelong Employment for a Core Group.

 

If a corporation cannot offer employment security to all of its employees, it may still choose to offer it to some of them. The number of employees is based on the lowest employment level economic circumstances are likely to force on the corporation.

Downward and Lateral Career Mobility.

 

A division manager may move down to head a function from which he or she came, or a salesperson who has been promoted to management may well welcome returning to sales again if he or she is given proper status and recognition.

Career Renewal.

 

Companies can encourage individuals to leave oversupplied positions and move to undersupplied positions through effective training and development programs. Job retraining for laid off employees is a variation of this concept.

 

Early Retirement.

 

By offering special financial inducements, many companies have increased the outflow of personnel they consider unable to adapt to a realignment of the firm. Usually the inducement is retirement at an earlier age without a reduction in pension.

 

Outplacement.

 

A recent survey found that 40 percent of the US companies in its sample use outplacement firms that take over immediately after a person has been terminated and help him or her launch a job search. If individuals are supported economically during the unemployment period, they may find their way to satisfying second or third careers or to organizations that fit them better.

 

Words to be memorized:

Security – secure – insecure – Обеспеченность, защита, охрана; – надежный, прочный, гарантированный; - неуверенный

Requirement – to require – требование, потребность; - требовать

Outflow - утечка

Cost – цена, стоимость, затраты

Reduce – reduction – сокращать, уменьшать; - сокращение

Renew – renewal – возобновлять; - возобновление

Evidence – to evidence – свидетельство; - свидетельствовать

To erode – erosion - разрушать, ослаблять; - разрушение

Competition – competitive – конкуренция; - конкурентоспособный, соревновательный

Benefit – beneficial – преимущество, выгода; – благотворный; выгодный, полезный, прибыльный

To incur – подвергаться; следовать из, вытекать

Staffing – overstaffing – кадровое обеспечение; – переполненность, раздутый штат

Stagnation - застой

Pressure – to pressure – давление, воздействие; – оказывать давление

To encourage – поощрять, вдохновлять, воодушевлять, побуждать

To supply – oversupply – undersupply – снабжать; – поставлять слишком много; – поставлять недостаточно

To lay off - увольнять

To retire- retirement – уходить на пенсию, увольняться по старости; – уход на пенсию

Concept - понятие, идея, концепция

Realignment – to realign - перестройка, преобразование; - перестраивать

Outplacement - трудоустройство уволенных

To launch – начинать, запускать

Survey – опрос, анкетирование, проверка

To be likely to do smth – быть склонным к …

Tasks:

 

I. Questions:

1. What dilemma do managers face?

2. How does employment insecurity affect employees’ labor?

3. What happens if employees’ performance declines?

4. What does the number of employees depend on?

5. How can a company move employees out of managerial positions with dignity?

6. What special financial inducements can companies use to move out the people who are unable to adapt to a realignment of the firm?

 

II. Translate from Russian into English:

 

1. Управляющие персоналом должны найти баланс между правами служащих на работу и потребностью корпорации в перестройке и сокращениях стоимости производства.

2. Многие фирмы имеют раздутый штат.

3. Предприятия должны особенно следить за отбором, подготовкой и внутренней ротацией кадров.

4. Законодательство порой ослабляет конкурентоспособность предприятий.

5. Если человек работает плохо, он должен пересмотреть свои отношения с компанией.

6. Если корпорация не может обеспечить работой всех служащих, она может предложить работу ядру коллектива.

7. Иногда эффективным средством достижения равновесия между требуемым мастерством и работником является перестановка кадров.

8. Человек может уйти на пенсию или уйти на более низкую должность не теряя в зарплате.

9. Если человека поддержать в тот период, когда он остался без работы, он может построить свою карьеру на другом месте.

10. Деловая стратегия любой организации должна включать политику в отношении утечки кадров.

 

MODULE II.

Text 1.

Migrants in Russia.

 

St. Petersburg police detained between 128 and 180 migrants from Central Asia on Wednesday who lived on the abandoned territory of the city’s Krasny Trugolnik rubber factory.

Police organized the raid of the plant as a part of a murder investigation.

Law enforcement officials were investigating the murder of a 47-year-old woman committed the night of August 12. The woman died in a hospital as a result of multiple blows to her head and body that she suffered from two men of Asian appearance after the three had been drinking together.

“In order to find the people who committed the crime, the investigation department of Admiralteisky district, the district’s police and migration service organized the raid,” the prosecutor’s general’s office report said. “As a result of the raid, police detained about 180 migrants who arrived from Uzbekistan and Tadjikistan.”

According to the report, the detained migrants had no jobs and were residing in unsanitary conditions on premises not equipped for living.

Meanwhile, St. Petersburg’s Federal Migration Service Board said that police detained 128 migrants during the raid, all of whom had their fingerprints taken. Only three of them did not have permission to work in Russia, the Migration Service said, Interfax reported.

Wednesday’s raid is the latest in a series of detainments of large numbers of immigrants. It was reported August 19 that Moscow police had detained more than 300 illegal migrants from Azerbaijan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The migrants were living in condemned apartment buildings on Prospect Mira and Ulitsa Bolshaya Serpukhovskaya in the center of Moscow. On the same day, migration officials confirmed that police had discovered 65 illegal migrants from Vietnam living in a forest outside of Moscow in the course of police actions on July 30 and August 6.

In recent years, Russia has become one of the biggest centers of migration in the world after the United States, according to a 2008 World Bank survey.

According to the World Bank report, about 12 million guest workers arrive in Russia annually, whereas 11 million leave Russia. Every year migrants send home more than 11 billion dollars, and experts say Russia’s dependence on migrant labor will continue to grow through the next decade.

Acсording to a report by one of the newspapers, 40 percent of migrants work in construction, 30 percent in trade, 10 percent in industry, seven percent in agriculture, five percent in transport.

 

 

Words to be memorized:

 

To detain – detainment – задерживать, арестовывать; – задержание, арест

Raid – внезапное нападение, облава, рейд, набег

Abandon – покидать, оставлять, бросать

Murder – убийство

To investigate – investigation – расследовать - расследование

Law Enforcement – обеспечение правопорядка, правоохранительные органы

Multiple – множественные

To commit a crime – совершить преступление

Prosecutor – обвинитель, прокурор

Premises – здание с прилегающими постройками и участком земли, недвижимость Condemned – забракованный, признанный негодным

To condemn – осуждать, обвинять

To confirm – подтверждать

In the course of – в ходе

Annually – ежегодно

To depend – dependence – зависеть – зависимость

According to – согласно, в соответствии с….

 

Tasks:

 

I. Questions:

1) Why did the police organize a raid in the Krasny Treygolnik’s premises?

2) How many migrants were detained?

3) What was the result of the raid?

4) What conditions do many migrants live in?

5) Do all of them have permission for work?

6) What countries do they come from?

7) Does Russia depend on their labour?

8) What fields do immigrants work in?

 

 

II. Translate from Russian into English:

1) Для того, чтобы найти человека, совершившего преступление, нужно снять отпечатки его пальцев.

2) Федеральная Миграционная служба озабочена антисанитарными условиями, в которых живут многие иммигранты в России.

3) Прокуратура подтвердила, что число преступлений среди иммигрантов велико.

4) Иммигранты живут в зданиях, признанных непригодными для жилья, или в лесу, они вынуждены платить чиновникам правоохранительных органов и миграционных служб огромные деньги, чтобы получить разрешение на жительство и работу.

5) По сведениям, собранным Мировым Банком, Россия занимает второе после США место по количеству иммигрантов.

6) Такие отрасли как строительство, торговля, промышленность, общественный транспорт зависят от труда иммигрантов.

7) Ежегодно из России вывозятся около 11 миллиардов долларов.

 

 

Text 2.

Summer Workers Cheated.

 

The young workers came from Eastern Europe, Asia and Latin America, spending their own money to get to summer resort towns desperate for labor. Many of them wound up cheated out of wages and overtime pay, working jobs that violated child labor laws or docked pay to cover room and board.

A New York state investigation last year found that nearly 200 foreign workers were cheated by several companies in an upstate resort town. The state ordered the businesses to repay the employees, plus interest, and pay fines.

Some of the companies are appealing the ruling and more than three months later, about 180 students who worked for the companies between 2002 and 2006 are still owed $103,000 in pay, interest, and fines.

Nationally, The Southern Poverty Law Center found “legal guest workers” in the US – in some cases students – are at risk for abuse and exploitation. A report issued in 2007 by the center said many workers were promised higher wages or were given fewer weeks of work than promised.

In 2006, the most recent data available from the US Department of State, about 600,000 guest workers were issued US visas, not including highly trained workers, athletes and entertainers.

In many cases workers were unable to dig out of the debt – ranging from $500 to $10.000 – incurred just to get to the United States, according to the report.

Shu-Ting “Sandy” Chang, a 22-year –old college student from Taiwan, said she travelled to St Louis in the summer of 2006 to work at a Six Flags amusement park. There, she lived with three other students in one room – instead of the two-person quarters promised to her – far from work. She and other international workers took a bus that ran twice a day – at 10.30 a.m. and 10 p.m.

“Even if we got off work in the afternoon, all we could do was wait, or people just kept working,” Chang said. She earned about $1,000 as a deep-fry cook, after her title was described as a hostess. It cost her $2,200 to get to the USA, plus rent. She described the experience as “painful”.

Elizabeth Gotway, a spokeswoman for Six Flags, said the company met with some students who approached the company with complaints and misunderstandings. “At the end of those meetings and talking with them, we were able to address all of their concerns, and if we were not able to change them or fix them, then we were able to better communicate with them and they could understand why certain things could not be changed. They are a valuable resource for us as a company, so we want them to be happy,” she said.

 

Words to be memorized:

Despair – desperate – отчаяние, упадок духа; – безнадежный, бесперспективный

Resort – курорт

To wind up – кончать

To cheat – обманывать

Overtime work – сверхурочная работа

To violate – нарушать, попирать

To dock – сокращать, урезать

Upstate – северная часть штата

Interest – капиталовложения, процент, доля, прибыль

Fine – взыскание, штраф, пеня

To appeal – обжаловать, подавать апелляционную жалобу

Ruling – судебное решение, постановление

Abuse – оскорбление, жестокое обращение, злоупотребление

Available – доступный, имеющийся в наличии

To dig out – находить, изыскивать, выкапывать

To issue – издавать

To incur - следовать из, подвергаться

Quarters – жилище, помещение, квартира

Rent – аренда

To approach – обращаться ( с просьбой, предложением, жалобой)

To address – принимать меры, реагировать

Tasks:

 

I. Questions:

1) Why did the young workers come to summer resort towns in the USA?

2) Why were they upset?

3) What was the New York state decision on the case?

4) Did all companies agree with the decision?

5) Why did the guest workers fall into debt?

6) How did Six Flags amusement center deal with the students’ complaint?

 

II. Translate from Russian into English:

1) Молодежь из стран Восточной Европы, Азии и Латинской Америки ежегодно приезжает в США, чтобы заработать денег и усовершенствовать свой английский.

2) Среди «сезонных» рабочих много студентов, артистов, спортсменов и даже высококвалифицированных работников.

3) Работодатели часто обманывают своих подчиненных, платя им меньше денег и заставляя их работать сверхурочно.

4) Рабочие обратились с жалобой на руководство компании.

5) Правоохранительные органы, расследовавшие дело, обязали компанию заплатить огромный штраф и выплатить рабочим зарплату.

6) Билет в США стоил больше, чем я смогла заработать, сказала девушка из Тайваня.

7) Когда я жил в Москве, мы вдвоем жили в квартире.

8) Летом цена на аренду жилья в курортных городах гораздо выше чем зимой.

9) Представители компании заявили, что подадут апелляционную жалобу на власти

штата.

10) Власть никак не отреагировала на тревоги и жалобы населения.

 

Text 3.

Text 4.

MODULE III.

Text 1.

Text 2.

Customs today.

 

The increases in world trade of recent decades have placed increasing demands upon customs. In 2002, over US$10 trillion worth of goods crossed international borders. Every shipment passed through customs control at least twice, once on export and once on import, making customs a key factor in the international supply chain and in the global economy. Customs needs to adjust to new ports of entry and additional hours of service, and their job is made more complex by a number of regional and bilateral trade agreements. Frequently, there is no corresponding increase in customs staffing and resources to keep pace with the increased workload and more complex environment. Often, customs is not provided with the technological resources to facilitate and secure international supply chains, to keep pace with the billions of dollars spent by industry.

Faced with these challenges, many customs administrations struggle to meet all of these demands and priorities. Often, they focus on revenue collection and ad hoc priorities that are championed by the most vocal and influential interest groups. Some, however, strive to meet these challenges head on, and revisit how their administrations are designed and how they function.

In view of customs’ unique position at a country’s borders, its management must satisfy both domestic and international constituencies. On the international front travelers, businesses, and international air, sea, and land carriers expect services that are uniform, predictable, easy to use, and consistent with international standards and conventions. Organizations such as WCO, the WTO, UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), UN Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (CEFACT), and UNCTAD have set standards for the most critical customs functions. The most important ones are the following:

1) The Revised Kyoto Convention (International Convention on the Simplification and Harmonization of Customs Procedures) provides the framework for processing goods in international commerce.

2) The International Convention on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System provides the framework for classifying all merchandise in international trade.

3) The Agreement on Customs Valuation (ACV) provides the framework for determining the customs value of goods in international trade.

4) The Agreement on Rules of Origin is the WTO initiative to develop a system for standardizing the rules of origin of internationally traded goods.

 

Words to memorize:

Bilateral – двусторонний

Chain – цепь, система, сеть

To adjust – приспосабливаться, подгонять

Revenue – государственные доходы; выручка

Ad hoc – устроенный для данного случая; случайный, спонтанный

Head on – держать курс на

To revisit – пересматривать, перерабатывать

Constituency – клиентура

Consistent with – совместимый, согласующийся

Carrier – перевозчик, курьер

Predictable – предсказуемый

To process – оформлять документы, обрабатывать информацию

Framework – структура, система взглядов, рамки

Merchandise – товары

Commodity – товар, продукт для продажи

 

Tasks:

 

1. Questions:

1) What does customs need to adjust to?

2) What factors make its job more complex?

3) How do customs administrations struggle to meet new demands?

4) What problems do many of them face?

5) What international organizations have set standards for the most critical customs functions?

6) What are these functions?

 

2. Translate from Russian into English:

1) Рост международной торговли предъявляет все более и более требований к таможенным службам.

2) Таможня играет ключевую роль в международной сети поставок и глобальной экономике.

3) Множество двусторонних и региональных торговых договоров усложняют работу таможни.

4) Очень часто таможенным службам не хватает персонала и ресурсов, чтобы справиться с растущей нагрузкой.

5) Технические ресурсы могли бы помочь ускорить и усовершенствовать сеть международных поставок.

6) Часто таможенные службы видят свою главную задачу в пополнении государственных доходов.

7) Многие таможенные управления пытаются справиться с новыми задачами, пересматривая структуру своих служб.

8) На международном уровне пассажиры, бизнесмены, перевозчики грузов по воздуху, морю и суше предполагают, что им придется столкнуться с обслуживанием, которое будут вести по международным стандартам.

9) В свете своей специфической роли на границе таможня должна удовлетворять требования как своего государства так и международной общественности.

10) Новый договор в Киото предусматривает единую систему обработки товаров в мировой торговле.

 

 

Text 3.

Text 4.

Text 5.

As a body based on international agreements between sovereign states, the EU is in many senses a creature of international law; however, the Member States have endowed its institutions with uniquely far-reaching powers for the achievement of the objectives contained in the Treaties. It is now often described as a “polity”, an unspecific term for a political entity, or a “polity-in-the making”. The EU has a distinctive institutional structure, which operates across the three pillars on the basis of the principle laid down in Article 3 TEU and builds on the original institutional framework of the three Communities. In the first fifty years of its existence, the main legislative role has been fulfilled by the Council of the European Union which is composed of representatives of the Member States at ministerial level. The Member States are also represented in the European Council, a summit conference of Heads of State and Government who meet at least twice yearly to give overall policy direction to the EU. The European Parliament, while it is now directly elected by universal franchise and is therefore representative of the people, has fewer powers in the legislative field than the Council, and its role ranges between that of a consultative assembly in some policy areas and a full co-legislator in some fields. It is also the co-budgetary authority with the Council. The role of the European Commission within the EU is sometimes exaggerated by Member States hostile to extensions of the EU’s competences; in fact, the Commission’s role is limited to initiating policy, implementing measures adopted by the Council and ensuring that Member States fulfill their obligations under the Treaties. It is in a sense the civil service of the EU, but in many respects it is dependent upon national administrations for the actual day-to-day implementation of the policies of the Union. It is not a fully fledged executive or government. Moreover, like the European Parliament, the Commission continues to have a more restricted role in the two intergovernmental pillars of the EU, concerned with foreign policy and some areas of cooperation in home affairs.

The fourth institution is the Court of Justice which has the task under Article 220 TEU of ensuring that the law is observed. It has been assisted since 1989 by a Court of First Instance, creation of which was provided for in the Single European Act. The Court has been responsible for developing the EU legal system in ways that were doubtless not imagined by the founders of the Treaties. Much of Part V will be concerned with explaining in detail these features which distinguish the European Union from an “ordinary” international organization, and which make the legal system operating in particular in relation to the “Community” or “first” pillar more akin to that of federal state. This point will be sketched out initially in the overview of the EU legal order in 1.5. The Court has also been active in ensuring that within the “Community” pillar itself the rule of law is applied, but it has been hitherto almost entirely excluded from exercising a judicial function within the second and the third pillars. However, while it continues to play no role in relation to CFSP, since the transformation of the third pillar by the Treaty of Amsterdam from Cooperation in Justice and Home Affairs to Police and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters, the Court now enjoys a restricted role in that field under Article 35 TEU.

 

Words to memorize:

Body – орган

Sense – смысл

Creature – создание

To endow – облекать властью

Far-reaching – далеко распространяющийся

Treaty – договор

Entity – сущность, объединение

Framework – рамки

Existence – существование

To fulfill – выполнять

To compose – составлять

At least – по меньшей мере

Franchise – право

Co-budgetary – с общим бюджетом

To exaggerate – преувеличивать

Hostile – враждебный

To ensure – гарантировать

Respects – отношения

Implementation – выполнение

Full-fledged – полноправный

Restricted – ограниченный

To concern - касаться

Single – единый

Doubtless – несомненно

To distinguish – отличать

Akin – схожий

Hitherto –до сих пор

TEU – Treaty of the European Union – Договор Европейского Союза

 

Tasks:

I. Answer the questions:

 

1) What kind of body is the EU?

2) How can you explain the term “polity”?

3) What is the Commission’s role limited to?

4) What is the task of the fourth institution?
5) What information will Part V contain?

 

II. Translate the sentences from Russian into English:

 

1) Европейский Союз имеет отчетливую казенную структуру, которая опирается на три столпа на базе принципа заложенного в части 3 Договора Европейского Союза

2) Страны – участницы также представлены в Европейском Совете. При этом конференция глав государств и правительств, которые встречаются не менее 2 раз в году, происходит для того, чтобы сообщить указания Европейскому Союзу.

3) Роль Европейской Комиссии внутри Европейского Союза иногда преувеличена странами-участницами, враждебно относящимися к расширению компетенций Европейского Союза.

4) Суд отвечает за развитие правовой системы Евросоюза, что, несомненно, не предполагалось учредителями соглашения.

5) Суд также твердо гарантирует соблюдение законных прав внутри Сообщества.

 

MODULE IV.

LAW ISSUES

Text 1.

 

 

CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CASES

Crime is a violation of a law that forbids or commands an activity. Such crimes as murder, rape, arson are on the books of every country. Because crime is a violation of public order, the government prosecutes criminal cases.

Courts decide both criminal and civil cases. Civil cases stem from dis­puted claims to something of value. Disputes arise from accidents; contrac­tual obligations, and divorce, for example.

Most countries make a rather clear distinction between civil and criminal procedures. For example, an English criminal court may force a defen­dant to pay a fine as punishment for his crime, and he may sometimes have to pay the legal costs of the prosecution. But the victim of the crime pur­sues his claim for compensation in a civil, not a criminal, action.

Criminal and civil procedures are different. Although some systems, in­cluding the English, allow a private citizen to bring a criminal prosecution against another citizen, criminal actions are nearly always started by the state. Civil actions, on the other hand, are usually started by individuals.

Some courts, such as the English Magistrates Courts and the Japanese Family Court, deal with both civil and criminal matters. Others, such as the English Crown Court, deal exclusively with one or the other.

In Anglo-American law, the party bringing a criminal action (that is, in most cases the state) is called the prosecution, but the party bringing a civil action is the plaintiff. In both kinds of action the other party is known as the defendant. A criminal case against a person called Ms. Brown would be described as "The People vs. (versus, or against) Brown" in the United States and "R. (Regina, that is, the Queen) vs. Brown'* in England. But a civil action between Ms. Brown and Mr. Smith would be "Brown vs. Smith" if it was started by Brown, and "Smith vs. Brown" if it was started by Mr. Smith.

Evidence from a criminal trial is not necessarily admissible as evidence in a civil action about the same matter. For example, the victim of a road accident does not directly benefit if the driver who injured him is found guilty of the crime of careless driving. He still has to prove his case in a civil action. In fact he may be able to prove his civil case even when the driver is found not guilty in the criminal trial.

Once the plaintiff has shown that the defendant is liable, the main ar­gument in a civil court is about the amount of money, or damages, which the defendant should pay to the plaintiff.

 

Words to be memorized:

 

Violation – нарушение закона

Forbid – запрещать

Rape – изнасилование

Arson – поджог

Claim – иск

Defendant – ответчик, подсудимый, обвиняемый

Fine – штраф

Victim – жертва

Pursue – предъявлять иск, преследовать

Plaintiff – истец

Damage – ущерб

Tasks:

 

I.Questions:

1) What is crime?

2) What kind of cases do courts decide?

3) Are criminal and civil procedures similar?

4) How is the party bringing a criminal action called in Anglo-American law?

5) Are civil actions usually started by individuals or the state?

 

II. Translate from Russian into English:

 

1) Преступление – это нарушение закона и государственного порядка.

2) Суды рассматривают уголовные и гражданские дела.

3) Во многих странах существует четкое различие между гражданской и уголовной процедурой.

4) Иск по уголовному делу почти всегда начинает государство.

5) В Англо-Американском праве сторона, предъявляющая уголовный иск, т.е. государство, во многих случаях, называется обвинением, а сторона, предъявляющая гражданский иск – истцом.

 

 

Text 2.

 

Text 3.

Text 4.

Law in Great Britain

British law is divided into two parts — civil and criminal. There are also two types of courts — dealing with civil jurisdiction and the other, with crim­inal jurisdiction. The law of Britain distinguishes offences into main cate­gories: a) indictable offences and b) non-indictable offences. Indictable offences are the more serious crimes, which must be tried before a jury. Non-indictable offences are all the rest and they are tried by the Magis­trates' Court. However, nowadays there are many offences which may

ei­ther be treated on indictment by a jury or by a Magistrates' Court. When a person is brought before the magistrates' Court charged with one of the overlapping offences, the court may in many cases treat the charge as be­ing (for a non-indictable offence. The principal courts of ordinary criminal jurisdiction in England and Wales include :

a) Magistrates' Courts, which try the less serious offences and conduct preliminary inquiries into the more serious offences. They are presided over by Justices of the Peace;

b) Quarter-Sessions which take place at least four times а уеar. They deal with more serious offences and are presided over either by legally qualified chairman with a group of magistrates or by a single lawyer;

c) Assizes which are branches of the High Court and are presided over by High Court Judges. They deal with the most serious offences and cases presenting special difficulties. .

 

 

Law in the USA

The third branch of government is the federal judiciary. Its main instru­ment is the Supreme Court, which watches over the other two branches. It determines whether or not their laws and acts are in accordance with the Constitution. Congress has the power to fix the number of judges sitting on the Court, but it cannot change the powers given to the Supreme Court by the Constitution itself. The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices. They are nominated by the President but must be approved by the Senate. Once approved, they hold office as Supreme Justices for life. A decision of the Supreme Court cannot be appealed to anу other court. Neither the President nor Congress can change their decisions. In addition to the Supreme Court, Congress has established 11 courts of appeal and, bellow them, 91 federal district courts.

The Supreme Court has direct jurisdiction in only two kinds of cases: involving foreign diplomats and those in which a state is a party. All cases which reach the Court are appeals from lower courts. The Supreme Court chooses which of these it will hear. Most of the cases involve interpretation of the Constitution. The Supreme Court also has the “power of judicial review”, that is, it has the right to declare laws and actions of the federal, state, and local governments unconstitutional. While not stated in the Constitution, this power was established over time.

Words to be memorized:

Legislative branch – законодательная власть

Executive branch –исполнительная власть

Judicial branch – судебная власть

Civil – гражданский

Criminal – уголовный

Jurisdiction –юрисдикция, сфера полномочий

Offence - правонарушение

Indictable – подлежащий рассмотрению в суде; уголовный

Charge –обвинение

Justice of the Peace – мировой судья

Assize – выездная сессия суда

Judicial review – судебный пересмотр

 

Tasks:

1. Questions:

 

1) Into how many parts is British law divided?

2) What court tries less serious offences?

3) How often do quarter sessions take place?

4) What is the main instrument of the federal judiciary?

5) What court has the power of judicial review?

2. Translate from Russian into English:

 

1) В Британии есть два типа судов – гражданские и уголовные.

2) Мировые суды рассматривают менее серьезные правонарушения и проводят предварительное расследование более серьезных правонарушений.

3) Выездные сессии – это ветви Верховного cуда .

4) Главного судью американского Верховного суда и его помощников назначает Президент, с одобрения Сената.

5) Верховный суд США имеет право судебного пересмотра.

 

Text 5.

Licensed to Kill.

By Jamison Firestone

In the summer of 1993, I set up a law firm in Moscow with an American friend, Terry Duncan. All of the lawyers were Russians. They were the brightest of the bright.

Young Russian lawyers from the best schools who believed in Russia, the rule of law and the future of their country. We shared a common vision: Russia was the place to be. History was being made, and we were at the center of it. Law mattered, Russia had a bright future, and lawyers and law were central to that future.

One of those young men who shared this vision and passion was Sergei Magnitsky, who worked with me for more than 10 years. I believe that he was killed in prison by corrupt law enforcement officers.

There are those who would question my use of the word killed. Some would call it an overreaction. It is not.

Magnitsky testified against a group of Interior Ministry officers who we believe stole more than 5 billion rubles from the Russian treasury. One month later, those same officers arrested Magnitsky on completely false charges that made no legal sense. They held him in prison in horrible conditions. When Magnitsky’s health deteriorated, they denied him access to doctors, medicine and a routine but critical operation. He died Monday evening.

Magnitsky did not die by chance. He died because corrupt Interior Ministry officers killed him. They knowingly imprisoned an innocent man, destroyed his health and denied him access to medical treatment. Maybe the Ministry just wanted to put pressure on him. But when detained people are tortured, they sometimes die, and in this case the people applying the pressure become killers.

Magnitsky’s story is all the more terrible because it is now routine. Let’s be honest, the so-called law enforcement agencies are detested by everyone and respected by no one. Corrupt officers routinely open criminal cases against the innocent, imprison people, kill people and steal with impunity. They are not above the law. They are the law. They are in effect licensed to kill.

One of the most interesting things about reading the articles and Internet blogs about Magnitsky’s death is how universal this opinion is. Nobody believes the Interior Ministry, and everyone understands that Magnitsky was effectively killed, and that he is just another of the many victims of the country’s abuse of police powers.

“Russian law” has become an oxymoron.

When are these crimes carried out by law enforcement agencies going to stop? When are we going to take back this country from the gang of criminals in uniform that has decided that it is the law?

Although I support President Dmitry Medvedev’s statements about fighting legal nihilism and corruption, he should publicly acknowledge that law enforcement agencies and the courts are now the main forces that threaten the ordinary citizens of this country.

Medvedev asks Russians not to give up hope and fall into legal nihilism, and then he allows a bunch of bandits in uniforms to rule over us. Corrupt officers steal and kill, and the government does nothing. Occasionally a statement is made about how the president or prime-minister cannot interfere with law enforcement agencies, but law enforcement agencies are now Russia’s largest problem. They are the enforcers of the new mafia. If Medvedev is not prepared to interfere, who will? The few who try to interfere, like Magnitsky, die.

 

 

Words to be memorized:

To set up – открыть

Bright – способный

Rule – правило

To share – разделять

To matter – значить

Passion – энтузиазм

Enforcement – защита, принуждение к выполнению

Overreaction – крайнее противодействие

To testify against – свидетельствовать против

Treasury – казна

Completely – полностью, совершенно

Sense – смысл

To deteriorate – ухудшаться

To deny – отрицать, отказать

Access – доступ

Corrupt – продажный

Innocent – невиновный

To destroy – разрушить

Detained – содержащийся под стражей

To torture – пытать

To detest – ненавидеть

To respect – уважать

Impunity – безнаказанность

To license – разрешать

Oxymoron – оксюморон (стилистический прием, обозначающий нарочитое сочетание противоречивых понятий)

Gang – банда

Bunch – горстка

To interfere – вмешиваться

The few - те немногие

 

Tasks:

I. Answer the questions:

1) What kind of Russian lawyers were in the law firm of Jamison Firestone in Moscow?

2) Why was Sergei Magnitsky killed in prison?

3) How can corrupt officers open criminal cases against the innocent and steal with impunity?

4) Can you explain the meaning of the word “oxymoron” in English? Give examples of this device.

5) What does Medvedev ask Russians not to do and what does he then allow bandits to do?

 

II. Translate from Russian into English:

 

1) Некоторые хотели бы спросить у меня, зачем я использую слово «убили».

2) Месяц спустя те же самые чиновники арестовали Магницкого по совершенно ложным обвинениям, которые не имели никакой правовой основы.

3) Они умышленно заключили в тюрьму невинного человека, разрушили его здоровье и лишили его медицинской помощи.

4) Никто не верит министерству внутренних дел, и все считают, что Магницкий является еще одной жертвой зависимости страны от правоохранительных органов.

5) Получается, что президент или премьер-министр не могут вмешиваться в действия правоохранительных структур, но именно эти структуры сегодня крупнейшая проблема России.

 

Text 6.

 

Text 7.

 

SECTION II

GRAMMAR.

NOUNS

PRONOUNS.







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