You are writing a letter to a friend. In the letter you give news about yourself and other people. Use the words given to make sentences. Use the present perfect.

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You are writing a letter to a friend. In the letter you give news about yourself and other people. Use the words given to make sentences. Use the present perfect.

Dear Chris,

Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you.

1. I/buy/a new car

I've bought a new car.

2. my father/start/a new job

3. I/give up/smoking

4. Charles and Sarah/go/to Brazil

5. Suzanne/have/a baby


2. Read the situations and write sentences. Choose one of the following:

Arrive break go up grow improve lose

1. Mike is looking for his key. He can't find it. He has lost his key.

2. Margaret can't walk and her leg is in plaster. She ---

3. Maria's English wasn't very good. Now it is much better. ---

4. Tim didn't have a beard last month. Now he has a beard. ---

5. This morning I was expecting a letter. Now I have it. ---

6. Last week the bus fare was 80 pence. Now it is 90. ---


3. Complete Bs sentences. Use the verb in brackets + just/already/yet (as sbown).

1. A: Would you like something to eat?

B: No, thanks. I've just had lunch. (just/have)

2. A: Do you know where Julia is?

B: Yes, I --- her. (just/see)

3. A: What time is David leaving?

B: He --- (already/leave)

4. A: What's in the newspaper today?

B: I don't know. I --- (not/read/yet)

5. A: Is Ann coming to the cinema with us?

B: No, she --- the film. (already/see)

6. A: Are your friends here yet?

B: Yes, they --- (just/arrive)

7. A: What does Tim think about your plan?

B: I --- (not/tell/yet)


Практикалық сабақ 11

Сабақтың тақырыбы: Abai Kunanbaev

Сабақтың мазмұны:

1. Life of Abai (Ibragim) Kunanbaev

2. Present Perfect or Past Simple

Abai Kunanbaev

The great Kazakh poet was born in 1845 in the Chinghis Mountains in Semipalatinsk Region. His father, Kunanbai, a stern and willful steppe ruler, was an elder of the Tobykty clan.

Abai`s mother, Ulzhan, was a wonderful woman, and with her innate reserve, tolerance, and soundness of reasoning. She loved Abai best of all her children, and affectionately called him Abai (which means thoughtful, circumspect) instead of Ibraghim – the name given the boy by his father.

Abai became an ardent champion of friendship and brotherhood between the Russian and Kazakh cultures. He loved Pushkin, Lermontov, Krylov, Saltykov – Shedrin and Tolstoi, and after that memorable summer of 1886 when he opened embarked on his poetic career Abai started translating Krylov, Pushkin and Lermontov into Kazakh, acquainting countrymen for the first time with these great writers.

Having an excellent knowledge and understanding of Kazakh folk music, Abai composed several melodies. He also wrote music for his translations from Eugene Onegin. By this time the name of Abai himself – a poet, thinker and composer – had earned countrywide popularity and esteem. He composed about twenty melodies.

The greatest poet Abai Kunanbaev was died in 1904. The glory of Abai, the real founder of modern Kazakh culture and the greatest Kazakh classical poet, shall never dim.

Active vocabulary: stern and willful steppe ruler, innate reserve, tolerance, soundness of reasoning, affectionately, instead, ardent champion, friendship, brotherhood, memorable, embarked, countrywide popularity, esteem, composed, founder, dim.

Task I. Answer the Questions:

1. Who was Abai?

2. When and where was he born?

3. What was his real name?

4. How do describe his mother?

5. When was he died?


Task II. Match the dates with the facts of Abai.

1845 He composed about many melodies.

20 He opened embarked on his poetic career Abai started translating Krylov, Pushkin and Lermontov into Kazakh.

1904 The greatest poet Abai Kunanbaev was died when he was 59.

1886 The great Kazakh poet was born in the Chinghis Mountains.



Task III. Which lines are from the poem "Winter"?

1. In white clothes, powerful, grey-bearded,
He walks on regardless like a dumb, blind man.

2. The horses play and their young are frisky
From being well-fed or from the cold.

3. His face is stern, covered in snow – dust,
And he walks on, with creaking steps, he`ll come in by and by.

4. The trees and bushes were without their lives,
Like old man, the worst victims of poverty.

5. Each breath is shrouded in a frosty cloud.
He came like a long lost relative and caused a commotion.

6. Freed from winter`s hibernation and heartache
All that lives clings with its heart to warmth and light.

7. He had forced on a nomadic cloud for a hat.
He had a ruddy face and was glowing with health.

8. The snowdrops flower and delight the soul.
The sparrow in the sky and the nightingales in the ravines sing their song.

Task IV. Answer the questions

1. - What is Abai Kunanbaev famous for?

2. - When and where was he born?

3. -What was his real name?

4. - Who were his parents?

5. - When did he go to school?

6. - What did he learn there?

7. - What impression did the Russian writers make on him?

8. - Why has been Abai translated the words into many foreign languages?

9. - What poems written by Abai do you know?

10. - What makes Abai so very much popular with people all over the world?

Task V. Match an English poem with its Russian translation.

1. When I was young, I did not think much of learning.
When I grasped the sense of life, I did not appreciate it.
Now I am old, it`s too late to take to science,
For me, it shines in vain.

2. Who`s fault it is, that I remained ignorant,
That science did not cater for me?
In my old age, my children would be of comfort,
I have provided for their schooling:

3. My son was sent to madrassah to get knowledge,
But all he got is an urge for worldly distinctions.

4. Well, I myself wanted to be first among my people,
My talk was sweet and eloquent,
But nobody had ever appreciated my labours.
Nowadays, I prefer my peace of mind over all.

a) Сына послал в медресе, чтоб учился,
Он же к чинам получил влечение.

b) Я и сам рвался быть первым в народе,
Красноречиво чеканил речения,
Но никто каторги сей не оценит.
Нынче покой – мое предпочтение.

c) Чья же вина, что остался ни с чем я,
Что миновал ее попечение?
К старости были б утехею дети,
Отдал с охотой их в обучение:

d) Юным был – в ум не бралось учение,
Суть узрев, – в ней не постиг занчение.
Взрослым стал – как же вгрызаться в науку,
Поздно мерцает ее свечение ...


Present Perfect and Past (I have done and I did)

A. Study this example situation:

Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it.

He has lost his key. (present perfect)

This means that he doesn't have his key now.

Ten minutes later:

Now Tom has found his key. He has it now.

Has he lost his key? (present perfect)

No, he hasn't. He has found it.

Did he lose his key? (past simple)

Yes, he did.

He lost his key (past simple)

but now he has found it. (present perfect)

The present perfect is a present tense. It always tells us something about now. 'Tom has lost his key' = he doesn't have his key now (see Unit 7).

The past simple tells us only about the past. If somebody says 'Tom lost his key', we don't know whether he has it now or not. We only know that he lost it at some time in the past.

Two more examples:

* Jack grew a beard but now he has shaved it off. (so he doesn't have a beard now)

* They went out after lunch and they've just come back. (so they are back now)

B. Do not use the present perfect if there is no connection with the present (for example, things that happened a long time ago):

* The Chinese invented printing. (not 'have invented')

* How many plays did Shakespeare write? (not 'has Shakespeare written')

* Beethoven was a great composer. (not 'has been')


* Shakespeare wrote many plays.

* My sister is a writer. She has written many books. (she still writes books)

C. We use the present perfect to give new information (see Unit 7). But if we continue to talk about it, we normally use the past simple:

* A: Ow! I've burnt myself.

B: How did you do that? (not 'have you done')

A: I picked up a hot dish. (not 'have picked')

* A: Look! Somebody has spilt milk on the carpet.

B: Well, it wasn't me. I didn't do it. (not 'hasn't been ... haven't done')

A: I wonder who it was then. (not 'who it has been')



What has happened in these situations?

1. Jack had a beard. Now he hasn't got a beard. He has shaved off his beard.

2. Linda was here five minutes ago. Mow she's in bed. She ---

3. The temperature was 25 degrees. Now it is only 17. The temperature ---

4. The light was off. Now it is on. Somebody ---

5. The tree was only three metres high. Now it is four. The tree ---

6. The plane was on the runway a few minutes ago. Now it is in the air.

The plane ---

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