Number of speakers:392 million



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Number of speakers:392 million



Aside from all of those kids who take it in high school, Spanish is spoken in just about every South American and Central American country, not to mention Spain, Cuba, and the U.S. There is a particular interest in Spanish in the U.S., as many English words are borrowed from the language, including: tornado, bonanza, patio, quesadilla, enchilada, and taco grande supreme.

To say “hello” in Spanish, say “Hola” (OH-la).

Hindustani

Number of speakers:497 million

Hindustani is the primary language of India’s crowded population, and it encompasses a huge number of dialects (of which the most commonly spoken is Hindi). While many predict that the population of India will soon surpass that of China, the prominence of English in India prevents Hindustani from surpassing the most popular language in the world. If you’re interested in learning a little Hindi, there’s a very easy way: rent an Indian movie. The film industry in India is the most prolific in the world, making thousands of action/romance/musicals every year.

To say “hello” in Hindustani, say “Namaste” (Nah-MAH-stay).

English

Number of speakers:508 million

While English doesn’t have the most speakers, it is the official language of more countries than any other language. Its speakers hail from all around the world, including New Zealand, the U.S., Australia, England, Zimbabwe, the Caribbean, Hong Kong, South Africa, and Canada. We’d tell you more about English, but you probably feel pretty comfortable with the language already. Let’s just move on to the most popular language in the world.

To say “hello” in English, say “What’s up, freak?” (watz-UP-freek).

Mandarin

Number of speakers:1 billion+

Surprise, surprise, the most widely spoken language on the planet is based in the most populated country on the planet. Beating second-place English by a 2 to 1 ratio, but don’t let that lull you into thinking that Mandarin is easy to learn. Speaking Mandarin can be really tough, because each word can be pronounced in four ways (or “tones”), and a beginner will invariably have trouble distinguishing one tone from another. But if over a billion people could do it, so could you. Try saying hello!

To say “hello” in Mandarin, say “Ni hao” (Nee HaOW). (“Hao” is pronounced as one syllable, but the tone requires that you let your voice drop midway, and then raise it again at the end.)

Active vocabulary: allows, sustenance, virtually, an adult, entertainment through literature, summarizes, including, kinda fudged the numbers, fascinating place, expanded, explorers, virtually surrounded, expect, not to mention, particular, including, crowded population, encompasses a huge number of dialects, surpass, prominence, prevents, surpassing, hail, widely trouble distinguishing, tone requires, drop midway.

 

Questions

1. How many people do speak French?

2. What’s the most spoken language in the 9th place?

3. When did Portugal win its independence?

4. What’s “hello” in Bengali?

5. What words are borrowed from Spanish?

6. Where is Arabic spoken?

7. How many people do speak Mandarin

 

 

Task

Match the columns

 

Arabic “Zdravstvuite”

Spanish “Bom dia”

English “Al salam a’alaykum”

Russian “Hello”

Portuguese “Ei Je”

Bengali “Selamat pagi”

Mandarin “Bonjour”

Malay – Indonesian “Ni hao”

French “Namaste”

Hindustani “Hola”

 

GRAMMAR

FUTURE SIMPLE or FUTURE INDEFINITE

Positive

I

We will (shall) be a singer

He

She

It

You

They will sing.

Negative

I will (shall) not be there.

We won't (shan't) be bad.

He

She will not conduct.

It

You

They won't perform.

Questions

What shall (will) I (we) do?

What will he

she

it be?

What will you

they play ?

Study these examples:

Positive - He will perform next week.

Negative - He will not(won`t) to perform tomorrow

Questions :

Will he perform next week?

Will he perform tomorrow or next week? (Alternative)

Who will perform next week?

When will he perform?

He will not perform tomorrow, will he? (Question tags)

I’ll phone you when I get home from work.

The time of the sentence is future but we use a present tence (get) in the when-part

of the sentence.

If we don’t hurry we’ll be late.

After if , we normally use the present simple (if I do/ if I am etc.) for the future.

 

EXERCISES

Use the verbs in brackets in Future Simple:

1. My friend … (write) to me.

2. Tomorrow … (be) my day off.

3. I … (get up) at eight o'clock tomorrow.

4. My wife … (appear) on the stage in a year.

5. My elder son … (visit) our rehearsal in the evening.

6. Where … you (take) the book from?

7. On Monday we … (have) five lessons.

8. When … you (come) home?

9. He … (be) a pupil.

10. We … (have) five lessons on Monday.

11. Nick … (answer) well and … (get) a "five".

12. If I ... (go) to New York, I ... (see) a Broadway show.

 

 

Практикалық сабақ 7

Сабақтың тақырыбы: The Kazakh Language as the State Language

Сабақтың мазмұны:

1. The History of Kazakh Language

2. Present Progressive

The History of Kazakh Language

The Kazakh language is the native language of the Kazakh people. Kazakh is the state language of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Kazakh or Qazaq is a Turkic language spoken in Kazakhstan, Russia and China by about 11 million people. There are also Kazakh speakers in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Russia and Iran.

Kazakh was first written with the Arabic script during the 19th century when a number of poets, educated in Islamic schools, incited revolt against Russia. Russia's response was to set up secular schools and devise a way of writing Kazakh with the Cyrillic alphabet, which was not widely accepted. By 1917, the Arabic script was reintroduced, even in schools and local government.

The Kazakh language is one of the Kypchak subgroup of Turkish languages, and the Turkish languages themselves are part of the Altai family of languages, which in addition to the Turkish languages include the Tungus-Manchzhur, Mongol, Finnish-Ugric, and – according to some speculations – the Japanese and Korean languages. In the world today there are representatives of over 60 Turkish peoples living from the North Arctic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea.

In 1927, Kazakh nationalist movement sprang up but was soon suppressed. At the same time the Arabic script was banned and the Latin alphabet was imposed for writing Kazakh. The Latin alphabet was in turn replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet in 1940. Recently as part of a modernization program the government of Kazakhstan has stated plans to replace the Cyrillic alphabet with the Latin alphabet. Currently the costs and consequences of such a move are being investigated.

In October 2006, Nursultan Nazarbayev, the President of Kazakhstan, brought up the topic of using the Latin alphabet instead of the Cyrillic alphabet as the official script for Kazakh in Kazakhstan. A Kazakh government study released in September 2007 said that Kazakhstan could feasibly switch to a Latin script over a 10- to 12-year period, for a cost of $300 million.[5] The transition was halted temporarily on December 13, 2007, with President Nazarbayev declaring: “For 70 years the Kazakhstanis read and wrote in Cyrillic. More than 100 nationalities live in our state. Thus we need stability and peace. We should be in no hurry in the issue of alphabet transformation”. However, on January 30, 2015, the Minister of Culture and Sports Arystanbek Mukhamediuly announced that a transition plan was underway, with specialists working on the orthography in order to accommodate the phonological aspects of the language.

Active vocabulary: native language, script, educated, incited revolt, schools, devise, representatives, Mediterranean Sea, movement, sprang, suppressed, imposed, consequences, investigated., instead, released, feasibly switch, halted temporarily, stability and peace, announced, transition, underway, accommodate.

 

1. What is the state language of the Republic of Kazakhstan?

2. How many people do speak in this language?

3. When the Arabic script was reintroduce?

4. When the Latin alphabet was in turn replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet?

5. What did Nursultan Nazarbaev say about Cyrillic alphabet?

 

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

Present continuous (1)

 
 

 


affirmative

Iam('m)

You / We / They are ('re)working

He / She / Itis ('s)

 

 

spelling rules

 

Most verbs: add -ing. work working buy buying

Verbs ending in -e: remove the -e and add -ing. take taking write writing

Verbs ending in one vowel followed by one consonant:

double the consonant and add -ing. get getting run running

(but open opening)

Note: die dying lie lying

 

 

 

We use the present continuous to talk about

· things happening now.

Where's John? In his room. He's doing his homework.

You're speaking too fast for me.

 

· temporary activities.

We're learningabout trees this week.

My brother is staying with friends in London until he finds somewhere to live.

 

· situations of change.

The hole in the ozone layer is getting bigger. The number of pupils in the school is falling.

 

· future arrangements.

We're flyingto Spain on a school trip next month. I'm seeingthe head teacher after class.

 

EXERCISES

Use the verbs in brackets in Present Continuous:

What … you (do)?

She … (read) notes.

They … (not stand) on the stage.

I … (play) a serenade.

Whose account … you (work) on?

She … (study) hard for her final exam.

We … (have) a gig this evening.

What … you (do) tomorrow afternoon?

She … (come) on Friday.

Common present continuous time expressions include: at the moment, now, today, this week, this month, tomorrow, next week (for future arrangements ), currently

am I

are you

is he

What is she doing this afternoon?

is it are we

are you

are they

 

Практикалық сабақ 8

Сабақтың тақырыбы: The Kazakh Language as the State Language

Сабақтың мазмұны:

1. The Kazakh language as the State Language

2. Present Simple or Present Progressive

 

The Kazakh Language as the State Language

The Kazakh language was declared the official state language. In 1995 a constitutional resolution was passed that is clearly and precisely spelled out in article 7 of the Constitution: "The state language of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be Kazakh." The law adopted two years after this resolution, "On languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan", states that "the state language in the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be Kazakh", and that it is necessary to provide all the organizational, material, and technical conditions needed to enable all citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan to master the state language easily and free of charge. The government passed numerous acts and resolutions in order to comply with this law. State programs were implemented to expand the sphere of language application.

Thus, throughout an entire region where the native language had been trampled over the course of many years, a new movement began: it became the goal to freely use the language in public life. In state organizations and local authorities, record keeping began to be converted to the state language. Kazakh-language media outlets began to increase in number.
Despite these positive changes, in many spheres of our society's daily activity Kazakh remains merely a language of translation. This is due to deep-running political and judicial factors.

The law "On languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan" was passed at a time when the country was in the midst of a complex demographic situation. While the number of Kazakhs did not exceed 40% of the population in their own land, Russians, Ukrainians, and Belorussians numbered over 7 million persons, comprising over 40% of the total population. This factor must not be ignored, given that the first document proclaiming freedom – the Declaration of the State Sovereignty of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic – ascribed primary importance to the task of consolidating and fortifying good relations among the peoples living in our country.

The Kazakh language, however, the state language now for twenty years, in reality is unable to achieve its actual status. Schools in which studies are conducted in Kazakh account for less than half of the approximately eight thousand secondary schools across the republic. The same situation is witnessed in vocational secondary and postsecondary educational institutions. And the current percentage of Kazakh-language media outlets is less than satisfactory to our country-forming nation.

On the basis of the conviction that these longstanding difficulties can only be overcome by passing a special law regarding the state language, in 2008 a group of academicians from the Kazakh Humanitarian and Judicial University of Astana drew up a proposed law "On the state language of the Republic of Kazakhstan". It was published in volume No. 14 (903) in 2008 by the republican newspaper Ana tílí. The government, however, did has not accepted the proposal. Executive authorities hold that the current law "On languages" is sufficient to resolve the situation.

In the opinion of many philologists, it is impossible to correct the current situation without adopting a special law regarding the state language. A regulatory basis for adopting such a law could be found in article 93 of our primary law, which states the following: "In order to implement article 7 of the Constitution, the Government and local representative and executive authorities shall provide all the necessary organizational, material, and technical conditions needed to enable all the citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan to master the state language easily and free of charge in compliance with a special law".

Hence, the fate of the state language requires an awakening of national existence. To be quite frank, if one examines the problem more in depth, the means of action, i.e., the fate of the Kazakh language, is in the hands of Kazakhs themselves. In civilized countries the fate of the language is decided by the activity of the masses, and the level of dignity of the Kazakhs in power. And this must be our chief path. This has been borne out indisputably in our own life over the past twenty years, and the historical experience of advanced peoples.

 

Active vocabulary: precisely, provide, enable, charge, comply, implemented, expand, trampled, converted, merely, due, deep-running, midst, ascribed, consolidating, fortifying, achieve, approximately, percentage, conviction, regarding, proposed, current, resolve, implement, representative, fate, awakening, existence, frank, dignity.

 

GRAMMAR



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