A Chronology of the English Language 





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A Chronology of the English Language



Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain begins
450-480 Earliest Old English inscriptions date from this period
St. Augustine arrives in Britain. Beginning of Christian conversion
The Venerable Bede publishes The Ecclesiastical History of the English People in Latin
Viking raids and settlements begin
Alfred becomes king of Wessex. He has Latin works translated into English and begins practice of English prose. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is begun
Charles II of France grants Normandy to the Viking chief Hrolf the Ganger. The beginning of Norman French
c. 1000 The oldest surviving manuscript of Beowulf dates from this period
The Norman conquest
c. 1150 The oldest surviving manuscripts of Middle English date from this period
Henry II conquers Ireland
King John loses the province of Normandy to France
English replaces Latin as the medium of instruction in schools, other than Oxford and Cambridge which retain Latin
The Statute of Pleading replaces French with English as the language of law. Records continue to be kept in Latin. English is used in Parliament for the first time
Wyclif publishes his English translation of the Bible
c. 1388 Chaucer begins The Canterbury Tales
William Caxton establishes the first English printing press
Columbus discovers the New World
   
First version of The Book of Common Prayer
Robert Cawdrey publishes the first English dictionary, Table Alphabeticall
Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in the New World, established
The Authorized, or King James Version, of the Bible is published
Publication of the first daily, English-language newspaper, The Daily Courant, in London
Samuel Johnson publishes his dictionary
Cook discovers Australia
The Oxford English Dictionary is published

Quiz:

Where did the English language come from?

Select the correct answer for each question

Начало формы

1. 'Old English' was the language of tribes who invaded Britain from the East. They spoke different dialects of a(n) American language Russian language Germanic language
2. The Vikings invaded Britain in 878 AD. Where did they come from? Scandinavia Scotland Italy
3. After the Battle of Hastings in 1066 what language was spoken by the Royal Court and the ruling class? Old English French Portuguese
By about 1200, the Kingdoms of England and France were no longer one unit. Old English came back but had many French words added to it. This language was 'Middle English'...
4. Middle English was used by the poet... Shakespeare Byron Chaucer
5. Who was the most famous writer to write in English during the 16th century? Shakespeare Keats Chaucer
6. What was the bestseller in England in 1611? Harry Potter War and Peace The King James Bible
English has been influenced by many different languages and continues to change and develop...
7. 'kangaroo' and 'boomerang' are: Native American words Australian Aboriginal words Chinese words
8. The words 'juggernaut' and 'turban' come from: Russia Morocco India
9. The word 'potato' comes from: Italy Canada Haiti
10. The word 'ketchup' comes from: America China Sweden
11. The word 'shampoo' comes from: Germany India Egypt
12. How many native speakers of English are there in the world? about 3 million about 300 million about 3 trillion

GRAMMAR

Yes / No questions

Was / were + subject + etc

Was he at the party? Yes, he was. / No, he wasn’t.

Were he on time? Yes, they were. / No, they weren’t.

Was/ were + subject + verb + etc

Was she waiting for you? Yes, she was. / No, she wasn’t.

Were they working? Yes, they were. / No, they weren’t.

Did + subject + verb + etc

Did it rain on your holiday? Yes, it did. / No, it didn’t.

Did you see the film? Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.

Have / has + subject + verb + etc

Have you been here before? Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t

Has you phoned? Yes, she has. / No, she hasn’t.

Questions with what, why, when, where, how, who

Question word + was/ were + sunject + etc

When was she at school? / She was at school ten years ago.

Where were the boys yesterday? They were at home.

Question word + was/were + subject + etc

What was she doing there? She was watching a tennis match.

Where were the boys going at 18:00? They were at home.

Question word + did + subject + verb + etc

What time did John leave the class? He left at 10.00.

Why did he sat that? He said it because he was angry.

What did you tell them? I told them it was unacceptable.

Question word + has+have + subject + verb + etc

Which train has she taken? She’s taken the 08.00 train.

Who have you seen? I haven’t seen anyone.

What has he done this time? He’s had an accident.

 

Практикалық сабақ 6

Сабақтың тақырыбы: The History of Language

Сабақтың мазмұны:

1. Most Spoken Languages In The World

2. To be in Future Simple.

 

Most Spoken Languages In The World

Language is perhaps the most important function of the human body – it allows us to get sustenance as a child, it allows us to get virtually anything we want as an adult, and it allows us many hours of entertainment through literature, radio, music, and films. This list (in order of least to most spoken) summarizes the most important languages in use today.

French

Number of speakers: 129 million

Often called the most romantic language in the world, French is spoken in tons of countries, including Belgium, Canada, Rwanda, Cameroon, and Haiti. Oh, and France too. We’re actually very lucky that French is so popular, because without it, we might have been stuck with Dutch Toast, Dutch Fries, and Dutch kissing (ew!).

To say “hello” in French, say “Bonjour” (bone-JOOR).

Malay-Indonesian

Number of speakers: 159 million

Malay-Indonesian is spoken – surprise – in Malaysia and Indonesia. Actually, we kinda fudged the numbers on this one because there are many dialects of Malay, the most popular of which is Indonesian. But they’re all pretty much based on the same root language, which makes it the ninth most-spoken in the world.

Indonesia is a fascinating place; a nation made up of over 13,000 islands it is the sixth most populated country in the world. Malaysia borders on two of the larger parts of Indonesia (including the island of Borneo), and is mostly known for its capital city of Kuala Lumpur.

To say “hello” in Indonesian, say “Selamat pagi” (se-LA-maht PA-gee).

Portuguese

Number of speakers:191 million

Think of Portuguese as the little language that could. In the 12th Century, Portugal won its independence from Spain and expanded all over the world with the help of its famous explorers like Vasco da Gama and Prince Henry the Navigator. (Good thing Henry became a navigator . . . could you imagine if a guy named “Prince Henry the Navigator” became a florist?) Because Portugal got in so early on the exploring game, the language established itself all over the world, especially in Brazil (where it’s the national language), Macau, Angola, Venezuela, and Mozambique.

To say “hello” in Portuguese, say “Bom dia” (bohn DEE-ah).

Bengali

Number of speakers:211 million

In Bangladesh, a country of 120+ million people, just about everybody speaks Bengali. And because Bangladesh is virtually surrounded by India (where the population is growing so fast, just breathing the air can get you pregnant), the number of Bengali speakers in the world is much higher than most people would expect.

To say “hello” in Bengali, say “Ei Je” (EYE-jay).

Arabic

Number of speakers: 246 million

Arabic, one of the world’s oldest languages, is spoken in the Middle East, with speakers found in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Egypt. Furthermore, because Arabic is the language of the Koran, millions of Moslems in other countries speak Arabic as well. So many people have a working knowledge of Arabic, in fact, that in 1974 it was made the sixth official language of the United Nations.

To say “hello” in Arabic, say “Al salaam a’alaykum” (Ahl sah-LAHM ah ah-LAY-koom).

Russian

Number of speakers:277 million

Mikhail Gorbachev, Boris Yeltsin, and Yakov Smirnoff are among the millions of Russian speakers out there. Sure, we used to think of them as our Commie enemies. Now we think of them as our Commie friends. One of the six languages in the UN, Russian is spoken not only in the Mother Country, but also in Belarus, Kazakhstan, and the U.S. (to name just a few places).

To say “hello” in Russian, say “Zdravstvuite” (ZDRAST-vet-yah).

Spanish





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