ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Unit 4. Present Simple or Present Continuous



Учебно-практическое пособие

«Грамматика английского языка»

для студентов экономико-управленческих,

финансовых, юридических

и гуманитарных специальностей

Москва 2009


автор-составитель

Евсеева А.Ю., к.э.н.

 

Учебно-практическое пособие «Грамматика английского языка» для студентов экономико-управленческих, финансовых, юридических и гуманитарных специальностей

– М.: МФЮА, 2009. – с.

 

 

Рецензенты:

Руководитель Центра высшего образования ФИРО д.п.н., профессор Тюнников Ю.С.

Старший преподаватель кафедры ИЯиПК МФЮА Ширяева Н.Н.

 

 

Рекомендовано к использованию в учебном процессе на заседании кафедры
"Иностранных языков" МФЮА

 

(протокола заседания кафедры иностранных языков № 3 от 20.12.2007 г.)

 

 

Типография Московской финансово-юридической академии

Тираж _______ экз.

 

 

ÓМФЮА, 2009

 


Contents

Unit 1. To Be

Item 1.1 To Be (Positive sentences)

Item 1.2 To Be (Negative sentences)

Item 1.3 To Be (Interrogative sentences)

Item 1.4 To Be (Expressions)

Unit 2. Present Continuous

Item 2.1 Present Continuous (Positive sentences)

Item 2.2 Present Continuous (Negative sentences)

Item 2.3 Present Continuous (Interrogative sentences)

Item 2.4 Present Continuous (Review)

Unit 3. Present Simple

Item 3.1 Present Simple (Positive sentences)

Item 3.2 Present Simple (Negative sentences)

Item 3.3 Present Simple (Interrogative sentences)

Item 3.4 Present Simple(Review)

Unit 4. Present Simple or Present Continuous

Unit 5. Do/make

Unit 6. Have and Have got

Unit 7. Future Simple

Item 7.1 Future Simple (Positive sentences)

Item 7.2 Future Simple (Negative sentences)

Item 7.3 Future Simple (Interrogative sentences)

Item 7.4 Future Simple (Review)

Unit 8. Future Simple, Present Simple or Present Continuous

Unit 9. To be going to do smth.

Item 9.1 To be going to do smth. (Present Simple. Positive sentences)

Item 9.2 To be going to do smth. (Present Simple. Negative sentences)

Item 9.3 To be going to do smth. (Present Simple. Interrogative sentences)

Item 9.4 To be going to do smth. (Past Simple)

Unit 10. Future Simple or To be going to do smth.

Unit 11. Modal verbs

Item 11.1 Modal verbs (Positive sentences)

Item 11.2 Modal verbs (Negative sentences)

Item 11.3 Modal verbs (Interrogative sentences)

Item 11.4 Have To

Item 11.5 Modal verbs(Review)

Unit 12 To be (Past Simple)

Unit 13 Past Simple

Item 13.1 Past Simple (Positive sentences)

Item 13.2 Past Simple (Negative sentences, Interrogative)

Item 13.3 Past Simple (Regular and irregular verbs)

Unit 14. There is/there are

Item 14.1 There is/ there are (Present Simple. Positive sentences)

Item 14.2 There is/ there are (Present Simple. Negative sentences)

Item 14.3 There is/ there are (Present Simple. Interrogative sentences)

Item 14.4 There is/ there are (Past Simple)

Item 14.5 There is/ there are (Future Simple)

Item 14.6 There is/there are (Review)

Unit 15. Past Continuous

Item 15.1 Past Continuous (Positive, Negative, Interrogative sentences)

Item 15.2 Past Continuous or Past Simple.

Unit 16. Present Perfect

Item 16.1 Present Perfect (Positive sentences)

Item 16.2 Present Perfect (Negative sentences)

Item 16.3 Present Perfect (Interrogative sentences)

Item 16.4 Present Perfect or Past Simple

Unit 17. Present Perfect Continuous

Item 17.1 Present Perfect Continuous

Item 17.2 Present Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Continuous

Unit 18. Tag Questions

Unit 19. Special Questions

Unit 20. Sequence of tenses

Unit 21. Passive voice

Unit 22. Conditional sentences

Item 22.1 Conditional first

Item 22.2 Conditional second

Unit 23. I wish I …

Item 23.1 I wish I knew

Item 23.2 I wish I would do

Item 23.3 I wish I had done

Unit 24. Personal Pronouns

Unit 25. Possessive pronouns

Unit 26. Demonstrative pronouns

Unit 27. Some or any

Unit 28. Countable/uncountable

Unit 29. Singular and plural

Unit 30. Articles

Unit 31. Much/many, few/little, a lot of

Unit 32. Degrees of Comparison

Item 32.1 Degrees of Comparison

Item 32.2 Degrees of Comparison (Review)

Unit 33. Superlative

Unit 34. Belongings

Unit 35. Prepositions

Unit 36. Verbs+prepositions

Unit 37. Verb+verb

Item 37.1 Verb+ing and Verb+to

Item 37.2 Verb+preposition+ing

 

Additional material

Unit 38. Be used/ get used to doing smth

Unit 39. I’d prefer/ I’d rather

Unit 40. Used to do

Unit 41. Every or all

Unit 42. All of/ Most of/ None of

UNIT 43 Revision (translation)

UNIT 44 Tricky Words

UNIT 1. TO BE

ITEM 1.1 TO BE. (POSITIVE SENTENCES)

Exercise 1. Write the short form.

1 I am 3 it is 5 he is 7 they are

2 you are 4 she is 6 we are 8 that is

 

Exercise 2. Put in am, are or is.

 

1 The weather nice today. 11. This book … interesting.

2 I … very tired. 12. This … my sister.

3 This bag … heavy. 13. I … from London.

4 These bags … heavy. 14. This film … boring.

5 That car … black. 15. My cat … in the garden.

6 My brother and I … very good friends. 16. My grandparents … in the village.

7 My mother … at home now. 17. My friend’s name … Alice.

8 My brothers … at school now. 18. She … 17 years old.

9 My father … a taxi driver. 19. These girls … from Spain.

10 My sister … a nurse. 20. These … my books.

 

Exercise 3. Complete the text about Ann.

My name … Ann and I … a student I … nineteen years old. I … from Moscow. I have two brothers: Nick and Mike. They … small. Nick … 2 years old and Mike … 5. They … very funny. My mother’s name … Helen. She … 38 years old. She … a teacher. My father’s name … Peter. He … older than my mother, he … 45. He … a lawyer. He … very clever.

 

Exercise 4. Write sentences about yourself and about your friend.


1. (name?)

2. (from?)

3. (age?)

4. (job?)

5. (star sign?)


6. (favourite colour?)

 

7. (favourite book?)

 

8. (favourite film?)

 

 

Exercise 5. Translate the following expressions into English and make sentences with them.

 

1. быть голодным

2. хотеть пить

3. быть уверенным в чем-либо

4. быть неуверенным в чем-либо

5. интересоваться чем-либо

6. быть уставшим

7. быть радостным

8. уметь хорошо делать что-либо

9. бояться чего-либо

10. быть в порядке (OK)

Exercise 6. Make sentences with the words from two columns.

Africa Asia Australia Europe North America South America the rivers Danube and Volga the cities Melbourne and Sidney the deserts Sahara and Kalahara the countries Mexico and Peru the mountains the Himalayas and Tien Shan the peninsulas California and Labrador

 

Brazil Canada China Egypt Finland France Germany Greece Japan Russia Spain Turkey The USA The UK Washington Brasilia Tokyo Paris Ottawa Peking London Helsinki Moscow Barcelona Athens Cairo Berlin Ankara

ITEM 1.2. TO BE. (NEGATIVE SENTENCES)

Exercise 1. Write the short form.

1I am not 3 it is not 5 he is not 7 they are not

2you are not 4 she is not 6 we are not 8 that is not

 

Exercise 2. Put in am not, are not or is not.

1. The weather … nice today.

2. That car … red.

3. I … very hungry.

4. This woman … my mother.

5. This task … difficult.

6. My friends … from Paris.

7. These exercises … difficult

8. This actor … very famous.

9. This magazine … interesting.

10. My dog… in the garden.

11. My sister and I … very good at tennis.

12. My parents … at home.

13. My father … a lawyer.

14. My friend’s name … Ann.

15. My nephews … students.

16. My sister … 23 years old.

17. My friend … a taxi driver.

18. These girls … from group.

19. My sister … a nurse.

20. This … my pen.

 

Exercise 3. Make this text negative.

My name … Kate and I … a student. I … nineteen years old. I … from Moscow. I have two brothers: Nick and Mike. They … small. Nick … 2 years old and Mike … 5. They … very funny. My mother’s name … Helen. She … 38 years old. She … a teacher. My father’s name … Peter. He … older than my mother, he … 45. He … a lawyer. He … very clever.

 

 

ITEM 1.3. TO BE. (INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES)

ITEM 1.4. TO BE. (EXPRESSIONS)

Exercise 1. Translate the following expressions into English and make positive, negative and interrogative sentences with them.

1. быть голодным / моя сестра

2. хотеть пить/ дети

3. быть уверенным в чем-либо/ я

4. быть неуверенным в чем-либо/ мои родители

5. интересоваться чем-либо/ мой брат

6. быть уставшим/ мой друг

7. злиться на кошку/ наши друзья

8. быть радостным/ я и мой брат

9. уметь хорошо делать что-либо/ мои друзья

10. бояться чего-либо/ мой племянник

11. быть в порядке (OK)/ мои бабушка и дедушка

12. быть против чего-либо/ мои родители

13. быть за что-либо/ мой шеф

 

 

UNIT 2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS

You don't have to use all the verbs and you can use a verb more than once.

1 The population of the world is rising very fast.

2 Ken is still ill but he……better slowly.

3 The world……Things never stay the same.

4 The cost of living……Every year things are more expensive.

5 The economic situation is already very bad and it……worse.

ITEM 2.2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS. (NEGATIVE SENTENCES)

Exercise 1. What aren’t you doing at the moment? Write 10 true sentences.

ITEM 2.4. PRESENT CONTINUOUS. REVIEW.

 

Exercise 1. What’s happening at the moment? Write true sentences.

1 (it/ snow) It’s snowing. OR It isn’t snowing.

2 (I/ wash/ my hair)

3 (I/ sit/ on a chair) ……

4 (I/ eat) ……

5 (it/ rain)……

6 (I/ learn/ English) ……

7 (I/ listen/ to music) ……

8 (the sun/ shine……

9 (I/ wear/ shoes) ……

10 (I/ read/ a newspaper)……

 

UNIT3. PRESENT SIMPLE

UNIT 5. DO/ MAKE

Exercise 1. Put in make or do

1.an enquiry

2. an offer

3.a reguest

4. money

5. an appointment

6. a complaint

7. a decision

8. a forecast

9. progress

10. an effort

11. certain or sure

12. an application

13. a deal

14. an excuse

15. a profit or a loss

16. arrangements or plans

17. an apology

18. achoice

19. a mistake

20. a phone call

21. an attempt

22. а business trip

23. changes, or an improvement

24. business

25. a job

26. an exercise

27. good

28. the accounts

29. an experiment

30. well, or better

31. damage or harm

32. some work

33.homework

34. wrong

35. your duty

36. research

37. someone a favour

38. repairs

39. something to, or for, or with someone

40. something for a living

e 9. a mistake r an improvement 8. a forecast

Exercise 2. Put in make/making/made or do/doing/did/done.

1 'Shall I open the window?' 'No, it’s OK. I'll do it.'

2 What did you … at the weekend? Did you go away?

3 Do you know how to …bread?

4 Paper is … from wood.

5 Richard didn't help me. He sat in an armchair and … nothing.

6 'What do you …?' 'I'm a doctor.'

7 I asked you to clean the bathroom. Have you … it?

8 'What do they … in that factory?' 'Shoes.'

9 I'm … some coffee. Would you like some?

10 Why are you angry with me? I didn't … anything wrong.

11 'What are you … tomorrow afternoon?' 'I'm working.'

Exercise 3. Put in make or do in the correct form.

1 I hate doing housework, especially cleaning.

2 Why do you always…… the same mistake?

3 'Can you……me a favour?' 'It depends what it is.'

4 'Have you……your homework?' 'Not yet.'

5 I need to see the dentist but I haven't……an appointment.

6 I'm……a course in photography at the moment. It's very good.

7 The last time I……an exam was ten years ago.

8 When you've finished Exercise 1, you can……Exercise 2.

9 There's something wrong with the car. The engine is……a strange noise.

10 It was a bad mistake. It was the worst mistake I've ever …

11 Let's……a list of all the things we have to……today.

UNIT 6 . HAVE AND HAVE GOT

UNIT 7 . FUTURE SIMPLE

Exercise 1. Which is right?

1 We'll go / We're going to the theatre tonight. We've got tickets. We're going is right

2 'What will you do / are you doing tomorrow evening?' 'Nothing. I'm free.'

3 They'll go / They're going away tomorrow morning. Their train is at 8.40.

4 I'm sure she'll lend / she's lending us some money. She's very rich.
5 'Why are you putting on your coat?' 'I'll go / I'm going out.'

6 Do you think Claire will phone / is phoning us tonight?

7 Steve can't meet us on Saturday. He'll work / He's working.

8 Will / Shall you be at home tomorrow evening?

 

Exercise 2. Which is right?

1 I phone / I'll phone you tomorrow, OK? I'll phone is right

2 I haven't done the shopping yet. I do / I'll do it later.

5 I like sport. I watch /I'll watch a lot of sport on TV

4 I need some exercise. I think I go / I'll go for a walk.

5 Jim is going to buy / will buy a new car. He told me last week.

6 'This letter is for Rose.' 'OK. I give / I'll give / I'm going to give it to her.'

7 A: Are you doing / Will you do anything this evening?

B: Yes, I'm going / I'll go out with some friends.

 

UNIT 11. MODAL VERBS

ITEM 11.4. HAVE TO

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences. Use have to or has to + one of these verbs:

do read speak wear travel

1 My eyes are not very good. I have to …… glasses.

2 At the end of the course all the students……a test.

3 Mary is studying literature. She……a lot of books.

4 Albert doesn't understand much English. You……very slowly to him.

5 Kate is not often at home. She……a lot in her job.

 

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences. Use have to or had to + one of these verbs:

answer buy walk change go

1 We had to walk home last night. There were no buses.

2 It's late. I……now. I'll see you tomorrow.

3 I went to the supermarket after work yesterday. I……some food.

4 This train doesn't go all the way to London. You……at Bristol.

5 We did an exam yesterday. We……six questions out of ten.

 

UNIT 13. PAST SIMPLE.

Exercise 3. Ask questions on the sentences from the previous exercise (unit 14 item 4 exercise 2 (A, B) )

 

 

Exercise 2. Ask questions on the sentences from the previous exercise (unit 14 item 5 exercise 1 (A, B))

Exercise 3. Put in there will be. Some sentences are questions (will there be... ?) and some are negative (there won’t be).

1. Do you think …… a lot of people at the party on Sunday?

2. The manager of the company is leaving, so …… a new manager soon.

3. I’m going away tomorrow. I’ll do my packing today because ……time tomorrow.

4. The weatherman says …… some rain tomorrow afternoon.

5. …… any interesting people at the exhibition?

6. If your parents come late …… free chairs for them – we are expecting a lot of people.

7. I think …… a lot of interesting films at the festival.

8. If they put a traffic light on the road …… less accidents.

9. …… a lot of new students in our group next year?

10. The teacher says …… a lot of new subjects next year.

 

UNIT 15. PAST CONTINUOUS.

UNIT 16. PRESENT PERFECT.

Exercise 3. Which is right?

1Mark -is-/ has been in Canada since April. has been is right

2 Jane is a good friend of mine. I know / have known her very well.

3 Jane is a good friend of mine. I know / have known her for a long time.

4 'Sorry I'm late. How long are you / have you been waiting?' 'Not long. Only five minutes.'
5 Martin works / has -worked in a hotel now. He likes his job very much.

6 Linda is reading the newspaper. She is / has been reading it for two hours.

7 "How long do you live / have you lived in this house?' 'About ten years.'

8 'Is that a new coat?' 'No, I have / I've had this coat for a long time.'

9 Tom is / has been in Spain at the moment. He is / has been there for the last three days.

UNIT 18 TAG QUESTIONS

Exercise 1..Put a question tag on the end of these sentences.

Tom won't be late, ……? You're tired,……? You've got a camera,……? You weren't listening,……? Sue doesn't know Ann,……? Jack's on holiday,……? Ann's applied for the job,…...? You can speak German,……? … He won't mind if I use his phone, ……? There are a lot of people here,……? Let's go out tonight,……? This isn't very interesting,……? I'm too impatient,……? You wouldn't tell anyone, ……? Listen, …...? I shouldn't have lost my temper, ……? Don't drop that vase, ……? He'd never met her before, ……? No, he's never late. Yes, a little. Yes, why? Do you want to borrow it? Yes, I was! No, they've never met. Yes, he's in Portugal. Yes, but she won't get it. Yes, but not very fluently. No, of course he won't. Yes, more than I expected. Yes, let's. No, not very. Yes, you are sometimes. No, of course not. OK, I'm listening. No, but never mind. No, don't worry. No, that was the first time.

UNIT 19 SPECIAL QUESTIONS

UNIT 20 SEQUENCE OF TENSES

Exercise 1. Read what these people say and write sentences with Не/She /They said (that)....

1. I've lost my watch. He said he had lost his watch.

2. I'm very busy. ……

3. I have to go out. ……

4. I can't go to the party ……

5. I'm learning Russian. ……

6. I don't feel very well. ……

7. We'll be home late. ……

8. I've just come back from holiday. ……

9. I'm going to buy a computer. ……

10. We haven't got a key. ……

 

 

UNIT 21 PASSIVE VOICE

Exercise 1. Write sentences from the words in brackets (...). Sentences 1-7 are present.

1 (the office / clean / every day) The office is cleaned every day.

2(these rooms / clean / every day?) Are these rooms cleaned every day?

3 ('glass / make / from sand) Glass ……

4 (stamps / sell / in a post office) ……

5 (this room / not / use / very often)……

6 (we / allow / to park here?) ……

7 (how / this word / pronounce?) ……

Sentences 8-15 are past.

 

8(the office / clean / yesterday) The office was cleaned yesterday.

9 (the house / paint / last month) The house ……

10 (three people / injure / in the accident) ……

11 (my bicycle / steal / a few days ago) ……

12 (when / this bridge / build?) ……

13 (you / invite / to the party last week?) ……

14 (how / these windows / break?) ……

15 (I / not / wake up / by the noise) ……

Exercise 2. Which is right?

1. If I'm / I'll be late this evening, don't wait for me. «I’m» is right

2. Will you write to me if I give /I'll give you my address?

3. If there is /will be a fire, the alarm will ring.

4. If I don't see you tomorrow morning, I phone / I'll phone you in the evening.

5. I'm / I'll be surprised if Martin and Julia get / will get married.

6 Do you go / Will you go to the party if they invite / they'll invite you?

ITEM 23.1. I WISH I KNEW

UNIT 24. PERSONAL PRONOUNS

UNIT 27. SOME OR ANY

Exercise 3. Which is right?

1 I'm going to buy some new shoe/shoes.

2 Martin has got brown eye/eyes.

3 Paula has got short black hair/hairs.

4 The tourist guide gave us some information/informations about the town.

5 We're going to buy some new chair/chairs.

6 We're going to buy some new furniture/furnitures.

7 It's difficult to get a work/job at the moment.

8 We had lovely weather / a lovely weather when we were on holiday.

 

Exercise 4. Some of these sentences need a/an. Correct the sentences which are wrong. If the sentence is already correct, put 'right'.

1 Jim goes everywhere by bike. He hasn't got car.

2 Ann was listening to music when I arrived.

3 We went to very nice restaurant last weekend.

4 I clean my teeth with toothpaste.

5 I use toothbrush to clean my teeth.

6 Can you tell me if there's bank near here?

7 My brother works for insurance company in London.

8 I don't like violence.

9 Can you smell paint?

10 We need petrol. I hope we come to petrol station soon.

11 I wonder if you can help me. I have problem.

12 John has got interview for job tomorrow.

13 Liz doesn't usually wear jewellery but yesterday she was wearing necklace.

14 I think volleyball is very good game.

 

Exercise 5. Complete the sentences using one of the following words. Use a/an where necessary.

biscuit blood coat decision electricity key music letter moment question sugar accident

1 It wasn't your fault. It was …...

2 Listen! Can you hear …...?

3 I couldn't get into the house because I didn't have……

4 It's very warm today. Why are you wearing……?

5 Do you take……in your coffee?

6 Are you hungry? Would you like……with your coffee?

7 Our lives would be very difficult without……

8 I didn't phone them. I wrote……instead……

9 The heart pumps……through the body.

10 Excuse me, but can I ask you……?

11 I'm not ready yet. Can you wait……, please?

12 We can't delay much longer. We have to make……soon.

 

UNIT 30. ARTICLES

Exercise1. Put in a/an or the.

1 We enjoyed our holiday. …… hotel was very nice.

2 'Can I ask ... question?' 'Of course. What do you want to ask?'

3 My sister plays …… piano every day because she wants to become …… musician.

4 You look very tired. You need …… holiday.

5 'Where's Tom?' 'He's in …… bathroom.'

6 Jane is …… interesting person. You must meet her.

7 A: Excuse me, can you tell me how to get to ……city centre?

B: Yes, go straight on and then take …… next turning left.

8 A: Shall we go out for …… meal this evening?

B: Yes, that's …… good idea.

9 It's ……nice morning. Let's go for ……walk.

10 Amanda is ……student. When she finishes her studies, she wants to be …… journalist. She lives with two friends in …… flat near …… college where she is studying. …… flat is small but she likes it.

11 My sister has got two children, …… boy and …girl. …… boy is seven years old and …… girl is three. Her husband works in …… factory but she hasn't got …… job at the moment.

 

Exercise 2. Put in the where necessary. Write OK if the sentence is already correct.

1 What is name of this street? ……

2 What's on television tonight? …

3 Our apartment is on second floor. ……

4 Would you like to go to moon? ……

5 Which is best hotel in this town? ……

6 What time is lunch? ……

7 How far is it to city centre? ……

8 We're going away at end of May. ……

9 What are you doing next weekend? ……

10 I didn't like her first time I met her. ……

11 I'm going out after dinner……

12 What's biggest city in world? ……

13 My sister got married last month. ……

14 My dictionary is on top shelf on right. ……

15 We live in country about five miles from nearest village. ……

 

Exercise 3. Complete these sentences. Choose from the list. Use the if necessary.

capital police dinner lunch middle name sky television

 

1 We had ……at a restaurant last night.

2 We stayed at a very nice hotel but I don't remember……

3 …… is very clear tonight. You can see all the stars.

4 Did you see the film on …… last night?

5 Somebody was trying to break into the shop so I called ……

6 Tokyo is …… of Japan.

7 'What did you have for……?' 'A salad.'

8 I woke up in …… of the night.

 

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences. Choose from the list. Use the if necessary.

bank bed home post office school station church

1 I need some money. I must go to ……

2 David usually goes to …… on Sundays.

3 In Britain, children go to …… from the age of five.

4 There were a lot of people at ……waiting for the train.

5 I phoned you last night but you weren't at……

6 I'm going to …… now. Goodnight!

7 I'm going to …… to get some stamps.

 

Exercise 5. Complete the sentences. Sometimes you need the.

1 If you want to catch a plane, you go to ……

2 If you want to see a film, you go to ……

3 If you are tired and you want to sleep, you go to ……

4 If you rob a bank and the police catch you, you go to ……

5 If you have a problem with your teeth, you go to ……

6 If you want to study after you leave school, you go to ……

7 If you are injured in an accident, you go to ……

 

Exercise 6. Put in the where necessary. Write OK if the sentence is complete.

1 We went to cinema last night. ……

2 I finish work at 5 o'clock every day. ……

3 Mary wasn't feeling well yesterday, so she went to doctor. ……

4 I wasn't feeling well this morning, so I stayed in bed. ……

5 Would you like to go to theatre this evening? ……

6Whyis Angela, always late for work? ……

7 Where are the children?' 'They're at school.' ……

8 We've got no money in bank ……

9 When I was younger, I went to church every Sunday. ……

10 What time do you usually get home from work? ……

11 Jim is ill. He's in hospital……

12 Margaret takes her children to school every day. ……

13 Do you live far from city centre?......

 

 

Exercise 7. These are geography questions. Choose your answer from the box. Sometimes you need The.

 

Alps Amazon Andes Asia Atlantic Bahamas Cairo Kenya Malta Pacific Red Sea Rhine Sweden Tokyo United States

1 ……is the capital of Egypt.

2 ……is between Africa and America.

3 ……is a country in northern Europe.

4 ……is a river in South America.

5 ……is the largest continent in the world.

6 ……is the largest ocean.

7 ……is a river in Europe.

8 ……is a country in East Africa.

9 ……is between Canada and Mexico.

10……are mountains in South America.

11……is the capital of Japan.

12……are mountains in central Europe.

13 ……is between Saudi Arabia and Africa.

14 ……is an island in the Mediterranean.

15 ……are a group of islands near Florida.

 

Exercise 8. Put in the where necessary. If the sentence is already correct, write OK.

1 Have you ever been to China?

2 Have you ever been to Philippines?

3 Have you ever been to south of France?

4 Can you tell me where Merrion Street is?

5 Can you tell me where Museum of Modern Art is?

6 Europe is bigger than Australia.

7 Belgium is smaller than Netherlands.

8 Which river is longer — Mississippi or Nile?

9 Did you go to National Gallery when you were in London?

10 How far is it from Trafalgar Square to Victoria Station (in London)?

11 Rocky Mountains are in North America.

12 Texas is famous for oil and cowboys.

13 Panama Canal joins Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean.

14 I hope to go to United States next year.

15 Mary comes from a small town in west of Ireland.

16 Alan studied physics at Manchester University.

 

UNIT 33. SUPERLATIVE

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences. Use a superlative.

1 This building is very old. It's …… building in the town.

2 It was a very happy day. It was……of my life.

3 It's a very good film. It's……I've ever seen.

4 She's a very popular singer. She's……in the country.

5 It was a very bad mistake. It was……I've ever made.

6 It's a very pretty village. It's……I've ever seen.

7 It was a very cold day. It was……of the year.

8 He's a very boring person. He's……I've ever met.

 

UNIT 34. BELONINGS

UNIT 35 PREPOSITONS

Exercise 1.Write at/on/in.

1 on 6 June 2 inthe evening 3 …… half past two 4 …… Wednesday 5 …… 1987 6 …… September 7 ……24 September 8 …… Thursday 9 …… 11.45 10 ……Christmas Day 11 …… Christmas 12 …… the morning 13 ……Friday morning 14 ……Saturday night 15 ……night 16 ……the end of the day 17 ……the weekend 18 ……winter

 

Exercise 2.Write at/on/in.

1 Goodbye! See you …… Friday.

2 Where were you …… 28 February?

3 I got up …… 8 o'clock this morning.

4 I like getting up early …… the morning.

5 My sister got married …… May.

6 Diane and I first met …… 1979.

7 Did you go out …… Tuesday?

8 Did you go out …… Tuesday evening?

9 Do you often go out …… the evening?

10 Let's meet …… 7.30 tomorrow evening.

11 I often go away …… the weekend.

12 I'm starting my new job …… 3 July.

13 We often go to the beach …… summer.

14 George isn't here …… the moment.

15 Julia's birthday is …… January.

16 Do you work …… Saturdays?

17 The company started …… 1969.

18 I like to look at the stars …… night.

19 I'll send you the money …… the end of the month.

 

Exercise 3.Write sentences with in....

1 It's 17.25 now. The train leaves at 17.30. The train leaves in five minutes.

2 It's Monday today. I'll phone you on Thursday. I'll …… days.

3 Today is 14 June. My exam is on 28 June. My ……

4 It's 3 o'clock now. Tom will be here at 3.30. Tom ……

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL

UNIT 38 BE USED/ GET USED TO DOING SMTH

UNIT 40 USED TO DO

UNIT 41 EVERY OR ALL

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences. Use every + one of these words:

day room student time word

1 Every studentin the class passed the exam.

2 My job is very boring..….is the same.

3 Kate is a very good tennis player. When we play, she wins......

4......in the hotel has a private bathroom.

5 'Did you understand what she said?' 'Most of it but not ......

 

UNIT 44 TRICKY WORDS

Adhesion/adherence

Both have a common verb "to adhere" which means to stick.
Adhesion is the physical condition: This paint has excellent adhesion.
Adherence has the figurative sense: They are to be admired for their adherence to moral principles.

Admission/admittance

Admission means permission of entry. It can be physical: The admission of immigrants had to be restricted.
Admittanceis a formal term for right of entry. A notice that says NO ADMITTANCE on a door means KEEP OUT.
Using the two words together, you could say that a drunk was refused admittance to the show even though he had paid his admission.

To affect/to effect

These two verbs are often mis-spelled, also in English-speaking countries. The reason may be that they have a common noun: effect.
To affect means have an influence on something: The strong wind affected the tennis game.
To effectmeans cause, bring about: The new manager effected an improvement in the EDP Department.
The adjective affected can also mean the same as in many other languages: displaying mannerisms that are not natural.

Amiable/amicable

Although your Latin may be rusty these days, you probably still recognize that these two words must have something to do with friend.
Amiable is always applied to people who are pleasant, easy-going, likeable.
Amicablecannot be applied to people, only to relationships that are friendly. Using both words in one sentence, you could comment: The two amiable proprietors had an amicable business relationship for many years.

Beside/besides

Beside refers to the physical situation, it means side by side, close to: He sat beside her. Still in a sense physical, but used figuratively are: Beside the point, meaning irrelevant, and the slightly old-fashioned expression: He was beside himself with rage, which indicates a really boiling temper.
Besides is used in two ways: as an adverb in the sense of moreover, in addition: He has not improved; and besides, he does not seem to care .
Less frequently, it can also be a preposition, meaning apart from: Besides curtains, they also sell sun blinds.

Blink/wink

Both have something to do with the movement of the eyelids.
Blink is what you do involuntarily every few seconds with both eyelids.
A wink is the lowering of one eyelid to give a signal. Here is the difference, shown in artistic form in its three stages: Not quite logically, wink (not blink) is used in phrases connected with sleep:
I didn't sleep a wink last night = got no sleep at all. They had forty winks after lunch= a brief sleep, a nap.

Blush/flush

When you are temporarily red in the face, it can be the result of either blush or flush. Emotion (embarrassment or shyness) makes you blush: When he complimented her on her first-class work, she blushed.
Physical exertion causes you to be flushed: She was flushed after running for the last bus.
An in-between situation can exist when you are red in the face because of a mixture of emotion and physical
causes. You can, for example, be flushed with excitement.

Childish/childlike

Childish is no compliment. It means immature: His reaction to their mild letter of complaint was very childish. (He sulked for months.)
Childlike can be a compliment, as its meaning of like a child refers to positive attributes such as innocence,
grace, honesty, etc.: The movements of the dancers had a childlike grace.

Contents/content

Contentsis what you find in some form of container: the contents of a bottle, bag, box, book, and so on. Make sure you use the plural. In other languages you use the singular.
Content is the presence of one element in another, often expressed as a percentage or proportion: the water content in my glass of wine, the copper content in an aluminium alloy, etc.
The content(singular) of a book or a speech can also mean the essential element:
It's a bestseller but devoid of serious content.

Continuous/continual

Continuous means without interruption, all the time, non-stop: There is a continuous performance from four to eleven.
Continualmeans very frequent: They are notorious for their continual complaints.
Nobody can complain 'continuously'. People have to sleep some of the time.
Note: Constant is near in meaning to continuous, but not quite non-stop: her constant companion, constant headache, constant worries.

Customer/client

A customer buys goods and pays a price.
A client buys professional services and pays a fee.
Professional services are provided by lawyers, architects, accountants, and various consultants, who do not sell goods but give information or advice in some form or other. Doctors and dentists are also part of the professional group. They have patients and charge a fee.
The English word profession means the same as in your language: He is a carpenter by profession. She is a professional tennis player.
The English expression the professions, however, refers to a group of activities that require academic training, a university education: He is not sure yet, but will probably go in for one of the professions.

Definite/definitive

Definite means certain, clearly defined: Their arrival time is now definite.
Definitive means final, often implying not merely the last, but also the best: It is probably the definitive book on the Vietnam war.
This sentence means that the author has treated the subject so much better than anyone before him, that it will be the book on the war in Vietnam.

Department/division

In one of your idle moments - perhaps when sitting at your desk in the office this morning - you may have been wondering whether there is any difference between these two words.
If you are thinking about the organization in a company, American usage prefers division for all but the tiniest sections in a firm: Chemical Division, Marketing Division, Export Division.
British usage has always preferred department, reserving division for major integrated parts of a company: Export Department, Marketing Department, Consumer Products Division.
Division, with its military connotation, somehow sounds more impressive than department. That must be the reason why companies outside North America tend to use it increasingly for modest departments that would previously not have qualified for this distinction.
This idea that the division is bigger than department is reversed when it comes to the government. Then department is really the big thing. The State Department, for example, is that vast United States ministry known in other countries as Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Foreign Ministry, Ministry for External Affairs, and similar more descriptive terms. (It is called Foreign Office in the UK).

Distinct/distinctive

Distinct is clear: a distinct difference, distinct outline, distinct advantage. Distinctive means being different from something else. You may need a distinctive trademark, distinctive design, distinctive slogan, i.e. something that stands out, something that people recognize because it is striking.
Combining the two, you could say that a signpost can be made more distinctive by using more distinct lettering.

Eatable/edible

Eatable means that something is of a quality suitable for eating. As comment on somebody's standard of cooking it expresses a very low degree of enthusiasm:

16 How did you like her dinner? Well, it was eatable…

Ediblemeans suitable for human consumption, because the food contains nothing that will poison you. Illustrated books will enlighten you on edible and inedible mushrooms, for example.
Negative form of eatable: uneatable.

Economic/economical

Economic refers to the science of economics. You can have economic factors, an economic return on investment, an economic business. People can never be called economic.
Economicalis the opposite of wasteful and can be applied to people and objects. If money is involved, economical is simply money-saving.
He is very economical in his buying habits = spends little. The new engine is highly economical = uses little fuel. In a court case someone once admitted that he had been economical with the truth, a very elegant way of saying that he was not telling the whole truth.

Efficient/proficient

Efficientis competent, well organized. It can be applied to people or things:
She is incredibly efficient.
Proficient means qualified, skilled, an expert at something. It can be applied to people only:
They are proficient in (at) braille.
It is quite possible that someone proficient (who knows his special field) can at the same time be inefficient, if he forgets to answer letters or has a messy workshop.
e.g. /i.e.
These two abbreviations are often confused. An example, a limited selection is introduced by e.g. This is short for "exempli gratia". When reading it aloud, say for example, for instance or, if you insist, 'ee-gee':
They manufacture medical appliances, e.g. syringes, catheters, surgical instruments, etc.
An explanation, a definition is introduced by i.e. (id est). Say 'eye-ee", 'namely', 'that is 'or 'that is to say' when reading it aloud: They have three major product lines, i.e. chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.

Egoist/egotist

The extra 't' makes a considerable difference, although both people are not wildly attractive characters. An egoist is the same kind of person you have in other languages; someone who thinks only of himself; someone who is selfish. An egotist (remember that 't' to denote talking) is a person who talks a lot about himself.
An egotist is probably also an egoist, but an egoist is often no egotist. (He keeps very quiet while he is gobbling that pound of chocolates when nobody is looking.)

Electric/electrical

Electricdescribes individual products that are in some way actuated by electricity:
electric light, electric train, electric motor, and so on. It includes electric eel and electric shock.
Electrical describes anything else connected with electricity, also the collective nouns of electricity-powered products: electrical engineer, electrical science, electrical appliances, electrical phenomenon, and so forth. Using the two adjectives in one sentence you would be quite correct in saying: Our electric toaster is an electrical appliance.

Error/mistake

The difference between the two is not enormous, but error is usually less serious than mistake.
If I ask you to multiply 312 by 758, and you tell me that the result is 236 498, you probably made a slip when typing the last digit. I would call this an error. If you tell me that you bought a company two years ago, which has so far lost two million dollars, you made a mistake (How could you do such a thing?).

Every/each

Here is something for the connoisseur. Every applies to an unspecified number of objects. Each is usually better when the number of objects is known or small. Examples:
In Glasgow you find a pub in every block. You do not know the number of blocks in merry Glasgow. You are making a general statement, therefore every.
There is an entrance at each corner of the park. You know that the park has four corners. Therefore each. Here are two nearly identical sentences with a difference in interpretation:
Every airliner has a Certificate of Airworthiness. All airliners have it. A general statement.
Each airliner has a Certificate of Airworthiness. Each single aircraft I am talking about; presumably of one specific company, production run, type.

Exceptional/exceptionable

Exceptional is, of course, something that is an exception, unusual, abnormal:
We had an exceptionally wet summer three years ago.
Exceptionable is mainly used in the negative form unexceptionable. It means acceptable, not open to objection: I have read the conditions. They seem unexceptionable.
To take exception to something means to disapprove, raise an objection. You will probably find exceptionally good weather unexceptionable.

Fast/quick

These two are not completely interchangeable. Fast refers to speed of movement or action:
A fast train. A fast run.
Quickrelates to the length of time an event or action takes:
A quick meal. A quick reply.
Using both adjectives in one sentence, you could say: They had a quick crossing because the boat was fast. He had a quick meal because he is a fast eater.
Exception department: quick can mean speed if the movement or action is not sustained, abrupt: Try to get that window seat! Quick! or He is an odd kind of man, with very quick, nervous movements.

Farther/further

Good news! Further can now safely be used in place of fartheralthough there is a difference according to the dictionary. Farther is the comparative of far and thus relates to physical distance:
London-Eastbourne is farther than London-Brighton.
Nobody will be worried if you use further here. Further means additional, other, subsequent:
We have to await further developments.
Floor/storey (Am.: story)
Floor indicates the position in a building: second floor, top floor, etc. Storeyrefers to the height of a building: a ten-storey apartment block.

Historic/historical

Historic refers to something important that is or will be remembered in history, recorded by history: a historic meeting, historic decision, historic voyage, historic landmark, etc. Historical is the adjective for all other purposes when you mean to do with history: a historical play, historical novel, historical costumes, etc.

Human/humane

Humanis the more frequent adjective when referring to matters concerning homo sapiens: human habitation, human failings, human ancestry, etc. Humane means benevolent, compassionate: humane treatment is decent treatment.

In future/in the future

In future means from now on, starting now: All goods will in future be sent by our own transport.
In the future is more vague and means at some unspecified later date:
We hope to be able to send all goods by our own transport in the future. (As soon as we can afford three trucks.)
While talking about 'the future', here is one small point you may find interesting. If today is the 5th of the month and you want to say that something will happen on the 26th, you have three ways of putting it:
in three weeks; in three weeks from now; in three weeks' time.
When using the last version, please don't forget the apostrophe in writing: In five hours'/days'/months'/years' time.
if/whether
In many constructions these two words are indeed interchangeable:
I am not sure if this is possible.
I am not sure whether this is possible.
The main difference is that whether is always assumed to be followed by or not. This means that in questions or requests an answer is usually expected. Take these two almost identical sentences: Let me know if you can come.
The stress is here normally on the word know. The speaker or writer tells you here: If you can come, please let me know. (If you can't, don't bother to notify me). On the other hand, someone may tell you: Let me know whether you can come. This says: Please let me know whether you can come or not. An answer is required.

Imply/infer

Many people think that these two mean the same thing. There is a difference worth remembering.
Imply is what the speaker or writer does: says, suggests, insinuates, hints at something that can be interpreted in a certain way. Inferis what the listener or reader does: concludes, guesses, deduces, thinks. Taking the two together, you could say:
When she implied that she was very busy, he inferred that he was not welcome.
The two nouns are implication and inference. (Inference has the stress on the first syllable. The remainder is pronounced like the same syllables in 'reference' )

Incredible/incredulous

Both have something to do with believe, as anyone will tell you who has ever battled with Latin.
Facts, events, reports, and other impersonal things are incredible (or credible): they are hard to believe. People can be incredulous, i.e. they don't believe what they read or hear. The two together: He was incredulous when he heard their incredible story.

Insulated/isolated

English has two words, where other languages only have one. Insulated is the technical word: protected against electricity, heat or cold. Isolated is the general adjective. It is used for anything that is separated, kept apart: When the tide rose, he found himself isolated on a tiny rock.

Last/latest

Last denotes final or most recent. This can be confusing: her last book can mean that she never wrote any others or that it is her most recent literary effort. Latestmakes the position quite clear; it means the most recent of several, leaving open the possibility of more to come: our latest model, their latest publication, her latest hairstyle.

Less/fewer

An interesting pair. Less is followed by a noun in the singular and is used when referring to extent, degree, and quantity in bulk. Fewer is followed by a noun in the plural and refers to quantity in terms of units. A few examples: less milk; fewer bottles; less help; fewer assistants; less money; fewer pesetas; less expense;
fewer bills; less weight; fewer kilos

Libel/slander

Both mean the same: making false, damaging statements; telling lies about a person or company.
Libel, however, is something written, usually a newspaper article. Slander is spreading all that nasty information verbally. As it is much easier to prove written defamation than word-of-mouth comment, you will sometimes hear about a libel suit; hardly ever about legal action involving slander.

Lie/lay

These two are often mixed up in English-speaking countries, mainly in the past tense.
There are two separate verbs: to liemeans to recline, to be in a horizontal position. It is irregular: to lie - lay - lain. He likes to lie in bed until lunchtime. The book lay on the shelf. The ring must have lain on the counter.
It is an intransitive verb, i.e. you cannot add a direct object. You may lie on the floor, if you like that sort of thing; but you cannot lie something on the floor. You then need the other verb: It is to lay, which means to place, to put. It is irregular: to lay - laid -laid. It is transitive, i.e. it can be followed by a direct object: Let me lay the table. She must have laid it there by mistake. The ostrich laid an enormous egg.
A frequent mistake is saying he lay it on the table. As you now know, it should be: He laid it on the table. Note: Just to complete the picture, there is also a third verb to lie, which means telling something that is not true. It is regular: to lie – lied - lied,

Long/lengthy

These two often mean the same, except when referring to something you have to read or listen to, when lengthy can imply that you were bored:
He produced a lengthy report after his trip to Korea. Many pages, but not terribly entertaining.

Much/many

In the same way as less and fewer, much applies to bulk, mass, an unspecified quantity. Manyare objects you can count:
much money, much demand, much traffic, much food.
many guilders, many orders, many cars, many dishes
The same definition applies to much worry/many worries and much trouble/many troubles. Much worry is the total extent of your problems. Many worries are the individual headaches that bother you.

Murder/assassinate

The difference is simple: you and I are murdered. Statesmen and other important people are assassinated.

Offer/quotation

An offer is more general. It can be verbal or in writing. It is often applied to bulk goods with a variable price: We are interested in an offer for 250 tonnes of prime bleached sulphite pulp. The American unit of weight is still called ton.
A quotation is more formal. It is always in writing and is the best term for a detailed proposal: Please let us have your quotation for Model KLB 2000 with power feed, rotary table, and grinding attachment. An offer is often based on a price calculation, a quotation on a fixed price list.
Outside the office you also have a verbal offer when you tell someone how much you are prepared to pay. For a used car, for example. An offer at an auction is called a bid.

Official/officious

No problem with the adjective official, which means the same as in other languages: properly authorized. Officious describes a person who is over-keen to give service, who rushes around and upsets people. The best noun would be busybody. An officious waiter can ruin your carefully planned business lunch, if your guest becomes irritated and is in no mood to discuss the proposed contract.

Older/elder

Olderis the general-purpose comparative form of old: old - older -oldest. Elder and eldest refer to family members and are always attributive adjectives: my elder brother, my eldest sister. You cannot say my brother is elder than I.

On time/in time

On time means punctual: The train is on time.
In time means not late, before the last minute. In good time gives you a little extra:
We should get a window seat if we get there i





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