The Present Perfect Tense (Настоящее совершенное время)



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The Present Perfect Tense (Настоящее совершенное время)



Present Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to have в форме настоящего времени (have, has) и причастия прошедшего времени (Participle II) смыслового глагола. На русский язык переводится глаголом в прошедшем времени.

 

I have seen this film. Я посмотрел этот фильм.
-Have you seen this film? - Yes, I have / - No, I haven’t.
I have not (haven’t) seen this film.    
He has signed the contract Он подписал контракт.
-Hashe signed the contract? - Yes, he has / - No he hasn’t.
He has not (hasn’t) signed the contract.  

· Present Perfect употребляется для выражения действия, которое совершилось в прошлом(время действия не указывается), но результат которого очевиден или имеет значение в настоящем.

· Если время действия указано, тогда употребляется Simple Past:

He signed the contract yesterday (last week, 2 hours ago, etc.).

· Present Perfect употребляется со следующими наречиями:

 

Just только что He has justsigned the contract.
Already уже ( в утвердительных предложениях и с оттенком удивления в общих вопросах) He has already signed the contract. I have already seen this film Has he already signed the contract? Have you already seen this film?
Yet ещё ( в отрицательных предложениях) уже ( в вопросительных предложениях) He hasn’t signed the contract yet.I haven’t seen this film yet. Has he signed the contract yet? Have you seen this film yet?
Ever когда-нибудь(в вопросительных предложениях)   Have you ever been to London?
Never никогда (когда речь идет о действиях в прошлом) I have never been to Spain.
Lately recently в последнее время, недавно I haven’t seen him lately.I have read this book recently.

Present Perfect может употребляться также

· с обстоятельствами времени, которые обозначают еще не истекший отрезок времени, как например: today, this morning, this week, this month, this yearи т.п.:

I’ve had a lot of work to do this week. У меня было много работы на этой неделе.

 

· с глаголами to be,to live,to know,to see,to hearдля выражения действия, которое началось в прошлом и продолжается до настоящего времени. При этом, предлог for обозначает период времени, а предлог since– начальный момент данного действия. Также может быть употреблено придаточное предложение времени, вводимое союзом since(с тех пор, как) – начальный момент времени.

 

I have known her for ten years. Я знаю ее 10 лет.

The children have been here since 5 o’clock. Дети здесь с пяти часов.
They haven’t heard anything about Robert since they left school. Они ничего не слышали о Роберте с тех пор, как окончили школу.

Exercises

I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в Present Perfect.

1. I already (see) this catalogue.

2. We just (sell) the goods.

3. We never (do) business with this firm.

4. Mike (visited ) the exhibition recently.

5. ever (be) to Italy?

6. I ( not/ finish) my work yet.

7. She (make) a contract this week.

8. They ( know) the customers for ten years.

9. They (study) the market lately.

10. They (not/arrive) yet.

11. You (start) a new job yet?

 

II. Задайте специальные вопросы в Present Perfect к подчеркнутым словам.

1. I have left the keys on the desk.

2. The price for the goods has increased.

3. The secretary hasn’t posted the letter yet.

4. They have returned from a business trip recently.

5. The partners have just signed the contract.

6. He has been to California three times.

7. I have worked at this company for 10 years.

8. They have studied the prices.

9. The manager has singed the contract.

10. We have received an offer this week.

 

III. Выберите правильное наречие или предлог.

1. Diana hasn’t called me back yet/already.

2. Has Andy called the customer just/yet?

3. Pete has already/ever signed the contract.

4. We have yet/just finished the talks.

5. Have they returned from their trip already/yet?

6. We haven‘t received an offer for/since two years.

7. They have just/ yet left the office.

8. I have ever/never been abroad.

9. She hasn’t been on business since/ for December.

10. We haven’t met the customer yet/ever.

 

IV. Раскройте скобки, используя глагол в Past Simple или Present Perfect.

1. The manger (know) this customer since 2006.

2. Mr. Black (introduce) new representatives of the company to us yesterday.

3. The secretary (already/go) home.

4. We just (start) selling these computers.

5. Mr.Sidorov (arrive) in London the other day.

6. I (buy) my computer 3 years ago. I (have) it for 3 years.

7. The company (do) business with many foreign firms lately.

8. I (read) the massage a few minutes ago.

9. We never (see) these machines in operation.

10. They (discuss) the matter in detail at the talks.

11. The secretary( be) ill since last week, she (fall) ill last Tuesday.

12. How long (be) in London? –I (be) here for 4 days.

13. Kate loves traveling, she (visit) many countries

14. You (see) our partner last week?

15. We (modify) the model recently.

16. They (go) out for lunch and they just (come) back

17. Diana (not be) at work yesterday.

 

V. Выберите правильную форму глагола.

1. Mark is/has been on holiday since Monday.

2. Jane is our customer. I know /have known her very well.

3. Jane is our customer. I know/have known her for a long time.

4. Mike works/has in a hotel now. He likes his job.

5. How long do you live/have you lived in this town?- About 5 years.

6. Is it your new car? – No, I have /have had it for two years.

7. Bill is /has been in London at the moment. He is/has been there for the last two days.

8. I lost /have lost the brochure. I can’t find it anywhere.

9. Clare worked/has worked in the bank for 12 years. Then she gave it up.

10.I don’t know this company. We never did/have done business with them.

11. Is the manager in? No, he went/has gone out.

12. Do you know about Sue? She gave up/has given up her job.

13. They are still having talks. They didn’t finish/haven’t finished to discuss the prices yet.

14. The customer gave/has given me his business card but I’m afraid I lost/have lost it.

15. I didn’t have/haven’t had a holiday for five years.

16. The office is dirty. We didn’t clean/haven’t cleaned it for ages.

17. They set up/have set up the company in 1999.

Section B

Text

AT THE EXHIBITION

In the commercial world today trade fairs and exhibitions are very important for business contacts. They offer exporters an opportunity to show what they have for sale, to make contacts and to learn about a market quickly and easily.

Russia is a regular participant of almost all international fairs and exhibitions. At the same time Russia arranges international and foreign exhibitions.

 

CHARMA Good morning, Mr Somov.
SOMOV Good morning, Mr Charma. I’m glad to see you. Have you been to our pavilion?
CHARMA Yes, we’ve just seen your display. It’s wonderful. Your latest models of agricultural equipment are particularly good.
SOMOV Have you seen them in operation?
CHARMA Yes, we have. Does the equipment go for export?
SOMOV Yes, we’ve sold it to many countries.
CHARMA Your agricultural equipment meets our requirements. Our government is paying much attention to the development of the agricultural sector of our economy so the demand for the equipment will be high.
SOMOV Fine. If you are really interested in our equipment we can set up a joint venture for the production of agricultural equipment in your country. It’ll be mutually beneficial.
CHARMA An excellent idea!
SOMOV Then let’s continue our talks in the Director’s office and discuss the matter in detail there.

Vocabulary

attention n – внимание

pay attention – уделять внимание

beneficial a – выгодный

commercial a – коммерческий

contact n – контакт

make contacts – установить контакты, связаться с к.-л.

detail n – деталь

in detail – в деталях

development n – развитие

display n – показ, экспозиция

easily adv – легко, просто

excellent a – отличный

exhibition n – выставка

fair n – ярмарка

government n – правительство

interested a – заинтересованный

be interested in – интересоваться ч.-л.

international a – международный

joint venture n – совместное предприятие

latest n – последний

mutually adv– взаимно

offer v – предлагать

opportunity n – возможность, шанс

participant n – участник

particularly adv – особенно

production n – производство

quickly adv – быстро

regular a – регулярный, постоянный

requirement n – требование

meet requirements – отвечать требованиям

sale n – продажа

be for sale – продаваться

for sale – на продажу

sector n – сектор

set up v – основать, учредить

 

Exercises

 

I. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

1. Why are fairs and exhibitions important for business?

2. What equipment does the Russian company show at the exhibition?

3. Has Mr. Charma seen Russian display yet?

4. Which model does Mr. Charma like most?

5. Does the Russian company export their equipment?

6. Is the equipment of high quality?

7. Why does Mr. Charma need this equipment?

8. What offer does Mr. Somov make to Mr. Charma?

9. Where are they going to have talks?

 



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