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Exercise 100. Open the brackets using the Perfect Continuous Tenses:

1. I (to wait) for you for more than an hour. 2. He (to do) it for an hour before I came. 3. They (to talk) for 20 minutes when his mother entered the room. 4. We (to listen) to the record for an hour when you came. 5. By summer you (to study) English for three years. 6. It (to snow) for 3 hours. 7. I (to study) English for 2 years. 8. They (to discuss) this problem since I returned. 9. We (to live) in Kiev for 5 years before my brother arrived. 10. She (to wear) this suit for 2 years. 11. We (to listen) to the record for 20 minutes before you return.


Exercise 101. Translate into English:

1. Я не бачив вас цілу вічність. Що ви робили останнім часом?
2. Ми обговорювали наші плани на літо протягом години, коли він прийшов. 3. Він живе в Києві з тих пір, як його батьки переїхали туди в 1990 році. 4. Я намагаюся пояснити тобі наш план протягом години, а ти не слухаєш мене. 5. Коли я побачив його, його одяг був брудним, тому що він з ранку працював у саду. 6. Я вже півгодини буду тренуватися, коли ви прийдете.7. Телефон дзвонив уже кілька хвилин, коли він узяв трубку. 8. У неї червоні очі. Вона плакала. 9. Вже другу годину йде дощ. 10. 1 вересня буде 2 роки, як я ходжу (відвідую) інститут.



Відмінювання дієсловаto write(писати) вFuture-in-the Past Indefinite Tense
(He knew that) (He thought that)
I should write he would write she would write it would write   we should write you would write they would write I should not write he would not write she would not write it would not write we should not write you would not write they would not write

Exercise 102. Rewrite the sentences using Future-in-the Past:

1. I am afraid I will be late. 2. Do you think we will pick all the apples in three days? 3. He hopes you will often visit him. 4. They expect he will be at home in a few days. 5. Are you afraid we will not be in time? 6. She promises that she will finish the work in a week.
7. I think Henry will help us.


Відмінювання дієсловаto write(писати) вFuture-in-the Past Continuous Tense
(He said that) (He supposed that)
I should be writing he would be writing she would be writing it would be writing   we should be writing you would be writing they would be writing I should not be writing he would not be writing she would not be writing it would not be writing we should not be writing you would not be writing they would not be writing
Вімінювання дієсловаto write(писати) вFuture-in-the Past Perfect Tense
(He was sure that) (He guessed that)
I should have written he would have written she would have written it would have written   we should have written you would have written they would have written I should not have written he would not have written she would not have written it would not have written we should not have written you would not have written they would not have written

Exercise 103. Paraphrase the following sentences as in the model, using the words in brackets (I supposed; He believed; She was sure; We were told; I heard; She said; The letter said; He understood).

Model: My brother will be sleeping. I supposed that my brother would be sleeping.

1. They will win the game. 2. I will go to the south. 3. My sister will not forget to ring me up. 4. I will have done all my work by 9 o’clock. 5. The tourist will not return by sunset. 6. My friends will not return by sunset. 6. My friends will be waiting for me. 7. My friend will have returned by that time. 8. They will be working the whole evening. 9. The new film will be on in many cinemas. 10. The train will arrive in time. 11. The teacher will have corrected our papers by the beginning of the lesson. 12. All the newspapers will publish this information.

Exercise 104. Translate into English:

1. Я знав, що він незабаром прийде. 2. Я думав, що вона буде спати в цей час. 3. Вона думала, що зробить усю роботу до п’яти годин. 4. Я боявся, що мій друг не прийде. 5. Вам сказали, що в грудні ми будемо писати контрольну роботу? 6. Вона боялася, що її син весь вечір буде сидіти перед телевізором. 7. Я був упевнений, що до десяти годин він уже вивчить вірш. 8. Вона знала, що до дев’яти годин уже приготує вечерю й о дев’ятій годині вся родина буде сидіти за столом. 10. Він боявся, що прийде занадто пізно.

Exercise 105. Open the brackets using the necessary Tense-form:

1. Where is your luggage? – I (to leave it at the station. I (to take) it tomorrow)when Nick (to come) to help me. 2. I (to read) about an hour when he (to come). 3. The play (not yet to begin) and the people (to talk) in the hall. 4. Yesterday I (to buy) a new pair of gloves, as I (to lose) the old ones. 5. We (to walk) in silence. He already (to tell) me all that (to be) interesting about himself, and I (to have) nothing to tell him. 6. The moon (not to rise) yet, and only two stars, like two distant lighthouses, (to shine) in the dark blue sky. 7. One night a little swallow (to fly) over the city. His friends (to fly) away to Egypt six weeks before, but he (to stay) behind. 8. What you (to do) these three months? 9. Our train starts late in the evening, so if you (to come) at seven o’clock, we still (to pack) our luggage. 10. When you (to see) him last? 11. I (to meet) him when he (to walk) across the park. 12. You ever (to act) on the stage? – Why, yes, that’s what I (to do) for the last six years. 13. Don’t enter the bedroom! The child (to sleep) there, and he always (to wake) up when somebody (to open) the door.


  Всі часи дійсного стану
  Present Past Future Future in-the Past
Indefinite He writes letters every day He wrote a letter yesterday He will write a letter tomorrow (He said that) he would write a letter the next day
Continuous He is writing a letter now He was writing a letter at 5 o’clock yesterday He will be writing a letter at 5 o’clock tomorrow (He said that) he would be writing a letter at 5 o’clock the next day
Perfect He has already written a letter He had written a letter by 5 o’clock yesterday He will have written a letter by 5 o’clock tomorrow (He said that) he would have written a letter by 5 o’clock the next day
Perfect Continuous He has been writing a letter since morning He had been writing a letter for two hours when I came He will have been writing a letter for two hours when I come (He said that) he would have been writing a letter for two hours when I came


Exercise 106. Open the brackets using the necessary Tense-form:

1. What you (to do) when I (to come) in? 2. When I (to come) to his house, they (to tell) me that he (to leave) an hour before. 3. On checking up his answers he (to find) out that he (to make) several mistakes.
4. When I (to leave) home, the snow already (to stop), but a strong wind (to blow). 5. You (to read) this book? – Yes, I (to read) it. I (to think), it (to be) very interesting. 6.What the children (to do) now? – Oh, they (to play) the new table game which I (to buy) for them the day before yesterday. 7. They (to reach) the corner of the street by now and (to stand) at the bus stop. 8. After we (to walk) about two hours, we arrived at a picturesque glade covered with fresh grass. 9. We could not go out because it (to rain) hard since early morning. 10. She (to teach) at our school for twenty years now. 11. Ring me up as soon as you (to come) home. 12.He (to begin) to write his composition at three o’clock. It is already eleven, and he still (to write) it. He says he (to finish) it by twelve. 13. We (to help) our librarian to put the books in the right order for already three days, but we (to arrange) only half of the books.

Exercise 107. Open the brackets using the necessary Tense-form:

1. The day (to be) cold and it (to rain). When I (to reach) home, my raincoat (to be) all wet. I (to take) it off, (to shake) the water off it, (to hang) it up and (to go) into the living-room. My children (to play) on the carpet. When they (to see) me, they (to jump) up and (to run) up to me. 2. I (to hear) this song several times already, but I cannot remember the words. I (to write) them down as soon as I (to hear) this song again. 3. Hardly he (to open) the suit-case, when he (to find) the tie which he (to think) he (to lose) long before. 4. Shut the door! The room (to be) full of smells which (to come) from the kitchen. Mother (not to like) kitchen smells in the room. 5.Last night he (to finish) the book which he (to begin) writing a year ago. 6. He said he (to listen) to the same stories for a long time. 7. By the evening he (to translate) ten pages. 8. You ever (to be) to the new stadium? – Yes, I (to be) there last Saturday.
9. The old lady was happy: she (not to see) her son for three years.
10. What you (to do) yesterday? 11. How many pages you (to translate) for today?

Exercise 108. Open the brackets using the necessary Tense-form:

1. When we (to come) to the station, the train already (to arrive).
The passengers (to hurry) to occupy their seats in the carriages. 2. The concert (to be) a greater success than we (to expect). We were very glad. 3. He (to tell) me that if no one (to come) to meet me at the station, I (can) leave the suit-cases in the cloak-room of the hotel where he (to reserve) a room for me. 4. He (to be) here five minutes ago, but you (to be) out. He (to ask) me to tell you that he (to come) again tonight. 5. Lanny (to return) home after seven years of absence. During these seven years he (to study) in Cape Town where his people
(to send) him. Lanny was glad at the thought that he (to do) what they (to hope) he (to do) and that soon he (to be) among his people again.
6. You (to read) “The Murder of Roger Ackroyd” by Agatha Christie? – No, I (not yet to read) it. But I (to hear) that it (to be) a very interesting book. I (to read) it as soon as I (to get) it.

Exercise 109. Open the brackets using the necessary Tense-form:

1. Скільки днів ви вже читаєте цю книгу? 2. Тільки коли вона була в поїзді, вона згадала, що залишила книгу вдома. 3. Вони живуть у цьому будинку вже п’ять років. 4. Моя сестра була хвора вже кілька днів, коли я довідалася про це. 5. Ти знав, що він не написав твір? 6. Ми не одержуємо від неї листів уже кілька місяців. 7. Скільки років ви вже працюєте на цьому заводі? 8. Він уже пішов, коли Олена включила радіо. 9. Я працюю над цією проблемою вже три місяці. 10. На щастя, дощ уже перестав, коли ми вийшли. 11. Скільки років ви працюєте в цій школі?
12. Об одинадцятій годині ми ще працювали. 13. Об одинадцятій годині ми вже працювали третю годину. 14. Я вже три рази говорив тобі, що треба переписати вправу. 15. Я вже цілу годину читав після обіду, коли прийшов папа. 16. Я не прийду. Я буду писати твір весь вечір. 17. Де ти був з минулої п’ятниці? 18. Я вже два тижні живу у друзів. 19. Я вже два тижні жив у друзів, коли одержав листа. 20. Ви повинні відпочити. Ви занадто багато працювали сьогодні. 21. Він був щасливий: він написав відмінний твір. 22. Я шукаю тебе весь вечір. 23. Я раптом згадав, що нічого не їв з ранку.



Відмінювання дієсловаto take(брати, відводити) в усіх часахгрупиIndefiniteвPassive Voice
Present Indefinite Passive
I am taken He is taken She is taken It is taken   We are taken You are taken They are taken I am not taken He is not taken She is not taken It is not taken   We are not taken You are not taken They are not taken Am I taken? Is he taken? Is she taken? Is it taken?   Are we taken? Are you taken? Are they taken?
Past Indefinite Passive
I was taken He was taken She was taken It was taken   We were taken You were taken They were taken I was not taken He was not taken She was not taken It was not taken   We were not taken You were not taken They were not taken Was I taken? Was he taken? Was she taken? Was it taken?   Were we taken? Were you taken? Were they taken?


Future Indefinite Passive
I shall be taken He will be taken She will be taken It will be taken   We shall be taken You will be taken They will be taken I shall not be taken He will not be taken She will not be taken It will not be taken   We shall not be taken You will not be taken They will not be taken Shall I be taken? Will he be taken? Will she be taken? Will it be taken?   Shall we be taken? Will you be taken? Will they be taken?
I take (я відвожу) – I am taken (мене відводять) I took (я відвів) – I was taken (мене відвели) I shall take (я відведу) – I shall be taken (мене відведуть)

Exercise 110. Open the brackets using the necessary Tense-form:

1. You may (leave, be left) your hat and coat in the cloak-room downstairs. 2. The porter will (bring, be brought) your luggage to your room. 3. Your luggage will (bring, be brought) up in the lift. 4. From the station they will (take, be taken) straight to the hotel. 5. Tomorrow he will (take, be taken) them to the museum. 6. At the station they will (meet, be met) by a man from the travel bureau. 7. She will (meet, be met) them in the hall upstairs.


Exercise 111. Turn the following into the Passive Voice:

1. You must do three of these exercises tomorrow. 2. You can find the book you need in any library. 3. We must send these letters at once. 4. The workers can finish the building of the house very soon. 5. You must return the books the day after tomorrow. 6. I can easily forgive this mistake. 7. The doctor says they must take her to hospital. 8. You can cross the river on a raft.


Exercise 112. Open the brackets using the verbs in Passive Voice:

1. At the last competition the first prize (to win) by our team. 2. The question (to settle) as soon as they arrived. 3. Your report must (to divide) into 2 chapters. 4. Soon he (to send) to a sanatorium. 5. The young man (to introduce) to me only a couple of hours ago, but it seems to me that I’ve known him for years. 6. I hope the invitation (to accept) by everybody. 7. Yesterday he (to tell) to prepare a speech. 8. It seems to me that music (to hear) from the next room.


Exercise 113. Turn the following into the Passive Voice:

1. The students greeted the famous lecturer. 2. They have recently built a huge plant in the town. 3. We must finish the work by tomorrow. 4. When I fell ill, my mother sent for the doctor. 5. They looked for the girl everywhere. 6. They didn’t listen to the boy. 7. They showed Helen the nearest way to the theatre. 8. They have already discussed the novel. 9. We were looking at the man with great surprise. 10. Has the secretary typed the letters? – No, she typing them now.


Exercise 114. Turn the following into the Passive Voice:

1. We turn on the light when it is dark. 2. She has made some coffee. 3. Have you ironed your dress? 4. The have told her the truth. 5. We shall finish this work in time. 6. They were selling new children’s books in that shop when I entered it yesterday. 7. They have built excellent shelters for tourists in these mountains. 8. The boy was angry because his mother did not allow him to go to the stadium. 9. Who discovered the circulation of blood? 10. Everybody laughed at this funny animal. 11. We have been looking for you the whole morning. 12. We will insist on strict discipline.


Exercise 115. Translate into English:

1. Собор Святого Павла побудував архітектор Рен. 2. Коли написали лист? 3. За доктором пошлють завтра. 4. Твори англійських і американських письменників видають в усьому світі. 5. Цей роман уже перекладений 5 мовами. 6. Обід варили, коли я прийшов додому. 7. Книги вже принесли з бібліотеки? 8.На той час, як він приїде, лист буде уже написано. 9. Цей кінотеатр був побудований до того, як ми приїхали сюди. 10. У майбутньому році його п’єса буде поставлена в цьому театрі. 11. Мене чекають?


Exercise 116. Translate into English:

1. За директором вже послали. Почекайте трохи. 2. На наших заняттях велика увага приділяється вимові. 3.На станції їх зустрів гід і відвіз у готель. 4. Усіх запросили у великий зал. 5. Мене запросять на ваш вечір? 6.Тебе шукають. Йди додому. 7. Стаття повинна бути переведена до п’яти годин. 8. Коли я прийшла додому, обід вже був зварений. 9.Стаття була переведена без помилок. 10. Я думала, що хліб і масло купить моя сестра. 11. Чому над ним завжди сміються? 12. Буде ваша стаття написана до початку місяця? 13. Послали за ліками? – Так, їх шукають.
14. Хіба цей твір був написаний до того, як ви робили доповідь?


Зсув часів в підрядному додатковому при головному реченні в минулому часі:
Present Indefinite – Past Indefinite Present Continuous – Past Continuous Дія підрядного речення відбувається одночасно з дією головного
Present Perfect – Past Indefinite – Past Perfect Дія підрядного речення передує дії головного
Future – Future-in-the Past Дія підрядного речення відбувається пізніше дії головного


Вживаючи прості речення в ролі підрядних додаткових при головному реченні в минулому часі, зсувайте часи, як зазначено в таблиці:
Sequence of Tenses
He lives in New York. I thought that he lived in New York. Одночасна дія
Mother is sleeping. I knew that mother was sleeping. Одночасна дія
He has returned from London. I was told that he had returned from London. Попередня дія
He bought a new car. I heard that he had bought a new car. Попередня дія
He will send us a letter. I supposed that he would send us a letter Наступна дія


Exercise 117. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. I knew that you were ill. 2. I knew that you had been ill. 3. We found that she left home at 8 o’clock every morning. 4. We found that she had left home at 8 o’clock that morning. 5. When he learnt that his son always received excellent marks in all the subjects at school, he was very pleased. 6. When he learnt that his son had received excellent mark at school, he was very pleased. 7. I didn’t know that you worked at the Institute. 8. I didn’t know that you had worked at the Institute.


Exercise 118. Rewrite the following sentences, using Past Tenses:

1. My uncle says he has just come back from the Caucasus. 2. He says he has spent a fortnight in the Caucasus. 3. He says it did him a lot of good. 4. He says he feels better now. 5. He says his wife and he spent most of their time on the beach. 6. He says they did a lot of sightseeing. 7. He says he has a good camera. 8. He says he will come to see us next Sunday. 9. He says he will bring and show us the photographs he took during his stay in the Caucasus.


Exercise 119. Rewrite the following sentences using Past Tenses:

1. Nick says he is going to the hotel to see his friends, who have just arrived in Kiev from the USA. 2. He says they have not been there for a long time. 3. He says they were friends at school. 4. He says he will take them to the theatre on Sunday. 5. They say they will write me a letter when they return home. 6. He says they have made good progress in English. 7. Oleg says that in a day or two several English students will come to pay a visit to their school and he will probably have to act as interpreter. 8. Ann says she has just met Boris in the street. 9. She says Boris told her a lot of interesting things about his travels in the south.


Exercise 120. Open the brackets using the necessary Tense-form:

1. He said he (to leave) tomorrow morning. 2. She said she already (to find) the book. 3. He stopped and listened: the clock (to strike) five. 4. She said she (can) not tell me the right time, her watch (to be) wrong. 5. I asked my neighbour if he ever (to travel) by air before. 6. The delegates were told that the guide just (to go) out and (to be) back in ten minutes. 7. I knew they (to wait) for me at the metro station and I decided to hurry. 8. I was afraid that the little girl (not to be) able to unlock the front door and (to go) upstairs to help her. 9. She asked me whether I (to remember) the legend about a faithful lion. 10. I supposed they (to send) a dog after the burglar immediately.


Exercise 121. Translate into English:

1.Усі були упевнені, що Борис добре здасть іспити. 2. Я знав, що ви живете в Москві, але не знав вашої адреси. 3. Він сказав, що кине курити. 4. Усі знали, що вона поїде в Рим. 5.Вибачте, ми не думали, що ви чекаєте нас. 6. Я боявся, що ви не скористаєтеся моєю порадою. 7. Я думав, що він почекає мене. 8. Він не знав, що я приїду до нього. 9. Він сказав нам, що коли він увійшов у кімнату, його друг уже сидів на дивані. 10. Я був упевнений, що якщо ми поквапимося, ми не спізнимося на потяг. 11. Він запитав мене, що я буду робити ввечері. Я відповів, що не знаю, чи буду я вільний увечері, але сказав, що якщо буду вільний, то подзвоню йому годин у вісім.


Exercise 122. Translate into English:

1. Я знала, що вона дуже зайнята. 2. Ніхто не знав, що ви чекаєте тут. Давайте зайдемо в будинок. 3. Гід попередив нас, що в цій частині міста рух досить сильний. 4. Олена сказала, що вона дарує нам цю картину. 5. Секретар не помітив, що директор з кимось розмовляє. 6. Вона сказала, що її колеги завжди дають їй прекрасні поради. 7. Торік вони думали, що ніколи не будуть добре читати англійською, але учора вони побачили, що читають тексти досить добре. 8. Ми вирішили на минулому тижні, що майбутнім літом ми всі поїдемо у Крим.



Непряма мова
При перекладі речень в непряму мову не забувайте заміняти обставини часу, як зазначено в таблиці:
Direct speech Indirect speech
today yesterday tomorrow … ago this … here last year last month last … next … that day the day before the next day … before that … there the year before the month before the … before the following …



Indirect commands
“Keep quiet! Don’t make noise!”
He told me He asked me to keep quiet and not to make noise.

Exercise 123. Change from direct into indirect speech:

1. He said to us: “Come here tomorrow.” 2. I said to Mike: “Send me a telegram as soon as you arrive.” 3. Peter said to them: “Don’t leave the room until I come back.” 4. “Take my luggage to Room 145”, he said to the porter. 5. “Bring me a cup of black coffee”, she said to the waiter. 6. Jane said to us: “Please tell me all you know about it.” 7. “Please help me with this work, Henry”, said Robert. 8. “Don’t worry over such a small thing”, she said to me. 9. “Promise to come and see me”, said Jane to Alice.


Indirect statements
“I am an engineer. I work at a plant. In the evening I study English.”
He said He told me that he was an engineer and worked at a plant. He added that he studied English in the evening.
“I saw my friend yesterday
He said He told me that he had seen his friend the day before.
“We lived in Rome two years ago. My father worked there.”
He said He told me that they had lived in Rome two years before and explained that his father had worked there.
He said He told me “I shall tell you about it tomorrow.” that he would tell me about it the next day.

Exercise 124. Change from direct into indirect speech:

1. She said: “I spent my holidays in the Crimea last year.” 2. Boris said: “I go to the south every year.” 3. He said: “I am going to a rest-home tomorrow.” 4. I said: “I was in London last year. My friends in London sometimes invite me to spend my holidays with them.”
5. He said: “I will not stay with my friends too long.” 6. The clerk said to them: “You can leave the key with the maid upstairs.” 7. She said:
“I am sure he will ring me up when she is back in St. Petersburg.”
8. I said: “I haven’t seen my cousin today.”


Exercise 125. Change from direct into indirect speech:

1. He said to me: “I want to see you today.” 2. She said: “I am free tonight.” 3. “When I get a job, I’ll buy you a warm coat”, said the girl’s father. 4. My brother said to me: “I am going to become a doctor.”
5. “I have no time for lunch today”, said the boy to his mother. 6. “You speak English very well”, said the woman to me. 7. The mother said: “The children are in the nursery, doctor.” 8.“When your turn comes, listen very carefully to what the doctor tells you”, I said to my grandmother. 9. “When you come to see me on Sunday, I will show you my new dress”, she said to me. 10. “If you spill the milk, there won’t be any for the cat”, said my mother to me.


Exercise 126. Restore the direct speech:

1. The woman said she had felt sick while crossing the Channel. 2. She said she was feeling bad that day. 3. Tom said he would go to see the doctor the next day. 4. He told me he was ill. 5. She told me she had fallen ill. 6. I told my sister that she might catch cold. 7. She told me she had caught cold. 8. He said he had just been examined by a good doctor. 9. The man said he had spent a month at a health resort. 10. He said that his health had greatly improved since then.


Indirect questions
Special questions He asked (me) He wanted to know He wondered
“What is Nick doing?” “When will your mother come home?” “What have you prepared for today?” “Where doyou live?” “When did you come home yesterday?” what Nick was doing. when my mother would come home. what I had prepared for that day. where I lived. when I had come home the day before.
General questions He asked (me) He wanted to know He wondered if whether
“Do you play chess?” “Did you skate last winter?” “Are you listening to me?” “Have you done your home-work?” “Will you see your friend tomorrow?” I played chess. I had skated the winter before. I was listening to him. I had done my homework.   I shoud see my friend the next day.

Exercise 127. Change from direct into indirect speech:

1. I said to Nick: “Where are you going?” 2. I said to him: “How long are you going to stay there?” 3. Pete said to his friends: “When are you leaving St. Petersburg?” 4. They said to him: “What time does the train start?” 5. Boris said to them: “How can I get to the railway station?”
6. She asked me: “What will you do tomorrow if you are not busy at your office?” 7. I asked Mike: “What will you do after dinner?” 8. Ada said to me: “Where did you see such trees?” 9. Mother said to me: “Who has brought this parcel?” 10. She said to Boris: “When will you be back home?”

Exercise 128. Change from direct into indirect speech:

1. I said to Boris: “Does your friend live in London?” 2. I said to the man: “Are you living in a hotel?” 3. Nick said to me: “Will you stay at the “Hilton”?” 4. Mike said to Jane: “Will you come to the railway station to see me off?” 5. She said to me: “Have you sent them a telegram?” 6. She said to me: “Did you send them a telegram yesterday?” 7. I said to Mike: “Have you packed your suitcase?” 8. She said to Kate: “Did anybody meet you at the station?” 9. I asked Tom: “Have you had breakfast?” 10. She said to the porter: “Can you call a taxi for me?”


Exercise 129. Restore the direct speech:

1. I asked if they had taken the sick man to hospital. 2. I asked my friend if he had a headache. 3. I wanted to know when he had fallen ill. 4. I wondered if he had taken his temperature. 5. I asked him if he was feeling better now. 6. I asked him if he was better now. 6. I asked him if he was going to a health-resort. 7. We asked the girl if her father was still in London. 8. I asked the girl what sort of work her father did.


Exercise 130. Change direct into indirect speech:

1. “I want to sit in the armchair”, said the boy. 2. The secretary said to me: “The delegation arrived yesterday.” 3. “Open the window, please”, she said to me. 4. “Don’t run to the door when you hear the bell”, said the woman to her little daughter. 5. He said: “I haven’t seen the film you are talking about.” 6. He said: “I seldom went to see my friend in May, because I am very busy.” 7. My friend said to me: “The discussion will still be going on when you return.” 8. Nina asked me: “What did the professor speak about in his lecture?” 9. She said: “He has just left.” 10. She asked her brother: “Will you manage to get tickets to the Philharmonic on Sunday?”


Exercise 131. Restore the direct speech:

1. John asked Mary if she was afraid of thunderstorm. 2. He asked her if she had ever walked in rainy weather. 3. Mary told John that she preferred sunny days. 4. The woman asked her son if he was in a hurry. 5. Ann asked if they would go to the country the next day. 6. Mary wondered if Jane would be busy the next day. 7. George said it was very difficult to play that role. 8. The man asked the boy if he knew where he lived. 9. The woman told him not to worry and go home quietly. 10. He told me that he had bought that watch the day before. 11. She said that her brother was playing chess with her grandfather. 12. She asked her friend if the rain had stopped. He answered that it was still raining.

Exercise 132. Translate into English:

1. Роберт сказав, що його дружина усе ще в лікарні, і він збирається відвідати її ввечері. 2. Наш гід сказав, що автобус тільки що прийшов і відправиться в Київ через годину. 3. Вона сказала, що дуже зайнята і ще не була в театрі після канікул. 4.Викладач сказав, що ми повинні повторити всі правила, якщо хочемо здати іспити добре. 5. Вона запитала, хто зі студентів зробив повідомлення про життя Діккенса. 6. Вона сказала, що цей студент робить повідомлення в третьому залі. 7. Він сказав мені, що не зміг подзвонити мені вчора. 8. Вона запитала мене де я живу. 9. Моя сестра сказала мені, що знайшла книгу, яку я шукаю. 10. Він сказав, що йому не подобається головний персонаж роману, але він не може пояснити чому.



Формы инфинитива
  Active Passive
Indefinite to write to be written
Continuous to be writing  
Perfect to have written to have been written
Perfect Continuous to have been writing  



Формы причастия
  Active Passive
Present writing being written
Perfect having written having been written
Past   written


Формы герундия
  Active Passive
Indefinite writing being written
Perfect having written having been written

Exercise 133. Combine the two sentences as in the models:

Models: I teach English here. I am glad of it. – I am glad to teach English here. We helped him. We are happy about it. – We are happy to have helped him.

I was examined yesterday. I am glad of it. – I am glad to have been examined yesterday.

A. 1.I work at the Institute. I am happy about it. 2. I see you. I am glad of it. 3. I live in this town. I am happy about it. 4. I know this man. I am happy about it.

B. 1. I am going to Paris. I am happy about it. 2. I am spending my holidays in the Crimea. I am happy about it. 3. I am playing chess with you. I am glad of it. 4. I am listening to the symphony. I am glad of it.

C. 1. I spent my holidays in the Caucasus. I am happy about it. 2. I passed my examination yesterday. I am glad of it. 3. I bathed in the river. I am glad of it.

D. 1. I am not working there now. I am sorry about it. 2. I have not seen this film. I am sorry about it. 3. She has not been working all these years. She is sorry about it. 4. I don’t understand this rule. I am sorry about it.

E. 1. She was not invited to the party. She is sorry about it. 2.We are taught English. We are glad of it. 3. I was waken early this morning. I am glad of it. 4. I am not allowed to go there. I am sorry about it.


Exercise 134. Transform the following sentences using infinitive complexes:

Model: He is so old that he cannot skate. He is too old to skate.

1. The problem is so difficult that is impossible to solve it. 2.The box is so heavy that nobody can carry it. 3. The baby is so little that it cannot walk. 4. She is so busy that she cannot talk with you. 5. The accident was so terrible that I don’t want to talk about it. 6. She has got so fat that she cannot wear this dress now. 7. He was so stupid that he did not see the joke. 8. They were so empty – headed that they could not learn a single thing.


Exercise 135. Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to Active and Passive Infinitive:

1. Nature has many secrets to be discovered yet. 2. To improve your English you should work hard. 3. To be instructed by such a good specialist was a great advantage. 4. To play chess was his greatest pleasure. 5. The child did not like to be washed. 6. Which is more pleasant: to give or to be given presents?


Exercise 136. Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to Perfect Infinitive:

1. I am awfully glad to have met you. 2. Sorry to have placed you in this disagreeable situation. 3. I am very happy to have had the pleasure of making your acquaintance. 4. Sorry not to have noticed you. 5. I am sorry to have added some more trouble by what I have told you. 6. The child was happy to have been brought home. 7. Jane remembered to have been told a lot about Mr. Rochester. 8. The children were delighted to have been brought to the circus.

Exercise 137. Open the brackets using the necessary form of the infinitive:

1. He seems (to read) a lot. 2. He seems (to read) now. 3. He seems (to read) since morning. 4. He seems (to read) all the books in the library. 5. I want (to take) to the concert by my father. 6. She hoped (to help) by her friends. 7. I am glad (to do) all the homework yesterday. 8.She seems (to work) at this problem ever since she came here. 8. She hoped (to help) her friends.

Exercise 138. Open the brackets using the necessary form of the infinitive:

1. I hate (to bother) you, but the students are still waiting (to give) books for their work. 2. He seized every opportunity (to appear) in public: he was so anxious (to talk) about. 3. He seems (to know) French very well: he is said (to spend) his youth in Paris. 4. The woman pretended (to read) and (not to hear) the bell. 5. They seemed (to quarrel): I could hear angry voices from behind the door. 6. Her ring was believed (to lose) until she happened (to find) it during the general cleaning. It turned out (to drop) between the sofa and the wall.

Exercise 139. Translate into English:

1. Я радий, що розповів вам цю історію. 2. Я радий, що мені розповіли цю історію. 3. Я радий, що зустрів її на станції.
4. Я радий, що мене зустріли на станції. 5. Я шкодую, що заподіяв вам стільки неспокою. 6. Він буде щасливий відвідати цю знамениту картинну галерею. 7. Він не виносить, коли йому брешуть. 8. Я згадав , що зустрічав це слово в якійсь книзі.

Exercise 140. Translate into English:

1. Вона щаслива, що чула концерт відомого італійського диригента. 2. Вона рада, що була присутня на лекції. 3. Він попросив, щоб його проводили в актовий зал. 4. Він був щасливий, що повернувся додому. 5. Родчестер був рад, що познайомився з Джейн. 6. Я тільки хочу, щоб мені дозволили допомогти вам. 7. Їм повезло, що вони побачили цей прекрасний парк у сонячний день. 8. Він був щасливий, що знову вдома. 9. Я шкодую, що не застала вас вдома. 10. Ми сподівалися, що він приїде у вихідні дні.



Формы причастия
  Active Passive
Present writing being written
Perfect having written having been written
Past   written
Зверніть увагу на способи перекладу англійською мовою українських дієприкметників та дієприслівників
Дієприкметник Активний стан недоконаний вид що кидає що кидав throwing не можна1
доконаний вид що кинув не можна1
Пасивний стан недоконаний вид киданий being throw
доконаний вид кинутий thrown
Дієприслівник Активний стан недоконаний вид кидаючи throwing
доконаний вид кинув having thrown
Пасивний стан недоконаний вид будучи киданим being thrown
доконаний вид будучи кинутим being thrown having been thrown

1Активний дієприкметник доконаного виду (а також недоконаного виду минулого часу) може бути перекладений англійською мовою тільки підрядним означальним реченням (who threw; who has thrown; who had thrown)

Exercise 141. Transform into Ukrainian, paying attention to Participles:

1. Everybody looked at the dancing girl. 2. The little plump woman standing at the window is my grandmother. 3. Entering the room she turned on the light. 4. Coming to the theatre, she saw that the performance had already begun. 5. Looking out of the window, he saw his mother watering the flowers. 6. She went into the room leaving the door open.

Exercise 142. Transform subordinate clauses into participle phrases:

1. All the people who live in this house are students. 2. The woman who is speaking now is our secretary. 3. The apparatus that stands on the table in the corner of the laboratory is quite new. 4. The young man who helps the professor in his experiments studies at an evening school for laboratory workers. 5. As he now felt more at ease, the man spoke in a louder voice. 6. Since he knew who the man was, Robert was very pleased to have the chance of talking to him. 7. When you speak English, pay attention to the order of words. 8 Be careful when you are crossing a street. 9. When they were travelling in Central Africa, the explorers met many wild animals.

Exercise 143. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. a) A fish taken out of the water cannot live.

b) A person taking a sun-bath must be very careful.

c) Taking a dictionary, he began to translate the text.

2. a) A line seen through this crystallooks doubles.

b) A teacher seeing a mistake in a student’s dictation always corrects it.

c) Seeing clouds of smoke over the house, the girl cried: “Fire! Fire!”

3. a) A word spoken in time may have very important results.

b) The students speaking good English must help their classmates.

c) The speaking doll interested the child very much.

d) While speaking to Nick some days ago I forgot to ask him about his sister.

4. a) A letter sent from St.Petersburg today will be in Moscow tomorrow.

b) The girl putting the book on the shelf is the new librarian.

c) While putting the eggs into the basket she broke one of them.


Exercise 144. Choose the necessary form of the participle:

1. a) The girl (writing, written) on the blackboard is our best student.

b) Everything (writing, written) here is quite right.

2. a) The house (surrounding, surrounded) by tall trees is very beatiful.

b) The wall (surrounding, surrounded) the house was very high.

3. Translate the words (writing, written) on the blackboard.

4. We could not see the sun (covering, covered) by dark clouds.

5. The (losing, lost) book was found at last.

6. Name some places (visiting, visited) by you last year.

7. It was not easy to find the (losing, lost) stamp.

8. Here is the letter (receiving, received) by me yesterday.

9. His hat (blowing, blown) off by the wind was lying in the middle of the street.

10. “How do you like the film?” he asked, (turning, turned) towards us.

Exercise 145. Open the brackets using Present Participle or Perfect Participle:

1. (to do) his homework, he was thinking hard. 2. (to do) his homework, he went for a walk. 3. (to sell) fruit, he looked back from time to time, hoping to see his friends. 4. (to sell) all the fruit, he went to see his friends. 5. (to drink) tea she scalded her lips. 6. (to run) in the yard, I fell and hurt my knee. 7. (to live) in the south of our country, he cannot enjoy the beauty of St. Petersburg’s White Nights in summer.
8. (to sit) near the fire, he felt very warm.


Exercise 146. Open the brackets using the necessary form of the participle:

1. (to translate) by a good specialist, the story preserved all the sparkling humour of the original. 2. (to approve) by the critics, the young author’s story was accepted by a thick magasine. 3. (to wait) for some time in the hall, he was invited into the drawing-room. 4. (to wait) in the hall, he thought over the problem he was planning to discuss with the old lady. 5. (to lie) down on the soft couch, the exhusted child fell asleep at once. 6. She went to work (to leave) the child with the nurse. 7. (to be) so far away from home, he still felt himself part of the family.


Exercise 147. Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to the Nominate Absolute Participial Construction:

1. The next morning, it being Sunday, they all went to church. 2. There being nothing else on the table, Oliver replied that he wasn’t hungry.
3. Mrs. Rain being tired, they returned more slowly home. 4. Their search revealing nothing, Clyde and she walked to a corner. 5. The wind being favourable, our yacht will reach the island in time. 6. It being now pretty late, we took our candles and went upstairs. 7. The wind stirring among trees and bushes, we could hear nothing. 8. The bridge having been swept away by the flood, the train was late. 9. There being little time left, they hired a cab to get to the theatre in time. 10. The weather having changed, we decided to stay where we were. 11. The moonlight road was empty, with the cool wind blowing in their faces. 12. Little Paul sat, with his chin resting on his hand.

Exercise 148. Translate into English using the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction:

1. Якщо погода дозволить, ми підемо на прогулянку. 2. Так як усе було готове, вона вирішила відпочити. 3. Коли сонце зайшло, відразу стало темно. 4. Якщо умови дозволять, я приїду до вас на літо. 5. Так як швидко сутеніло, вона поспішила додому. 6. Так як залишалося ще півгодини до відходу потяга, ми вирішили повечеряти на вокзалі. 7. Було дуже темно, тому що на небі не було ні однієї зірочки.


The Gerund


Форми герундія
  Active Passive
Indefinite writing being written
Perfect having written having been written


Запам'ятайте наступні дієслова та вирази, які потребують після себе герундія
to burst out to avoid to deny to enjoy to excuse cannot help to fancy to finish to forgive to give up to go on to keep (on) to stop to mind to postpone to put off


Запам'ятайте наступні дієслова та вирази, які потребують після себе герундія з визначеними прийменниками
to accuse of to agree to to approve of to complain of to depend on to feel like to insist on to object to persist in to prevent from to rely on to succeed in to suspect of to thank for to insist on to look like to look forward to to give up the idea of

Exercise 149. Translate into Ukrainian, paying attention to the Gerund:

1. Watching football matches can be exciting enough, but of course it is more exciting playing football. 2. She stopped coming to see us, and I wondered what had happened to her. 3. Can you remember having seen the man before? 4. She was terrified of having to speak to anybody, and even more, of being spoken to. 5. He was on the point of leaving the club, as the porter stopped him. 6. After being corrected by the teacher, the students’ papers were returned to them. 7. I wondered at my mother’s having allowed the journey. 8. I understand perfectly your wishing to start the work at once. 9. Everybody will discuss the event, there is no preventing it. 10. At last he broke the silence by inviting everybody to walk into the dining-room. 11. On being told the news she turned pale. 12. The place is worth visiting.

Exercise 150 Translate into Ukrainian, paying attention to the Gerund:

1. I avoided speaking to them about that matter. 2. She burst out crying. 3. They burst out laughing. 4. She denied having been at home that evening. 5. He enjoyed talking of the pleasures of travelling.
6. Excuse my leaving you at such a moment. 7. Fancy seeing her in tears! 8. Please forgive my interfering. 9. He gave up smoking a few years ago. 10. They went on talking. 11. He keeps insisting on my going to the south. 12. Oh, please, do stop laughing at him. 13. Do you mind my asking you a difficult question? 14. Would you mind coming again in a day or two? 15. I don’t mind wearing this dress. 16. She could not help smiling. 17. I cannot put off doing this translation.


MODELS 1. My father began to work at this plant 20 years ago. – My father began working at this plant 20 years ago. 2. You helped me. I thank you for it. – I thank you for helping me. 3. I think I’ll go to Minsk next week. – I think of going to Minsk next week. 4. After he finished school, he worked at a plant. – After finishing school he worked at a plant. 5. She insisted that she should go to the library. – She insisted on going to the library. She insisted that she should be sent to the library. – She insisted on being sent to the library. 6. I want very much to get a letter from you. – I am looking forward to getting a letter from you. 7. It gave me much pleasure to see this performance. – I enjoyed seeing this performance. 8. It is useless to learn rules without examples. – It is no use learning rules without examples. 9. I am sorry that I trouble you. – Excuse me for troubling you. 10. I am sorry that I did not tell you about it. – I am sorry for not telling you about it. 11. I am his pupil. I am proud of it. – I am proud of being his pupil. I was his pupil. I am proud of it. – I am proud of having been his pupil. 12. I am often invited there. I am proud of it. – I am proud of being often invited there. I was invited there. I am proud of it. – I am proud of having been invited there. 13. We sang together. We enjoyed it. – We enjoyed singing together. 14. They went home. They did not wait for me. – They went home without waiting for me. 15. I did not take a taxi. I went there by bus. – Instead of taking a taxi, I went there by bus. 16. Mother is busy. She is cooking dinner. – Mother is busy cooking dinner. 17. This radio set is good. I advise you to buy it. – This radio set is worth buying.

Exercise 151. Translate into Ukrainian using the Gerund:

I. 1. Пробачте, що я взяв вашу книжку. 2. Пробачте, що я запізнився. 3. Пробачте, що ми турбуємо вас знов. 4. Пробачте, що ми не прийшли вчасно. 5. Пробачте, що я перебиваю вас.
6. Пробачте, що ми говорили так голосно. 7. Пробачте, що я телефоную вам так пізно.

II. 1. Дякую вам за те, що ви показали мені дорогу до міста.
2. Дякую тобі, що ти допоміг мені дістати квитки. 3. Дякую, що ви провели ммене додому. 4. Дякую, що ти розбудив мене. 5. Дякую, що ви пояснили мені це правило.

III. 1. Я пам’ятаю, що бачив його в Києві. 2. Вона пам’ятає, що читала цю книжку. 3. Ми пам’ятаємо, що він працював разом з нами. 4. Він пам’ятає, що бачив цей фільм. 5. Я пам’ятаю, що вона вчилася в нашій школі.

IV. 1. Мене дивує, що вона робить так багато орфографічних помилок. 2. Мені дивно, що ти пропустив так багато уроків.
3. Мене дивує, що він сказав це. 4. Мені дивно, що ви так часто запізнюєтесь. 5. Мені дивно, що вони програли матч.

V. 1. Учитель заперечував проти того, щоб ми сьогодні пішли в кіно. 2. Вони не заперечують проти того, щоб я приєднався до них. 3. Ви не заперечуєте проти того, щоб я відчинила вікно? 4. Я заперечую проти того, щоб це питання обговорювалося сьогодні.

VI. 1. Він наполягав на тому, щоб усі прийшли завтра о 8 годині. 2. Вона наполягала на тому, щоб я пішов до лікаря. 3. Я наполягаю на тому, щоб вона негайно поїхала до Києва. 4. Я наполягаю на тому, щоб її негайно послали до Києва. 5. Ми наполягаємо на тому, щоб цей будинок було відремонтовано.

VII. 1. Це залежить від того, чи прийде він вчасно. 2. Все залежить від того, чи погода буде хороша. 3. Ваша поїздка залежить від того, чи дістанете ви квитки. 4. Успіх нашої роботи залежить від того, чи допомагаєте ви нам. 5. Це залежить від того, чи буде відчиненний магазин.

VIII. 1. Ми з нетерпінням чекали, коли він повернеться. 2. Учні з нетерпінням чекають, коли вони поїдуть на екскурсію. 3. Вона з нетерпінням чекає, коли її запросять на вечір. 4. Ми з нетерпінням чекаємо, коли буде видана ця книжка. 5. Я з нетерпінням чекаю, коли буду працювати на заводі.

IX. 1. Вона пішла з дому, не вимкнувши телевізора. 2. Я не зміг підготувати доповідь, не прочитавши цих статей. 3. Учні пішли додому не обговоривши це питання. 4. Ми не можемо піти до театру, не купивши квитків заздалегідь. 5. Він пішов, не попрощавшись.

X. 1. Замість того, щоб іти до нього, ви можете зателефонувати йому. 2. Замість того, щоб купити цю книжку, я взяв її в шкільній бібліотеці. 3. Замість того, щоб іти до лісу, ми залишилися вдома. 4. Замість того, щоб їхати туди трамваєм, він пішов пішки.
5. Замість того, щоб посилати туди телеграму, я напишу йому лист.

XI. 1. Я ви

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