Adverbials of time with the present perfect



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Adverbials of time with the present perfect



Form

Present continuous: present of be + active participle Present simple: base form/s-form
I am reading you/we/they are reading he/she it is reading Negative I am not reading you/we/ they are not reading he/she/it is not reading Questions am I reading? are you/we/they reading? is/he/she it reading?   I/you/we they read he/she/it reads     I/you/we they do not read he/she/it does not read     do I/you/we/they read? does he/she/it read?

In present simple questions and negatives we use do/does and the base form of the verb. NOT He does not reads and NOT Does he reads?

NOTE: a) There are some spelling rules for the participle.

Leaving out e: lose ® losing

Doubling of some consonants: stop ® stopping

b) There are some spelling rules for the s-form.

Adding es after a sibilant sound: push ® pushes.

Y changing to ie: hurry ® hurries.

c) For pronunciation of the s/es ending.

 

USE

1. An action continuing for a period.

We use the present continuous for a present action over a period of time, something that we are in the middle of now. The action has started but it hasn’t finished jet.

What are you reading? ~ ‘ Macbeth’. It’s raining now, look.

Hurry up. Your friends are waiting for you. I’m just ironing this shirt

Some typical time expressions with the present continuous are now, at the moment, are present, just, already and still.

We need not be doing the action at the moment of the speaking.

I’m reading an interesting book. I can’t remember what it’s called.

We’d better get home. We’re decorating the living-room at the moment.

2. A state

We normally use the present simple for a present state: a feeling, opinion or relation.

Mr Adams loves Shakespeare. I think it’s a good idea.

Who knows the answer? This book belongs to my sister.

Silicon is a chemical element. York lies on the River Ouse.

NOTE: We use the present simple for permanent states. With temporary states, states which go on only for a short time, we can sometimes use the present continuous.

The weather looks/is looking better today.

3. Repeated actions

We use the present simple for repeated actions such as routines and habits, things that happen again and again. We see the series of actions as permanent, without end.

Bob works in Avonmouth. He usually drives to work.

We do lots of things in our spare time.

I don’t often see Sarah.

The old man takes the dog for a walk every morning.

Typical time expressions with the present simple are always, often, usually, sometimes, ever/never; every day/week etc; once/twice a week etc; on Friday(s) etc; in the morning(s)/evening(s), at ten o’clock etc.

We also use the present simple for permanent facts, things that always happen.

Food gives you energy. Paint dries quicker in summer.

But we use the present continuous when a series os actions is temporary, only for a period of time.

My car’s off the road. I’m travellingto work by bus this week.

We’re doing ‘Macbeth’ in English.

Bob’s working in Avonmought at the moment. But they may be moving him to head office in Birmingham.

NOTE: a) We use the present simple to talk about a permanent routine, whether or

not the action is happening at the moment.

You’re walking today. ~ Yes, I quite often walk to work.

You’re walking today. You usually drive, don’t you?

b) We use the present continuous to say that we are regularly in the middle of something.

At seven we’re usually having supper. (= At seven we’re in the middle of supper.)

Compare the present simple for a complete action.

At seven we usually have supper. (= Seven is our usual time for supper.)

We can talk about two actions.

Whenever I see Graham, he’s wearing a tracksuit.

I like to listen to music when I’m driving.

c) We can also use the present simple to say what is the right way to do something.

You turn left at the church. You put your money in here.

4. The present continuous with always

There is a special use of always with the continuous.

They’re always giving parties, those people next door.

I’m always losing things. I can never find anything.

Mr Adams is always quoting bits of Shakespeare.

In this pattern always means ‘very often’ or ‘too often’.

Compare these sentences.

Our teacher always gives us a test. (= every lesson)

Our teacher is always giving us test. (= very often)

5. An instant action

The present simple is also used to describe actions as they happen, for example in a commentary.

Hacker passes the ball to Short. Short moves inside, but Burley wins it back for United.

The speaker sees these actions as instant, happening in a moment. For actions over a period, we use the continuous.

United are playing really well now. The crowd are cheering them on.

We can also use the present (instead of the past) to tell a story. It makes the action seem more direct, as if happening now.

I’m standing outside the bank, and a man comes up to me and grabs hold of my arm.

We also use the present for actions in films, plays and books.

Macbeth murders the King of Scotland, who is staying at his castle.

NOTE: a) We can also use the present simple with a performative verb, e.g. promise.

I promise I won’t forget. I suggest we go. Yes, I agree.

b) For the present simple after here/there.

c) The present simple is used in headlines for a recent action: Rail fares go up.

In normal style we use the present perfect: Rail fares have gone up.

6. Verbs of reporting

We can report the written word with a present simple verb. We see the written statement as existing in the present.

It says/said in the paper that there’s going to be a strike.

The notice warns passengers to take care.

The letter explains everything.

We can also do this with reports of spoken words that we have heard recently.

Shakespeare is England’s greatest writer, Mr Adams says/said.

7. The future

We can use the present continuous to talk about what someone has arranged to do and the present simple for actions and events which are part of a timetable.

Sadie is coming to stay with us next week.

The ferry gets into Rotterdam at six o’clock tomorrow morning.

We also use the present simple in some sub clauses of future time.

If you need any help tomorrow, let me know.

Appendix 3

Adverbials of time with the present perfect

And past simple

Some adverbials used with both forms are just, recently, already, once/twice etc, ever/never, today, this morning/week etc and phrases with for and since.

1. With just and recently there is little difference in meaning.

I’ve just heardthe news./I just heard the news.

We’ve recently movedhouse./We recently moved house.

Compare these examples with already.

I’ve already heardthe news.(before now)

I already knew before you told me. (before then)

2. Once, twice etc with the present perfect means the number of times the action has happened up to now.

We’ve beento Scotland once/lots of times.

This is the third time my car has broken down this month.

With the simple past once usually means ‘at a time in the past’.

We went to Scotland once.

Ever/never with the present perfect means ‘in all the time up to now’. With the simple past it refers to a finished period.

Have you ever visited our showroom?

Did you ever visit our old showroom?

3. We can use this morning, this afternoon and today with the present perfect when they include the present time.

When the time is over, we use the past.

It has been windy this morning. (The morning is not yet over.)

It was windy this morning. (It is afternoon or evening.)

With today there is little difference in meaning.

It has been windy today. (The day is not yet over.)

It was windy today. (The day is over.)

Both sentences are spoken late in the day. The second must be in the evening. The speaker sees the day as over.

We use the present perfect with this week/month/year when we mean the whole period up to now.

I’ve seena lot of television this week.

We use the simple past for one time during the period.

I saw an interesting programme this week.

We might say this on Friday about something two or three days earlier.

We often use the negative with phrases of unfinished time.

It hasn’t been very warm today.

I haven’t seen much television this week.

4. We often use for and since with the negative present perfect.

I haven’t skied for years./I haven’t skied since 1988.

We can also use since with a clause.

I haven’t skied since I was twelve.

Compare the past simple.

I last skied years ago/in 1988/when I was twelve.

We can also use a phrase with for with the past simple to say how long something went on.

I skied for hours.

Appendix 4

 

OVERVIEW: THE FUTURE

Will Be going to
  A prediction Scotland will win the game. An instant decision I think I’ll buya ticket. An offer I’ll helpyou. A prediction based on the present Scotland are going to win the game. An intention I’m going to buya ticket, I’ve decided.
Present simple Present continuous
  A timetable The game starts at 3.00 pm. In a sub clause We must get there before the game starts. An arrangement I’m playing in the team tomorrow.
Future continuous  
  An action over a future period I’ll be workingall day Saturday. The result of a routine or arrangement I’ve got a job in a shop. I’ll be workingon Saturday.  
Be to Be about to
  An official arrangement The conference is to take place in November. The near future The players are on the field. The game is about to start.
Future perfect  
  Something that will be over in the future The game will have finished by half past four.  
Would Was going to
  Looking forward from the past   At half time we thought Scotland would win. Looking forward from the past At half time we thought Scotland were going to win. Past intention or arrangement I was going to watch the match, but I was will.

 

Appendix 5

I. Answer the following questions choosing an appropriate phrase from the list. Why is the present indefinite used here? Explain the spelling and pronunciation of the ending in the 3rd person singular.

1. What does an architect do? 2. What does a shoemaker do? 3. What does a mason do? 4. What does an artist do? 5. What does a doctor do? 6. What does a hairdresser do? 7. What does a broker do? 8. What does a law student do? 9. What does a laundress do? 10. What does a sportsman do? 11. What does a farmer do?

(to go in for sports, to study law, to cut and dress the hair, to paint pictures, to mend boots and shoes, to make designs for buildings, to work in stone, to practise medicine, to buy and sell shares, to wash linen, to grow crops and raise cattle and poultry)

THE PASSIVE VOICE

Use the following verbs to introduce statements: “to say”, “to tell”, “to admit”, “to declare”, “to announce”, “to state”, “to explain”, “to deny”, “to claim”, “to promise”, “to whisper”, ”to boast”, “to shout”; to introduce commands and requests use “to order”, “to ask”, “to tell”, “to beg”, “to command”.

Example 1. I like cycling. – a) Peter says that he likes cycling. b) Peter said that he liked cycling.

Example 2. Write down my address. – a) Ann asks me to write down her address. Or: Ann is asking me to write down her address. b) Ann asked me to write down her address.

1. I have seen many good films during the festival. 2. We shell finish the work in few days. 3. I won’t let you go without breakfast. 4. You don’t realize that you have offended me. 5. I have been expecting you all this time. I am glad you have come at last. 6. We were just speaking about you. 7. I don’t speak German but I can read German books with a dictionary. 8. This months I have missed six lessons of phonetics. 9. We are now learning French as a second foreign language. 10. I shall to the room while you are cooking lunch. 11. Don’t interrupt me. Let me finish my story. 12. Post this letter for me, will you? 13. Don’t ask me any questions, I shall tell you everything a little later. 14. You are always grumbling over trifling matters. 15. It is her parents who made her this wonderful present. 16. I am writing my course paper at present. I have not yet finished.

TESTS

TEST 1

I. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.

A traveller who had been riding in the rain and was wet through, arrived at a small hotel in the country. There was only one fireplace in the hall and a lot of people around it. The traveller thought of a plan how to get warm. He asked the hotel owner to take some fish to his horse. The hotel owner was surprised but the traveller insisted and the hotel owner did as he was asked. All the people rushed out to see the horse eat fish. The traveller had the fireplace all to himself and felt comfortable. When the hotel owner returned he said, “I was sure horses do not eat fish.” –“Then why did you take it to my horse?”

Вопросы:

1. Why did the hotel owner try to feed the horse with fish?

2. Why did the traveller ask him to do it?

II. Поставьте вопрос к подчеркнутому члену предложения.

The traveller thought of a plan how to get warm.

III. Раскройте скобки, употребив правильную глагольную форму.

Once John Smith and his wife Mary who (1 – live) in a small house in the mountains, (2 – find) a dog. Though the dog (3 – be) weak and hungry, he (4 – not eat) anything in the presence of his new masters. Several days later the dog (5 –disappear). John and Mary (6 – leave) alone. But one day when Smith (7 – travel) in a train, he (8 – see) his dog running along the road. He (9 – get) off the train at the next station, (10 – buy) a piece of meat, (11 – catch) the dog and (12– bring) him home again. There the dog (13 – tie) up for a week.

The dog (14 – escape) several times and each time he (15 – run) north. At last the dog (16 – decide) to stay at the cottage but a long time (17 – pass) before Smith and his wife (18 – can) touch him. They (19 – call) him Wolf.

One summer a stranger (20 – come) to the cottage. As soon as the dog (21 – see) him, he (22 – rush) to the stranger and (23 – lick) his hands. Then the stranger (24 – say): “His name (25 – be) not Wolf. It (26 – be) Brown. He (27 – be) my dog.” Mary (28 – ask) to leave the dog with them. But the stranger (29 – refuse) and (30 – say) that the dog (31 – must) decide it himself. “I (32 – say) goodbye and (33 – go) away. If he (34 – want) to stay, let him stay.” For some time Wolf (35 – watch) the man go. Then he (36 – rush) after him and (37 – try) to stop him. Then the dog (38 – run) back to Smith and his wife (39 – try) to drag Smith after the stranger. He (40 – want) to be at the same time with the old and the new master. Finally the dog (41 – lie) down at the feet of Smith. Mary (42 – be) happy.

IV. Выберите правильный вариант.

1. I ... glasses since I was a child.

a) wear, b) wore, c) am wearing, d) have been wearing.

2. When the phone rang, I ... dinner.

a) cook, b) was cooking, c) had been cooking, d) have been cooking.

3. He usually had dinner at 4 p.m., ... ?

a) had he, b) hadn’t he, c) did he, d) didn’t he.

4. He works ... and makes good progress.

a) hard, b) hardly, c) good, d) badly.

5. He reminds me ... someone I knew in the army.

a) of, b) to, c) from, d) about.

6. Mary is here. Where are ... ?

a) other, b) others, c) the others, d) another.

7. What ... bad weather we are having today!

a) the, b) a, c) an, d) – .

8. Did you read ... English books at school?

a) some, b) many, c) much, d) none.

9. I want to know what ... .

a) are you doing, b) were you doing, c) will you do, d) you are doing.

10. I’ve made ... mistakes now than I made last time.

a) few, b) a few, c) fewer, d) less.

11. Can ... of you help me?

a) some, b) any, c) somebody, d) anybody.

12. This translation is twice as ....

a) easy, b) easier, c) the easiest, d) much easier.

13. We ... two compositions this month.

a) write, b) wrote, c) were writing, d) have written.

14. I had a feeling that somebody ... there before.

a) is, b) was, c) has been, d) had been.

15. She won’t see him ... he phones her.

a) except, b) after, c) unless, d) because.

16. ... only one theatre and two cinemas in this city ten years ago.

a) there is, b) there was, c) there are, d) there were.

17. My watch ....

a) stops, b) has stopped, c) have stopped, d) stop.

18. Do you know when he ... ?

a) comes, b) will come, c) shall come, d) come.

19. I don’t have any pets. Neither ....

a) she does, b) does she, c) is she, d) does she have.

20. His parents didn’t let him ... TV late.

a) to watch, b) watch, c) watching, d) watched.

V. Переведите на английский язык.

1. Москва была основана Юрием Долгоруким.

2. Небо темное, может пойти дождь.

3. Мы не знали, что он собирается нас навестить.

4. Кто знает прогноз погоды на завтра?

5. Нам не пришлось долго ждать их.

VI. Выберите правильный ответ.

1. What’s the name of the most famous clock in Britain?

a) Big Albert, b) Big Stephen, c) Big Wren, d) Big Ben.

2. What’s tartan?

a) a dish, b) a pattern of the kilt, c) a bird, d) a dance.

3. Where is Glasgow situated?

a) in Scotland, b) in Wales, c) in England, d) in Northern Ireland.

4. What’s the name of the London underground?

a) Metro, b) Tube, c) Subway, d) Underground.

5. What is the nickname of the Liberal Party?

a) the Tories, b) the Whips, c) the Ubs, d) the Whigs.

TEST 2

I. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.

A young writer has just managed to publish his first book. He is very proud of his success and is boasting of it to everybody around. For more than half an hour he has been talking about his success to one of his friends who is also a writer. At last he thinks that his friend is not very much interested and apologizes saying “I am sorry to have taken so much of your time, it is so selfish of me.” – “Never mind,” answered his friend absent-mindedly. “You haven’t taken my time at all. I’ve been thinking over the plot of my new novel.”

Вопросы:

1. Was the young writer modest?

2. Why wasn’t his friend annoyed?

II. Поставьте вопросы к подчеркнутому члену предложения.

The writer is proud of his success and is boasting of it to everybody around.

III. Раскройте скобки, употребив правильную глагольную форму.

In summer I (1 – go) to Brighton. When I (2 – arrive) there it (3 – be) late afternoon. After dinner I (4 – put) on my raincoat and (5 – go) out for a walk. It (6 – be) a nasty day, the sky (7 – cover) with clouds, and it (8 – rain) a little. As I (9 – move) slowly along the quiet empty street, I (10 – see) a stranger. He first (11 – pass) me by but then (12 – stop). ‘(13 – be) that you, Peter?’ he (14 – cry) out. It (15 – be) Jones. “I (16 – not see) you for ages,” he (17 – say). – “Why, what you (18 – do) here?” I (19 – ask). “Why you (20 – not go) home?” – “I cannot,” he (21– answer). “I (22 – forget) the name of the hotel where my wife and I (23 – stay).” – “If you (24 – ring) up the hotels, you (25 – find) out where you (26 – stay),” I smiled. He said that he (27 – have) no money. And he (28 – explain) that they (29 – get) to Brighton at 11 o’clock. They (30 – leave) their things at the station and (31 – go) to a hotel. He (32 – change) his clothes and (33 – decide) to go for a walk. The sun (34 – shine) brightly and there (35 – be) nothing in the forecast about rain. I suggested that we (36 – go) to my hotel. While Jones (37 – take) a shower I (38 – think) the situation over. Then we (39 – begin) telephoning all the hotels in Brighton. We (40 – do) it so well that next afternoon Jones (41 – find) both his hotel and his wife.

IV. Выберите правильный вариант.

1. I ... since breakfast and I’m very tired.

a) travel, b) am travelling, c) was travelling, d) have been travelling.

2. He came to the party ... he hadn’t been invited.

a) although, b) in case, c) even, d) in spite.

3. We have ... for a new secretary but we haven’t had any replies yet. a) announced, b) advertised, c) advised, d) noticed.

4. Ted is good at football but Rick is ... .

a) good, b) well, c) better, d) best.

5. ... “Romeo and Juliet?” – Not yet.

a) Did you see, b) Do you see, c) Have you seen, d) Had you seen.

6. He makes me ... .

a) laugh, b) to laugh, c) laughing, d) have laughed.

7. He had an accident yesterday and was taken to ... hospital.

a) the, b) – , c) a, d) an.

8. It’s crowded in here. There’s ... to sit down.

a) hardly, b) hardly any, c) hardly anything, d) hardly anywhere.

9. Next June my cousin ... from high school.

a) graduate, b) graduated, c) will graduate, d) has graduated.

10. The Earth ... round the Sun.

a) goes, b) was going, c) will go, d) has gone.

11. Are you interested ... working for him?

a) at, b) in, c) with, d) of.

12. He is reported ... 400 dollars.

a) to steal, b) to have stolen, c) to be, stealing, d) to have been stolen.

13. Put... sugar into your tea.

a) some, b) any, c) none, d) not any.

14. I ... my book on the desk a few minutes ago.

a) lay, b) have lain, c) laid, d) have laid.

15. There’s nothing left for him but escape, ... ?

a) is it, b) isn4, c) is there, d) isn’t there.

16. The news ... so shocking.

a) are, b) was, c) have been, d) were.

17. ... the dinner by the time Peter came?

a) Have you cooked, b) Did you cook, c) Do you cook, d) Had you cooked.

18. She ... when I came.

a) works, b) work, c) was working, d) has worked.

19. You ... work hard at your French if you want to pass the exam.

a) can, b) may, c) must, d) might

20. Do you like ... milk with your tea?

a) few, b) some, c) many, d) a few.

V. Переведите на английский язык.

1. Когда вы закончили школу?

2. Если она придет, я тебе позвоню.

3. Они должны вернуться в понедельник.

4. Он увлекается плаванием.

5. Когда мы пришли, фильм уже начался.

 

VI. Выберите правильный ответ.

1. What is the symbol of the Speaker’s authority?

a) the mace, b) the woolsack, c) the ribbon, d) the bell.

2. Who presides over the House of Lords?

a) Prime Minister, b) Lord Chancellor, c) Lord Protector, d) the Speaker.

3. What’s the name of the British flag?

a) Star-Spangled Banner, b) Stripes and Stars,

c) Union Jack, d)John Bull.

4. What London street is famous for shops?

a) Oxford Street, b) Fleet Street, c) Lombard Street, d) Charing Cross Road.

5. What was J. Constable?

a) a musician, b) a politician, c) a poet, d) a painter.

TEST 3

I. Прочитайте и ответьте на вопросы.

The famous composer Rakhmaninov was also a very good pianist. When he was a small boy he was asked to play at a home party at their friends’ place. Though he was only eight he was quite experienced in playing the piano and did it well. At that concert he was to play one of Beethoven’s sonatas. It must be mentioned that there are several very long intervals in that sonata. In each of these intervals the boy took his hands off the keyboard and waited. During one of these intervals the old mother of the hostess came up to him and said, “My boy, why don’t you play something that you know I very well?”

Вопросы:

1. Why did the boy stop playing several times?

2. Did the old lady know Beethoven’s music well?

II. Поставьте вопрос к подчеркнутому члену предложения.

Rakhmaninov was a famous pianist and composer.

III. Раскройте скобки, употребив правильную глагольную форму.

One evening Mr Green (1 – drive) his car along a country road. He (2 – be) to London where he (3 – take) 250 pounds from the bank. He (4 – put) the money in his pocket. At some part of the road a man in shabby clothes (5 – stop) him and (б – ask) for a lift. Mr Green (7 – tell) him (8 – get) into the car and (9 – continue) his way. He (10– talk) to the man and (11 – learn) that the man (12 – escape) from prison and thought of his 250 pounds.

Suddenly he (13 – see) a police car and (14– have) a bright idea. He (15 – begin) to drive the car fast. He (16 – look) back and (17 – see) the police car nearing his car. It soon (18 – overtake) him and he (19 – have to) stop. The policeman, (20 – take) out his notebook and (21 – want) Mr Green’s name and address. Mr Green (22 –want) to tell the policeman about the robber sitting behind but the man (23 – take) out a gun and (24 – put) it to Mr Green’s back. Mr Green was afraid of (25 – shoot) so he (26 – say) nothing. He only (27 – ask) (28 – take) to the police station but the policeman (29– say): ‘You (30– have to) appeal- at the police court later.’ He (31 – give) Mr Green a talk about dangerous driving and (32– go) away. Then Mr Green (33 – start) up his car again. He (34 – think) his 250 pounds (35 – lose). When they (36 – be) near a small town the robber said to Mr Green: “You (37 – be) good to me. This (38 – be) the least I (39– can) do in return.” And he (40 – hand) Mr Green the policeman’s notebook.

IV. Выберите правильный вариант.

1. I’ve just bought... copy of his latest book.

a) –, b) a, c) the, d) any.

2. ... in my class likes him.

a) All, b) All pupils, c) All the pupils, d) Everyone.

3. Jack left ... Paris last week.

a) in, b) for, c) from, d) to.

4. They ... yet.

a) didn’t arrive, b) haven’t arrived, c) hadn’t arrived, d) don’t arrive.

5. Turn right... the end of the street.

a) at, b) in, c) to, d) on.

6. Nelly is ... at History than Jane but worse at French.

a) as good, b) not so good, c) better, d) best.

7. A young man asked if we ... students.

a) are, b) were, c) have been, d) shall be.

8. I have asked some friends ... for tea.

a) to go, b) to stay, c) to bring, d) to drink.

9. Has he ...you of his decision?

a) talked, b) said, c) told, d) spoke.

10. She made her husband ... the tree,

a) to cut down, b) cut down, c) to have cut down, d) cutting down.

11. When I entered they ... to music.

a) have listened, b) were listened, c) were listening, d) listen.

12. She spoke to ... person at the party.

a) few, b) a few, c) every, d) many.

13. I ... glasses since I was a child.

a) wear, b) am wearing, c) have been wearing, d) was wearing.

14. They took a rest after they ... the yard.

a) had cleaned up, b) were cleaning up, c) would clean up, d) have cleaned up.

15. I knew I’d forgotten ... .

a) somewhere, b) anywhere, c) something, d) anything.

16. You usually have dinner at home, ... ?

a) do you, b) don’t you, c) have you, d) haven’t you.

17. The police haven’t got... information to catch the robber.

a) some, b) enough, c) another, d) these.

18. I haven’t heard … you.

a) anyone call, b) anyone to call, c) someone call, d) someone

19. The news you’ve brought... much better than last time.

a) is, b) are, c) have been, d) were.

20. I hope I’ve got... mistakes in my test today.

a) little, b) less, c) fewer, d) fewest.


V. Переведите на английский язык.

1. Ты знаешь, сколько ему лет?

2. Тебе следует больше заниматься английским.

3. Я думал, что ты знаешь это.

4. В каждом журнале есть что-то интересное.

5. Мы спросили их, купили ли они словарь.

VI. Выберите правильный ответ.

1. What is the Barbican?

a) a river, b) an art centre, c) a pop group, d) a cinema.

2. Where is Ben Nevis situated?

a) in Scotland, b) in Wales, c) in England, d) in Northern Ireland.

3. Who is the head of the state in Britain?

a) Mayor, b) Prime Minister, c) Queen, d) Speaker.

4. What is standing in the middle of Piccadilly?

a) the Statue of Eros, b) the Statue of Pan, c) the Statue of Cromwell, d) the Marble Arch.

5. What is soccer?

a) American football, b) hockey, c) squash, d) boat-racing.

 

TEST 4

I. Прочитайте текст в ответьте на вопросы.

A certain king was in the habit of writing verses. He thought highly of them. Since he was a king the people to whom he showed them tried to praise them too. Once he showed his verses to a wise man. The wise man didn’t like them. It made the king very angry and he put the man into prison. Some time passed and the king decided to set him free. The king invited him to dinner and showed him his new verses. Then he asked the wise man what he thought of them. The wise man turned to the king and said, “Send me back to prison.”

Вопросы:

1. Was the king wise?

2. Why did the wise man ask to send him back to prison?

II. Поставьте вопрос к подчеркнутому члену предложения.

The king thought highly of his verses.

III. Раскройте скобки, употребив правильную глагольную форму.

One bright afternoon Major Brown (1 – go) out for his usual after-dinner walk. The major (2 – be) a little man, very energetic and strong-looking. Some time before Major Brown (3 – retire) from the army and now (4 – live) on a small pension. He (5 – be) a brave and successful solider but he never (6 – like) being a military man. He (7 – take) a small house in London and (8 – devote) the rest of his life to growing his favourite flowers – pansies in his little garden.

As the major slowly (9 – walk) along a narrow street he suddenly (10– see) a most pleasant sight. A large, heavy man (11 – push) before him a barrow full of pansies. The major never (12 – see) such beautiful flowers. He (13 – come) up to the man and (14– begin) to talk to him. At first he only (15 – want) to buy some of the pansies but finally he (16 – decide) to buy them all.

“I (17 – tell) you something, sir,” (18 – say) the man and (19 – look) around. “If you (20– interest) in such things, you just get on to that wall,” and the man (21 – point) to the garden wall by which they (22 – stand). “The finest collection of yellow pansies in England (23 – be) in that garden,” whispered the man. How it (24 – happen) no one ever (25 – know) but the fact (26 – be) that a second later the major (27 – stand) on the garden wall. At |the next moment he (28 – forget) everything. In the very centre of the garden he (29 – see) a large bed of the most beautiful yellow pansies. But it (30– be) not the beauty of the pansies that (31 – surprise) him. It (32 – be) something else: the pansies (33 – arrange) in gigantic capital letters which (34– form) the sentence “Death to Major Brown.” An old man (35 – water) them. Brown (36 – look) back at the road behind him. The man with the barrow (37 – disappear). Then he (38 – look) again at the flowerbed, that had the terrible words. The evening air (39 – be) so still, the garden (40 – look) so quiet. Suddenly Major Brown (41 – see) the watering can (42 – fall) from the old man’s hand.

IV. Выберите правильный вариант.

1. Mother doesn’t have much free time. Neither ... .

a) do I, b) do I have, c) I do, d) I am.

2. It has been snowing all day. I wonder when ... .

a) will it stop, b) does it stop, c) it stops, d) it will stop.

3. This is ... useful advice.

a) such, b) such a, c) so, d) so a.

4. I have two rooms. One is a bedroom, and ... is a sitting room.

a) other, b) the other, c) another, d) others.

5. He ... his hat to welcome us.

a) rose, b) has risen, c) raised, d) is rising.

6. I haven’t the slightest idea of what I ... to do in this situation.

a) could, b) ought, c) would, d) should.

7. They let their children ... different pets at home.

a) keeps, b) keeping, c) keep, d) to keep.

8. You have to support your children, ... ?

a) have you, b) haven’t you, c) do you, d) don’t you.

9. We all ... mistakes when we are young.

a) do, b) make, c) did, d) made.

10. Something is wrong with the watch. Can you repair ... ?

a) they, b) it, c) them, d) its.

11. She looks ...today.

a) happily, b) happy, c) nicely, d) beautifully.

12. I’ll give the book back as soon as he ... it.

a) will want, b) want, c) wants, d) doesn’t want.

13. When the phone rang I ... a bath.

a) had, b) was having, c) had been having, d) have been had.

14. Не ... whenever he goes to the theatre.

a) is boring, b) has bored, c) bores, d) is bored.

15. If it... rain, we’ll have the party outside.

a) won’t, b) wouldn’t, c) doesn’t, d) didn’t.

16. When I arrived at the party, Tom ... home.

a) had already gone, b) has already gone, c) already went, d) have already gone.

17. Is that the man ... yesterday?

a) you’re met, b) met you, c) you met, d) has met you.

18. We couldn’t find the cat....

a) any, b) nowhere, c) anywhere, d) everywhere.

19. He won’t let anyone ... his records.

a) to touch, b) to have touched, c) touch, d) touching.

. 20. ... already dark outside.

a) There was, b) It was, c) There had been, d) It had been.

V. Переведите на английский язык.

1. Что ты делаешь сегодня вечером?

2. Я опоздала на десять минут.

3. Кто из вас самый старший в семье?

4. Можно мне еще чаю?

5. Мы спросили, сколько времени нам потребуется, чтобы добраться поездом до Ярославля.

VI. Выберите правильный ответ.

1. What is Humpty Dumpty?

a) a toy, b) an egg, c) an animal, d) a bird.

2. Where is the official residence of the Queen?

a) Chatham House, b) Regent Palace, c) Westminster Palace,

d) Buckingham Palace.

3. What is Benjamin Britten?

a) an architect, b) a composer, c) a writer, d) a politician.

4. What is the emblem of Wales?

a) Rose, b) Leek, c) Thistle, d) Shamrock.

5. What’s the name of the Queen’s eldest son?

a) Charles, b) Philip, c) Andrew, d) Edward.

TEST 5

I. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.

A driver who was going in his car at a great speed through the country road saw a man crossing the road and a dog following him. As the car drew near them the dog suddenly stopped, was hit by the car and killed. The driver stopped his car and came up to the man. “I am very sorry for what has happened,” he said. “Will 50 dollars be enough for the killed dog?” – “Oh, yes,” said the man, “50 dollars will be quite enough. ‘The man put the money in his pocket and when the driver disappeared in the distance, looked at the dog and thought, ‘I wonder whose dog it was.”

Вопросы:

1. Did the man feel very unhappy that the dog had been killed?

2. Why was he happy to get 50 dollars?

II. Поставьте вопрос к подчеркнутому члену предложения.

A driver was going in his car at a great speed through the country road.

III. Раскройте скобки, употребив правильную глагольную форму.

а)

There (1 – be) a very interesting story in the morning paper about a man who just (2 – inherit) 50,000 dollars. The newspaper article (3 – be) quite detailed. It (4 – say) that the man always (5 – behave) very strangely.

What others (6 – like) he (7 – dislike) and what most people (8 – enjoy) he (9– hate). He (10 – not bear) the sun, but he (11 – take) long walks in the rain without a raincoat or umbrella. He always (12 – see) the black side of everything. He (13 – find) fault with the best picture of the year but he (14– stay) up late watching very old films on TV.

Last week his uncle (15 – die) and (16 – leave) him 50,000 dollars. Perhaps the uncle (17 – be) rather strange too. Or perhaps he (18 – know) about his nephew’s strange preferences – one of them, anyway – and (19 – decide) to try and cure him.

In his will the old man (20 – insist) that the nephew (21 – spend) half the inheritance within the next two years. In case he (22 – fail) to do that the money (23 – give) to a university. Everyone (24 – want) to know what the nephew (25 – do). You see, the thing he (26 – hate) most of all (27 – be) to part with his money.

b)

There (1 – be) always a big problem with Rex. Mr Smith never (2 – know) where he (3 – go). He (4 – try) to keep him in the garden but it (5 – be) no good. Rex always (6 – bring) something home with him.

One day Mr Smith (7 – come) home tired and (8 – be) soon fast asleep. He (9 – wake up) by a loud knock at the door. Rex (10 – look) at him with one eye. Mr Smith (11 – get up) and (12 – surprise) to see a policeman in the doorway. The policeman (13 – apologize) and told him that there (14 – be) a thief in the district stealing from the local shops small things like sweets, chocolates... Mr Smith said that if he (15 – notice) anything he (16 – let) the policeman know. But he knew who it (17 – be).

IV. Выберите правильный вариант.

1. The gunman ... the pilot of the plane to change direction.

a) demanded, b) made, c) controlled, d) forced.

2. Be sure to read ... Chapter 3.

a) a, b) – , c) an, d) the.

3. The doctor said he ... be all right soon.

a) shall, b) should, c) will, d) would.

4. This bag ... for all occasions.

a) is used, b) used, c) is using, d) has used.

5. Nobody heard him ... the house.

a) to leave, b) left, c) leave, d) have left.

6. If I ... money I’ll buy the book.

a) have, b) had, c) will have, d) would have.

7. He could open the book most ... .

a) easy, b) easily, c) easiest, d) easier.

8. ... there any news in your father’s letter?

a) Are, b) Were, c) Have, d) Is.

9. The hall was full... smoke.

a) with, b) of, c) off, d) for.

10. I’d like you ... the mirror a bit higher.

a) rise, b) raise, c) to raise, d) to rise.

11. The student had to read it twice, ... ?

a) had he, b) hadn’t he, c) did he, d) didn’t he.

12. ... something strange in her appearance.

a) There is, b) It is, c) This is, d) That is.

13. The hat is ... fashionable!

a) so, b) such, c) the, d) this.

14. I ... you for five years.

a) don’t see, b) didn’t see, c) haven’t seen, d) doesn’t see.

15. Don’t go out. It... hard.

a) rain, b) rains, c) had rained, d) is raining.

16. They don’t think so, ... .

a) so do you, b) so I do, c) neither I do, d) neither do I.

17. Have they bought it ... ?

a) yet, b) ever, c) just, d) never.

18. She sings extremely ....

a) good, b) bad, c) well, d) fine.

19. He is fond of... speeches in public.

a) make, b) makes, c) making, d) doing.

20. She ... the article and wants to show it to the teacher.

a) was translating, b) translated, c) has translated, d) translate.

V. Переведите на английский язык.

1. Вам придется завтра рано встать.

2. Эту книгу можно найти в любом магазине.

3. Если я не поступлю в институт, то буду искать работу.

4. Мало надежды на то, что мы достанем билеты.

5. Он сказал, что ждет уже час.

VI. Выберите правильный ответ.

1. What is the nickname of the Conservative Party?

a) the Tories, b) the Whigs, c) the Libs, d) the Whips.

2. What monument is there in the centre of Trafalgar Square?

a) Cromwell’s statue, b) Nelson’s Column, c) Queen’s statue,

d) Edward Elgar’s statue.

3. Which animal can look at the Queen?

a) a dog, b) a cat, c) a lion, d) a tiger.

4. What’s the name of Sir Churchill?

a) Winston, b) George, c) Christopher, d) Benjamin.

5. Who presides over the House of Commons?

a) Lord Mayor, b) Lord Chancellor, c) Prime Minister, d) Speaker.

TEST 6

I. Прочитайте и ответьте на вопросы.

A rich old businessman decided to make his will. He told his lawyer he would give 5 thousand pounds to each of his employees who had been working with him for 20 years or more. The lawyer was surprised at such generosity of the businessman. But the businessman said that he wasn’t going to be generous at all because none of his employees had worked for him longer than a year. He only wanted to produce a favourable impression on the public for he was sure it would look nice in the newspapers.

Вопросы:

1. The old businessman wasn’t generous, was he?

2. Why did the businessman make such a will?

II. Поставьте вопрос к подчеркнутому члену предложения.

Не promised to give five thousand pounds to each of his employees.

 

III. Раскройте скобки, употребив правильную глагольную форму.

а)

If you (1 – like) stories I (2 – tell) you a true story. It (3 – happen) to a friend of mine a year ago. While my friend George (4 – to read) in bed two thieves (5 – climb) into his kitchen. After they (6 – enter) the house, they (7 – go) into the dining room. It (8 – be) very dark, so they (9 – turn) on a torch (фонарь). Suddenly they (10– hear) a voice behind them. “What (11 – be) up?” someone (12 – call). The thieves (13 – drop) the torch and (14– run) away as fast as they (15 – can). George (16 – hear) the noise and (17– come) downstairs quickly. He (18– turn) on the light but couldn’t see anything. The thieves already (19 – go). But George’s parrot Henry (20 – be) still there. ‘What (21 – be) up?’ he (22 – call). “Nothing,” George (23 – say) and (24 – smile). “If something (25 – happen) I (26 – let) you (27 – know).” And George (28 – leave) the room.

b)

The relations between dolphins and human beings long (1 – surprise) people. These relations (2 – last) for thousands of years. Pictures of dolphins (3 – use) to decorate the coins of ancient Greeks. Sailors (4 – consider) the presence of dolphins near ships to be good luck. Now dolphins (5 – train) and they (6– take) part in performances that both children and grown-ups (7 – like). When you (8 – spend) your holiday on the Black Sea coast you (9 – can) see dolphins (10 – play) near the shore. They usually (11 – come) early in the morning and before sunset. They (12 – consider) to be our friends. No one ever (13 – see) a dolphin attack human beings.

IV. Выберите правильный вариант.

1. My dream is to visit ... Sahara.

a) the, b) а, с) – , d) an.

2. The Second World War ... in 1939.

a) broke out, b) broke up, c) broke open, d) broke off.

3. This test consists ... a number of multiple-choice questions.

a) –, b) in, c) of, d) for.

4. She could ... open her eyes.

a) hard, b) hardly, c) badly, d) well.

5. Peter ... since he left school.

a) was working, b) works, c) has been working, d) will be working.

6. Jane is as ... as her elder sister.

a) tall, b) taller, c) the tallest, d) much taller.

7. Take your umbrella. It ... .

a) rain, b) rained, c) is raining, d) rains.

8. I knew him ... a considerate man.

a) was, b) is, c) to be, d) be.

9. He said they ... to buy flowers for her.

a) forgot, b) forget, c) have forgotten, d) had forgotten.

10 When I came they ... things.

a) pack, b) packed, c) were packing, d) were packed.

11. Mrs White ... Mary that she was going away.

a) said, b) told, c) talked, d) spoke.

12. This is ... very important news.

a) a, b) the, c) – , d) an.

13. They... yet.

a) didn’t arrive, b) haven’t arrived, c) don’t arrive, d) won’t arrive.

14. How old ... when you got married?

a) are you, b) will you be, c) were you, d) have you been.

15. I am not very good ... learning languages.

a) at, b) in, c) of, d) while.

16. I don’t know if she ... to the party.

a) comes, b) will come, c) had come, d) would come.

17. You ... work hard to pass the exam.

a) must, b) can, c) may, d) might.

18. Don’t worry. All your expenses ... .

a) will pay, b) will be paid, c) had been paid, d) are paying.

19. Is there ... strange in what she is saying?

a) some, b) anything, c) any, d) no.

20. This time she has ... mistakes in her test.

a) fewer, b) less, c) fewest, d) little.

V. Переведите на английский язык.

1. Мне будет трудно переводить этот текст без словаря.

2. Мама сказала, что, когда придет, отпустит нас погулять.

3. Сколько стоит эта книга?

4. Какая река длиннее: Волга или Миссисипи?

5. Школа – на другой стороне улицы.

VI. Выберите правильный ответ.

1. For Christmas dinner the English usually have ....

a) chicken, b) roast beef, c) fish, d) turkey.

2. The Whispering Gallery is situated in ... .

a) Westminster Abbey, b) St. Paul’s Cathedral, c) Tower,

d) Hyde Park.

3. What is Eisteddfod?

a) a county, b) a dish, c) a festival, d) a dance.

4. Who wrote “Winnie-the-Pooh”?

a) L. Carroll, b) 0. Wilde, c)J.R. Tolkien, d) A. Milne.

5. What is custard?

a) cream, b) a pudding, c) a pie, d) a tart.

TEST 7

I. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.

A London girl was spending her holiday in the country for the first time. One day she complained to the farmer that the bull had been running after her. She was very much frightened because she had never seen bulls before. “Well,” said the farmer, “the bull was running after you because of the red blouse you were wearing.” – “Dear me,” said the girl, “of course, I understand that this blouse is awfully out of fashion. But I didn’t know the bull would notice it.”

Вопросы:

1. The girl didn’t understand why the bull had been running after her, did she?

2. How did the farmer explain the bull’s behaviour?

II. Поставьте вопрос к подчеркнутому члену предложения.

A London girl was spending her holiday in the country.

III. Раскройте скобки, употребив правильную глагольную форму.

а)

In the 18th century the Russian Government (1 – send) Vitus Bering to explore the lands behind Russia. One day Bering (2 – discover) the strait which (3 – separate) North America from Asia. It (4 – name) after the discoverer. On a later voyage Bering (5 – see) the mainland of North America. This discovery (6 – give) Russia its right to Alaska. Bering (7 – die) before he (8 – can) take the good news back to Russia. But Chirikov and some other men of Bering’s expedition (9 – come) back.

The Russians (10 – explore) the North American continent as far north as the Arctic Ocean. Others (11 – make) settlements or (12 – build) trading posts as far south as Northern California. Not long before G. Washington (13 – become) President of the US, the Russians (14 – make) a settlement in Alaska. For more than a hundred years trade (15 – carry) on between Russia and Alaska. During this time people from the US (16 – become) interested in this far northern territory. Some American ships (17 – sail) to the Arctic Ocean to fish. Others (18 – trade) with Russian settlements. In 1867 the USA (19 – buy) Alaska. It (20 – sell) for a little more than seven million dollars.

Alaska (21 – be) the largest of all the states of the USA. It (22 – be) rich in minerals. There (23 – be) large forests, many animals and much fish there.

b)

Elephants can (1 – be) a danger to themselves. In one game park they (2 – grow) in number so fast that soon there (3 – be) too many of them. They (4 – destroy) everything as they (5 – look) for food and drink. Very soon they (6 – start) to ruin the countryside (7 – belong) to farmers outside the park. So a big hunt had to (8 – organize) to reduce their number.

Not long ago in Africa elephants (9 – live) in great numbers. Big-game hunters (10 – kill) many of them. Today elephants (11 – have) to live in game parks because people (12– want) more and more land. But the elephants (13 – be) not safe in these parks either. Hunters (14 – kill) them because they (15 – have) something very valuable: ivory. If some measures not (16 – take), our children and grandchildren (17 – can) to see elephants only in the Zoo.

IV. Выберите правильный вариант.

1. It’s so kind ... you to call me.

a) for, b) with, c) of, d) on.

2. If my advice ... , I’ll be happy.

a) help, b) helps, c) will help, d) have helped.

3. I have never seen ... interesting film.

a) so a, b) so an, c) such a, d) such an.

4. Her husband is twice as ... as she is.

a) old, b) older, c) elder, d) the oldest.

5. You ... to come here again.

a) must, b) may, c) should, d) have.

6. ... raining when you went out?

a) Was there, b) Was it, c) Is there, d) Is it.

7. The noise of the broken glass made me ... .

a) woke up, b) have woken up, c) to wake up, d) wake up.

8. Can you come on Monday evening? – Sorry, I’d love to but I ... volleyball.

a) was playing, b) played, c) am playing, d) have played.

9. Are you interested ... working for us?

a) at, b) in, c) of, d) for.

10. There wasn’t ... in the garden.

a) some people, b) anybody, c) any people, d) no people.

11. ... in my class knows him.

a) All, b) All pupils, c) All the pupils, d) Everyone.

12. His hands are dirty. He ... the car.

a) repaired, b) repairs, c) has been repairing, d) will repair.

13. By the time I came she ... a cake.

a) cooked, b) cooks, c) will cook, d) had cooked.

14. They ... us to do the room.

a) said, b) told, c) spoke, d) talked.

15. He doesn’t know this rule. Tom doesn’t know it... .

a) too, b) either, c) also, d) neither.

16. ... tea is grown in many parts of Asia.

a) The, b) - , c) A, d) An.

17. If he ... in Moscow, he’ll visit us.

a) is, b) will be, c) would be, d) were.

18. I don’t like apples; ... ?

a) you do, b) don’t you, c) you don’t, d) do you.

19. We all... mistakes when we are in a hurry.

a) do, b) make, c) did, d) made.

20. I haven’t been home ... yesterday.

a) for, b) since, c) after, d) before.

V. Переведите на английский язык.

1. Ты не знаешь, где она живет?

2. – Ты сделала пятое упражнение? – Нет еще, я его сей­час делаю.

3. На столе была ваза с цветами и фрукты.

4. Статья была опубликована в “Москоу Таймc”.

5. Эту пьесу стоит посмотреть.

VI. Выберите правильный ответ.

1. What is the most ancient monument in Great Britain?

a) the Lower West Gate, b) Stonehenge, c) Hadrian’s Wall,

d) the Tower Gate.

2. What is M. Thatcher by profession?

a) an engineer, b) a doctor, c) a chemist, d) a teacher.

3. Who is the head of the government in the UK?

a) Prime Minister, b) Queen, c) Speaker, d) Chancellor.

4. Where is the Bank of England situated?

a) in the West End, b) in the East End, c) in the City, d) in the South.

5. What is English marmalade?

a) apple jam, b) orange jam, c) sweets, d) a cake

TEST 8

I. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.

Once Mark Twain was invited to the opera. All through the opera his friend’s wife was talking to her husband. She talked so much and so loudly that Mark Twain could hardly hear anything. After the performance she said to Mark Twain, “Dear Mark Twain, may I invite you to the opera again next Friday? The opera will be ‘Carmen’ you are sure to like it.” – “Thank you very much,” said Mark Twain, “that will be fine. I haven’t heard you in ‘Carmen’ yet.”

Вопросы:

1. Why couldn’t Mark Twain enjoy the opera?

2. Was the lady going to sing in “Carmen”?

II. Поставьте вопрос к подчеркнутому члену предложения.

All through the opera his friend’s wife was talking to her husband.

III. Раскройте скобки, употребив правильную глагольную форму.

Mr. Sherlock Holmes (1 – sit) one morning at the breakfast table in his room in Baker Street. His friend Dr Watson (2 – stand) near the window (3 – examine) a walking stick which a visitor (4 – leave) the day before. ‘To Dr Mortimer, from his friend,’ (5 – write) upon it, the date (6 – be) 1884. Sherlock Holmes suddenly (7 – turn) to Watson and (8 – say), “The owner of this stick (9 – have) a dog which (10 – be) larger than a terrier and smaller than a mastiff.” Watson (11 – surprise). He (12 – ask), “How you (13 – know)?”

“I (14 – examine) that stick carefully and (15 – notice) the marks of a dog’s teeth on it,” (16 – answer) Holmes. “They (17 – be) too broad for a terrier and not broad enough for a mastiff. I (18 – suppose) the dog often (19 – carry) the stick behind its master. I (20 – suppose) it (21 – be) a spaniel, in fact it (22 – be) a spaniel.”

Holmes (23 – leave) the breakfast table and (24 – stand) near the window as he (25 – say) this. Watson (26 – look) at him in surprise and (27 – ask) how he (28 – can) be so sure of that.

“ (29 – be) sure of it because I (30 – see) the dog at our door and I (31 – hear) the bell which its master (32 – ring). I (33 – wonder) why Dr Mortimer (34 – want) to see Mr Sherlock Holmes. Well, we soon (35 – know). (36 – come) in,” he (37 – add). There (38 – be) a knock at the door. The door (39 – open) and Dr Mortimer (40 – appear) in the doorway.

IV. Выберите правильный вариант.

1. Who ... you English at school?

a) taught, b) is taught, c) was taught, d) have taught.

2. When ... you last... to the theatre?

a) did you go, b) have you gone, c) will you go, d) were you going.

3. This money ... not enough to buy the book.

a) is, b) are, c) has, d) have.

4. The newspapers ....

a) have brought, b) will bring, c) have been brought, d) was brought.

5. ... Tom ... Eric are good players.

a) as... as..., b) and... and..., c) both... and..., d) like... so... .

6. There are ... days in February than in other months.

a) more, b) less, c) few, d) fewer.

7. Martha is ... in English Literature.

a) interest, b) interesting, c) interested, d) interests.

8. I don’t know any American songs. – ... .

a) So do I, b) So am I, c) Neither do I, d) Neither am I.

9. Do you know ... man that lives next door?

a) –, b) a, c) an, d) the.

10. They ... to return next Monday.

a) are sure, b) was sure, c) are not sure, d) weren’t sure.

11. By the time we got to the party, most of th



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