Согласно архитектурной реорганизации

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Согласно архитектурной реорганизации

П.А. Леменкова

Карлов университет, Институт экологических исследований, Прага (Чехия) pauline.lemenkova@gmail.com


Цель исследования – пространственный и социально-экономический анализ изме-нений пейзажа в прибрежно-туристской зоне прибалтийского побережья Эстонии. Активный процесс субурбанизации обусловлен сложной социально-экономической трансформацией пространственных моделей застройки со времени распада СССР. Исследование террито-риально охватывает пригородную территорию курортного города Пярну. Социально-эко-номические изменения в стране вызывают процесс интенсивного строительства дач, что изменяет ландшафтный образ территорий. Методика основана на социально-экономическиом анализе субурбанизации на основе статистических и картографических данных: ГИС отображение, карты растительного покрова и данные Landsat. Полевые наблюдения про-водились для выявления застроенных участков в окрестностях Пярну. Доказано интенсивное строительство жилых зданий, изменение системы землепользования и недвижимости в со-временной Эстонии, что радикально изменяет пейзажи. Результаты показывают разнородные виды ландшафта в районе исследования.


Эстония, курорты, строительство, дачная застройка, ландшафты





P.A. Lemenkova


Charles University in Prague, Institute for Environmental Studies, Prague (Czech Republic) pauline.lemenkova@gmail.com


The research aims at spatial and socio-economic analysis of landscape patterns in Baltic coastal area of Estonia. The process of active suburbanization, which is analyzed in the current work, is caused by complex socio-economical factors which arise from sociopolitical changes since the end of the USSR. Study area encompasses Baltic coastal region of Parnu County. The social-economic triggers causing intensive construction of summer cottages and landscape types were examined. The methodology is based on the socio-economic analysis of suburbanization based on statistical data and mapping of the landscapes. Mapping was performed using GIS, land cover maps and Landsat data. Fieldwork and in-situ observations were performed to detect built-up areas in Parnu surroundings and proved intensive construction residential buildings in Parnu, demonstrating ground changes in immobility system in modern Estonia, which affects landscapes. The results illustrate highly heterogeneous and diverse landscape types in the study area.

Estonia, Landscape Diversification, Cottages Development, Privatization.



The end of the USSR epoch caused great economical and sociopolitical reformation of Estonia. Alike to other post-soviet countries [14], this caused considerable changes in the socio-economic and administrative structure. Land management system and urban development of the country changed in the past 20 years, which reflects overall socio-economic and political situation in Estonia [13]. Nowadays, suburbanization and development of second houses become the major and most evident processes in the current urban dynamics of modern Estonia [9]. There are multiple processes explaining this phenomena, and various factors triggering this process, which are analyzed in the current paper. The suburbanization process is not only influenced by the economic and political factors characteristic for Estonia. This process is now notable in various European cities and becomes a new characteristics of modern urban development in Europe. Overall, the structure of European cities become less compact and dense and more dispersed. There are multifold complex factors explaining process of intensive cottage construction. The most evident are socio-demographic (depopulation, resettlement) and economic ones (change in employment and occupations). However, regionally, this trend is more typical for northern and eastern European cities, rather than for southern and central ones.

The particular focus on this paper is south-west part of Estonia located in the surroundings of Parnu city. Forested by precious coniferous pine forests, this region has high environmental value, mild maritime climate conditions, favorable for health and aesthetic views of coastal landscapes. This area is traditionally highly attractive for a large number of tourists and very popular as a place for residence among local people. In the past decades, Parnu region became increasingly popular for housing and cottage building intended for seasonal rent in summer. A social-economic overview of current urban situation on Estonian Baltic coasts was supported by statistical and demographic data from the Statistics Estonia (www. stat. ee/statistics) and geospatial data: Landsat image and Corine [2, 8]. Construction of summer houses is evident trend in Estonia. The triggering factor is development of the market economy and socio-economic growth. New market-based economy implemented in Estonia since 90s, caused gradual social changes: personal economic growth, well-being, new style of life, increased number of private cars, and growing size of the middle class. This triggered intensive construction of the summer cottages in touristic zones where families live during vacations. Socio-political and economic factors play important role for landscape, since they affect urban pattern and character of settlements. Since 90s, the land management systems changed significantly: new land reform with modest regulation of land use activated housing market, enabled privatization, home ownership, restitution of suburban land [3]. Together with accessible mortgage system developed in Estonia since 2000s, it facilitated purchase of private houses for large number of people from middle class, which accelerated suburban residential development. This activated privatization of real estate objects and increased size of private property. As a consequence, building development in coastal areas intensified since 1990s. For example, former agricultural land, grasslands and forests became occupied by locals and transformed to the patchy and scattered suburban lands. However, agriculture is still a basis for living in some counties, which retain locals to live in rural areas. Hence, large urban areas tend to expand into the agricultural areas and became new suburban territories, which includes summer cottages. This increases suburbanization [13] affecting landscape pattern. Another important factor for ''dacha' popularization is eco-style nature living.

The concepts of ‘landscape’ and 'environment' were largely discussed and popularized in mass-media since 1990s. This caused changes in social behavior: the overall perception of the environment and landscapes (“maastik”), attitude to the land and ecology. Indirectly, this made living in suburb areas more attractive for inhabitants, as public appreciation of natural and recreational value of landscapes increased [10]. Hence, coastal areas become popular destination places for permanent residence and tourism [1]. Buildings are now constructed using eco-style wood and ecological materials, preferably in the pine forests. The popularity of private houses grows since 90s (Fig. 1): size of dwelling areas, number of rooms and overall space in houses are significantly increasing. In Parnu County an overall increase of privatization is notable. Socio-economic changes have considerable visible impact on the landscape types and often make negative effects on the surrounding environment [11]. Hence, suburbanization changes landscape pattern and diversification of land use types [5]. An array of buildings constructed in different social contexts create various landscapes with changed spatial heterogeneity [12].


Fig.1. Increased private properties in Estonia and in Pärnu since 1994. Source: Statistics Estonia

Accordingly, it enhances land fragmentation, heterogeneity and diversification of the landscapes, since new land allotments together with previous land areas form a dense mix of highly separated land plots in the settlement areas [7, 13]. At the same time, Parnu region is an area of high environmental value. Located on the Baltic coasts, it is notable for high biodiversity and aesthetics. Unique environmental and climatic conditions make west coastal landscapes a valuable part of Estonian nature [4]. As a consequence, this attracts income of tourists who increase anthropogenic pressure on local ecosystems. Comparing to the terrestrial ecosystems, coastal Baltic areas are more sensitive towards increased anthropogenic pressure. Thus, landscape pattern in lowlands became more heterogeneous than those in the upland areas. Cumulative consequences of the human pressure impacts structure and functioning of the coastal ecosystems. The most evident negative effect includes altered food web structure, contaminated sediments, various effects from hazardous substances, urban pollution, waste disposal, changed land cover types [6]. As a result, overuse of coastal territories cause damaged or lost components of the ecosystem. The vulnerability of Parnu region consists in its coastal location as natural sensitivity of coastal zones multiplies the effects of increased socio-economic pressure. This research gives an insight to the socio-economic processes affecting coastal landscapes in Estonia. The complex process of socio-economic changes caused by the political changes was analyzed: summer house intensive construction in the coastal area. This reflects changes in economic development of modern Estonia: land privatization, cottage construction, creation of tourist houses. Increased human impact on the sensitive coasts changes landscape structure: fragmentation, damaged or lost components of landscapes etc. The Parnu County is a unique environmental part of Estonian nature. Overuse of its sensitive coastal landscapes may lead to the negative consequences. Sustainable land management system should support active landscape monitoring. The study was funded by the DoRa grant (European Social Fund).


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