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ДЕРЖАВНА АДМІНІСТРАЦІЯ ЗАЛІЗНИЧНОГО ТРАНСПОРТУ УКРАЇНИ
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ДЕРЖАВНА АДМІНІСТРАЦІЯ ЗАЛІЗНИЧНОГО ТРАНСПОРТУ УКРАЇНИ
КИЇВСЬКИЙ ЕЛЕКТРОМЕХАНІЧНИЙ ТЕХНІКУМ ЗАЛІЗНИЧНОГО ТРАНСПОРТУ
ім. М. ОСТРОВСЬКОГО
З РОЗВИТКУ КОМУНІКАТИВНОГО СПІЛКУВАННЯ
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТІВ 1-ГО КУРСУ ДЕННОЇ ФОРМИ НАВЧАННЯ
5.05020203 “Монтаж, обслуговування та ремонт автоматизованих систем керування рухом на залізничному транспорті”,
5.05020204 ”Обслуговування та ремонт пристроїв електрозв’язку на транспорті “,
5. 07010501 ” Технічне обслуговування, ремонт та експлуатація тягового рухомого складу “
Викладача Макаренко Т.А.
ДЕРЖАВНА АДМІНІСТРАЦІЯ ЗАЛІЗНИЧНОГО ТРАНСПОРТУ УКРАЇНИ
Київський електромеханічний технікум залізничного транспорту
Макаренко Т. А.
Дана методична розробка призначена для студентів 1-го курсу всіх спеціальностей та викладачів англійської мови.
Мета розробки – забезпечити розвиток навичок усного мовлення на теми, передбачені програмою з іноземних мов. Відповідає календарно-тематичному плану.
Розробка складається з 2 частин: 1частина – 10 уроків, 2 частина – 15 уроків. Розробка містить лексичні теми, завдання до тексту та скоромовки.
Дана методична розробка може бути корисною для широкого кола осіб, що вдосконалюють свої знання з англійської мови.
Тексти підібрано із сучасних публікацій в англомовній та українській періодиці.
Lesson1. My family
Lesson 2.Family, parent-child problems, generation gap
Lesson3.Person’s character and appearance
Lesson4. My friend
Lesson6..Leasure time and hobby
Lesson7. What I think about sport
Lesson 8. Man and environment.
Lesson1. The rules of dressing
Lesson 2. Bad habits: smoking
Lesson3. Drugs in sport
Lesson4. Ukrainian and British cuisine
Lesson 5. Learning, earning and spending….
Lesson 6. Graffiti: art or vandalism
Lesson 7. Ukrainian painting
Lesson 8. English paining: Galleries of art in London.
Lesson 9. British artists
Lesson 10. Music in our life
Lesson 11. Learn tolerance: terrorism
Lesson 12. Mass Media: Radio/ Television
Lesson 13 Mass Media: Newspapers/Magazines
Lesson 14 Communication
Lesson 15 Do you believe in extraterrestrial life?
Read and memorize the following words:
Read and retell the text
ABOUT MY FAMILY AND MYSELF
First of all let me introduce myself. My name is Victor Popovych. I am 15 years old. I study at the Kyiv Electro-mechanical technical school. I am in the first year. My family lives in Kyiv in one of the residential areas. My parents have two more kids besides me. Thus I have got an elder brother Olexandr and a younger sister Olga. My sister is a schoolgirl. She is fourteen. My brother is five years my senior. So he is twenty-four already. He is a designer by profession. He is married. His wife Is a telephone-operator. They are four in the family. He has two children — a son and a daughter. They are twins. They are lovely little kids with golden hair and dark blue eyes.
My parents are not old at all. Daddy is forty and my Mum is three years his junior. My grandparents are already pensioners, but they are still full of life and energy. I have many relatives — aunts, uncles, cousins.
My father is an architect and my mother is a hairdresser. They like their work very much.
1 am fond of reading books on history and science fiction. 1 go in for sports. I like playing football, basketball, chess. Especially I'm good at chess.
What is he (she) like?
He (she) is shy, generous, reasonable, reserved, frank, modest, shy, timid, reliable, ambitious, pompous, obstinate, obedient, (un)selfish, self-confident, gifted, kind, rude, naughty, chivalrous, straightforward, introverted, (dis)honest, cold, vain, energetic, impulsive, even-tempered, snobbish, hard-working, full of common sense, (unpractical, a man (woman) of action of few words, of strong will (power), irresponsible, thrifty, impudent, tactless, prudent, good-humoured, two-faced, devoted, caring.
How does he (she) look?
He (she) looks tired, fresh, upset, happy, disappointed, sleepy, worried, miserable, unwell, healthy, surprised, as glum as a bear.
Learn the following phrases:
I have a high (low) opinion of him Я високої (поганої) думки про нього
He is easy (hard) to get along with 3 ним легко (важко) порозумітися.
He is a man of (no) character- Biн людина з характером
He is always in a good humour. Biн завжди в доброму гуморі.
She has a bee in her bonnet Вона з дивацтвами.
She is as busy as a bee. Biн холодний, як лід (байдужий)
He is as cold as a fish. Він холодний, як риба.
He is neither fish nor flesh. Biн нi риба, нi м'ясо.
Read and retell the text
I have a very good friend. His (her) name is ... Friends are very important in our life. I think one cannot live without friends. The most important thing for being good friends, to my mind, is to be ready to help one another in any situation, nevertheless how difficult it is, to support one another and to solve all the problems together. And never mind, that the friends may have different interests and hobbies, different likes and dislikes. They say that the friend in need is a friend indeed. I think it is really so. My friend and I always do our best to help one another. We discuss all our troubles and try to find the best decision in any situation. My friend is a very good, kind and clever boy (girl). We often spend our free time together. It is not very easy now, because both of us are very busy — we are going to enter institutes and have a lot of work to do. My friend is going to become a doctor (a teacher, an engineer, a lawyer). Our future professions are different (the same) and the subjects we have to study are different (the same) too, but (and) we like to work together and to help one another in our study. When we have some free time, we go for walks, read and discuss books, watch films, go to discos or play computer games. Playing computer games is our hobby. Both of us are fond of sport. We go in for swimming (tennis) and often go to the swimming pool (tennis court) together. We are football fans and we like to watch and discuss football matches on TV or to go to the stadium. I love my friend very much. I think he (she) is a true friend. Our friendship is very dear to me and I try to do my best to be a good friend too.
The following facts are taken from a government survey of the problems and interests of 14 to 19-year-olds in Britain.
Almost 50 per cent of British teenagers have a part- time job. The most popular jobs are working in shops and stores (usually on Saturdays), doing a paper round (mornings, before school), or babysitting.
Helping at home
Nearly all teenagers (91 per cent) claim they help with the housework. But most admit they only do it because they have to.
Most teenagers get along with their parents quite well. Although 50 per cent believe their parents are too strict, most agree that their parents offer help and support in times of crisis. When there are arguments, however, they are usually about what time they should come home at night, where they are going, and who they are going with.
About three quarters of 14 to 19-year- olds admit that they are not interested in politics. Only 2 per cent ever attend any political meetings, while over 60 per cent believe their interests and concerns are ignored by politicians
Two thirds of those interviewed take part regularly in one or more sporting activities. Swimming is very popular with both sexes (53 per cent), while 40 per cent of boys play football. Other popular sports include ice-skating, table-tennis and darts.
Money is seen as a problem by most teenagers. Without it they can't buy clothes or records, pay for transport, or go to concerts, cinemas or discos.
The majority of girls spend their pocket- money on clothes; half the boys spend it on cassettes. Three quarters try to save at least some money.
The majority of all teenagers agree that it is important to help old or disabled people and to improve the environment. About half want to help poor people in the Third World.
Over half of all teenagers — boys and girls — are concerned about how they look or worried about the clothes they wear. Many are annoyed that they're often treated like children, not adults. Possible unemployment was a major worry for nearly two thirds of those still at school.
- What is most surprising/interesting to you?
-Write down what you think would be the results of such a survey in your areas.
Leisure time and hobby
Many man, many minds. All people are different and so they prefer spending their free time in different ways. Some of them go the parks, forests, to the country and enjoy the beauty of nature. Others like to stay at home watching TV or reading books. There are people who are fond of cinema and theatres, so they try to go there as often as possible. As for me I prefer to spend my free time in different ways. I like to go in for sports, to play football, basketball or volleyball with my friends. I like to watch TV, to listen to a tape recorder and play computer games. Also I like to go for a walk in the country and enjoy the beauty of nature. And my way of spending free time is connected with my hobby. And my hobby is reading books...
I’d like to say that it’s hard to imagine our life without books. Books play such a great role in the development of personality. They help as to forget our daily problems and to pretend we travel to the past, future and to many different, wonderful places that we can’t visit in reality. I am also sure that books are our good friends and teachers. From them we get to know the life around as better, they teach as how to tell right from wrong, to love our Motherland, to understand friendship, people’s feelings. So, they teach us how to live. As for me I like to read different kinds of books.
WHAT I THINK ABOUT SPORT
We all need exercise. This is true for young people in their teens as it is for adults from 20 to 80. Even if you do not plan to make sport your main occupation or career, you still have to exercise at least 2-3 times a week. Regular exercise temporarily tires the body but then actually gives you more energy. This is why many people who suffer from general tiredness should take more exercise rather than more rest. Exercise makes you feel and look better and can also help you to lose weight because it burns up fat to produce energy.
What kind of exercise to choose? The best exercise is one which involves repeated, easy movements: walking, jogging, swimming and cycling are all good examples. They all make your muscles move freely and easily.
Also, exercises such as bending and stretching will add flexibility and a feeling of lightness. If you want to make yourself strong, push-ups and weightlifting will help you. But you shouldn't start with lifting very heavy weights unless you are very fit.
You should soon begin to feel the effects of regular exercise. Your physical and mental energy at school will improve, as well as your sleep. Your physical appearance will change too. You will notice that your body looks better, slimmer: And, what is also important, you will seldom get sick. So, don’t delay and start your exercises today!
1. Answer the questions.
• Do people of all ages need exercise?
• How often do we need to exercise?
• How does regular exercise change our body?
• What is the best kind of exercise? Why?
• What exercise can strengthen your body?
• What are the effects of regular exercise?
Sport is popular all over the world. People go in for sports in all parts of our Earth. I'd like to say that some sports are extremely dangerous and risky," some of them are thrilling, fun, interesting, relaxing, creative, competitive, challenging. Some of them are boring and tiring. Unfortunately there are a lot of tough, barbaric, violent and cutthroat sports.
People who prefer to risk go snorkelling, parachuting, hang gliding, water skiing, surfing, horse riding, sailing, motor-racing, snowboarding, diving; ice skating and skiing.
A great number of people like entertaining, cooperative and energetic sports.
They enjoy playing cricket, rugby, baseball, volleyball, basketball, tennis, badminton, golf, hockey, water polo and other games. I'd like to add that a lot of people like to do archery and weightlifting.
Athletes need special equipment for certain sports. Skis, saddles, tennis racquets, flippers, masks, snorkels, shuttle-cocks, bows and arrows, golf clubs are used for certain sports.
Sport is an exciting thing. Each sport requires courage bravery, accuracy, persistence, determination, dedication, discipline and enthusiasm.
Man and environment
We live in a changeable world where it is very difficult to keep up with new ideas and inventions.
Our life becomes more comfortable and more interesting. We get to know about the smallest details of a child's birth and space computers have become the part of everyday life, we use new devices which make housework much easier. But we seldom think that the majority of inventions, new technologies bring harm to a man.
Today the greatest problem for humanity is pollution. Pollution is contamination of the environment including air, water and land. This problem is extremely topical for heavily industrialised cities. Uncontrolled emissions of harmful substances and dust pollute everything around us. Very often they are the reason of acid rains which fell miles away from the plants and poison earth and water. It is worth mentioning that one third of all emissions into the atmosphere originate from automobile transport.
In 1986, Chornobyl' disaster showed that nuclear energy can be extremely dangerous. Research data show that significant areas of agricultural and forest lands of Ukraine will remain unsafe for a man for eight thousand years.
Another problem of big cities is wastes. The .wastes from plants and factories contaminate water and soil. It has become dangerous to drink unboiled water or eat vegetables and fruit.
These are only some of the problems of the environment. The list may be endless. All these factors threaten mankind and nature, reduce their life, even kill them.1
Millions of people all over the world fight against pollution. It is very important that every person should be responsible for ecologically clean world and act correspondingly.
Answer the questions to the text. 
- What is the greatest problem for humanity today?
- What is pollution?
- What did Chornobyl' disaster show?
- What can be done to protect nature and human life?
- to prepare for discussion such questions:
1. Ecological situation in your native city is very serious. What can be done to improve it?
2. A new chemical plant is to be built in your city. Some people like this idea, others are against it. What is your point of view? Give your reasons "for" and "against" the idea.
- Fill in the blanks to complete the statements below based on the text.
1. We live in ... ... ... where it is difficult to keep up with new ideas and inventions.
2. Today the greatest... ... ... is pollution.
3. This problem is ... ... for industrialized cities.
4. Chornobyl' disaster showed that…. …can be extremely dangerous.
5. It has become dangerous to drink ... ... or to eat fruit and vegetables.
6. It is very important that every person should be responsible for… …and
The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data using the standard Internet.
It is a worldwide network of computers that allows the "sharing" or "networking" of information at remote sites from other academic institutions, research institutes, private companies, government agencies, and individuals.
The Internet is widespread all over the world. It is a three level hierarchy composed of backbone networks ( ARPAnet, NSFNet, MILNET), mid-level networks, and stub networks. The Internet, sometimes called simply “the Net,” allows users to send and receive information from other computers, commercial, university and other research networks. It is a collection of approximately 60,000 independent, interconnected networks.
Nowadays this electronic network of computers includes nearly every university, government, and research facility in the world. It started with four interconnected computers in 1969 and was known as ARPAnet.
The first calculating machine was invented by Charles Babbage, a professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University, in 1912. This machine could do complicated calculations faster than a human mathematician.
Computers became smaller, and now they can stand on a writing desk in a flat, but do calculations much faster. Now a computer can do one million sums in one second. No man can do that.
Today computers are used widely, because they are more efficient .than human beings. They can calculate the orbits of sputniks and spaceships, control machines in factories, work out tomorrow's weather, reserve seats on plane, pay wages; play chess, write poetry or compose music. Computers can also make a translation from one language into another.
They are a great help to a student, a doctor, a teacher, a librarian, a composer, a designer, an agronomist. How much information computer can store! They are ready to help people at any moment. In fact, they can do many of the things we do, but faster and better.
Today computers control nearly everything we do in the world. They serve people in their daily lives and work.
Answer the questions.
1. Who invented the first calculating machine?
2. What could this machine do?
3. When was the computer invented?
4. Why were the first computers very big?
5. What did scientists invent instead of electronic tubes?
6. Are computers smaller now?
7. Can they do calculations faster?
8. What can computers do nowadays?
9. Why are they used widely now?
The rules of dressing
STUDENTS THINK RULES SUPPRESS INDIVIDUALITY
The rules of dress codes have been forever disputed in high schools locally and nationally. Through the years, threats of uniforms in public schools have, sounded due to the problems that many kids have in following these regulations.
Some dressing rules include: no hats or sunglasses in the building; no advertising of alcohol and drugs; no clothes for beaches.
"I understand the reasons for the rules and generally don't have any problems with them," says 15-year-old Tab Guthrie. "You have to look at it from the viewpoint of the teachers. The way we dress shows their reputations."
Others, such as Brian Anderson, 15, disagree. "I find the dress code rules ridiculous. I mean, why can't you wear a hat? I say, as soon as school buys my clothes, I'll wear what they want me to wear."
The High School student handbook says that students should be clean, serviceable and wear suitable clothes, but dress codes are not always followed by students.
The way one dresses reflects their image arid personality. Could it be limited by the rules? The dress code dispute has been an age-old topic. As society grows, and everything is becoming accepted, perhaps, the individual styles of each student will as well.
Answer the following questions.
• How do you understand the phrase "dress code"?
• Do you have the rules of dressing in your school?
• What are the most common rules of dressing in schools?
• What viewpoints of students are represented in the article?
• Do they all support the dress code?
• If you were the principal in your school, would you make the dress code?
• Which of the rules, mentioned in the article, would you include there?
• Could the way of dressing express the individuality of a person? In what way?
- What professions demand the uniform? Why?
- How did the purpose of clothes change through the whole history of humankind?
BAD HABITS. SMOKING.
Read it and think which of these statements are True and which are False.
PLAYING WITH FIRE
• Smokers are more likely to get colds and the flu than non-smokers.
• Cigarettes aren't tested on animals.
• Nicotine is more addictive than most illegal drugs, including heroin.
• One in four smokers starts at the age of 12.
• Cigarettes companies specifically target young people in their advertising.
• Smoking when you're pregnant doesn't hurt your baby.
• Smoking causes heart problems, cancer and ulcers.
• Second-hand smoke from other people's cigarettes is harmless.
• If you don't start smoking before the age of 20, you probably won't ever start.
• More girls than boys smoke.
• Doctors claim that lots of teenagers smoke because they lack self-confidence.
• Giving up smoking can make you gain weight
Smoking used to be considered fashionable. But now people understand the dire consequences of smoking. It's a recognised fact that cigarettes kill 50,000 people every year. Each cigarette shortens your life for five minutes. Smoking causes such diseases as cancer, heart attacks, and ulcers. Tobacco kills more people than alcohol, illegal drugs, AIDS combined.
Smokers not only ruin their own health but also the health of other people. We have to inhale the poisonous air they blow out.
The tobacco industry is allowed to spend huge sums of money on advertising. It's dishonest! We are never shown pictures of real smokers coughing out their lungs early in the morning.
Strict measures should be taken against smoking.
- Smoking should be banned in all public places — schools, hospitals, libraries, restaurants, bars.
- It's necessary to double taxes on tobacco, to raise the price on cigarettes.
It's necessary to ban all kinds of advertising of tobacco on TV, radio, in
- No T-shirts, caps, bags with cigarette ads.
- Tobacco industry should reduce the content of nicotine in cigarettes.
- There must be reliable information about medical findings of hazardous consequences of smoking.
Imagine such a situation. A group of young people is smoking. What will you do if they offer you a cigarette? One boy refuses and says that he doesn’t advise them to smoke as well. Another boy is afraid to refuse the offer and begins to cough, almost faints.
Why do you think he took his first cigarette? Why do people start smoking?
DRUGS IN SPORT
Many kinds of drugs are used by athletes competing in sports all over the world. Some are used to build muscles or give the athlete extra energy. Others kill the pain of injuries or calm nerves, but many are illegal.
Taking substances to improve sports performance is not new. Athletes in ancient Egypt drank a mixture of oiled donkey hoof, rose petals and rose hips, believing it would make them winners. The winner of the 200 metres at the Olympic Games of 668 BC in ancient Greece used a special diet of figs.
What kinds of drugs are used by some people in sport?
The anabolic steroids which are used in sport resemble male hormones. "Anabolic" means to build up — in this case to build up muscles. Body-builders use anabolic steroids in order to look good in competitions but big muscles do not necessarily mean extra strength!
Stimulants make you feel of energy and confidence, but they can also make you feel more aggressive. They are officially banned in sport, but amphetamines have been abused by cyclists, who need lots of stamina and cocaine has been used by basketballers and footballers to make them more competitive.
Beta-blockers are drugs which are normally prescribed by doctors for people with high blood pressure or heart problems. They help calm you down and relieve stress. Snooker players, archers and those who shoot in competitions all need steady hands and cool nerves. It is rumoured that some athletes have taken beta-blockers for this reason.
All of these drugs can cause health problems if taken in large doses. For example, steroids can cause liver cancer in men and infertility in women. There is also evidence that people who take steroids can become very aggressive.
Stimulants are also very dangerous. They do not create energy — they take it from the body. Eventually, users feel exhausted and washed-out. When doing hard exercise, there is danger of having a heart attack. The problem is that people who take stimulants think they can keep going and they push their bodies too far. A British cyclist, Tommy Simpson, and Len Bias, an American basketball player, both died in this way.
Meals in Britain
A traditional English breakfast is a very big meal - sausages, bacon, eggs, tomatoes, mushrooms... But nowadays many people just have cereal with milk and sugar, or toast with marmalade, jam or honey. Marmalade and jam are not the same! Marmаlade is made from oranges and jam is made from other fruit. The traditional breakfast drink is tea, which people have with cold milk. Some people have coffee, often instant coffee, which is made with just hot water.
For many people lunch is a quick meal. In cities there are a lot of sandwich bars, where office workers can choose the kind of bread they want - brown, white or roll - and then all sorts of salad and meat or fish to go in the sandwich. Pubs often serve good, cheap food, both hot and cold. School-children can have a hot meal at school, but many just take a snack from home - a sandwich, a drink, some fruit.
'Tea' means two things. It is a drink and a meal! Some people have afternoon tea, with sandwiches, cakes, and, of course, a cup of tea.
The evening meal is the main meal of the day for many people. They usually have it quite early, between 6:00 and 8:00, and often the whole family eats together.
On Sundays many families have a traditional lunch. They have roast meat, either beef, lamb, chicken, or pork, with potatoes, vegetables, and gravy. Gravy is a sauce made from the meat juices.
The British like food from other countries, too, especially Italian, French, Chinese, and Indian. People often get take-away meals - you buy the food at the restaurant and then bring it home to eat. Eating in Britain is quite international!
Answer the questions:
Ukrainian cuisine is closely linked to the customs, culture and way of life of the Ukrainian people. It is famous for its diversityand quality of flavour.
The most popular Ukrainian dishis «borsch». This thick and delicious soup is prepared with a variety of ingredients including meat, mushrooms, beans, and even prunes.
Mushroom soups, bean and pea soups, soups with dumplingsand thick millet chowdersare also popular.
«Holubtsi», or stuffed cabbage, is another favourite dish, as are «varenyky» filled with potatoes, meat, cheese, sauerkraut,or berries such as blueberriesor cherries.
Varenyky are often mentioned in folk songs.
Ukrainians like dairy products. Some samples: cottage cheese pancakes,«riazhanka».
There are no holidays without pies, «pampushky»,«baba», honey cakes.
Ukrainian sausage is very tasty.
Of course, every region of Ukraine has its own recipes and traditions.
- In what way are wages an indicator of relative scarcity in the labour market?
- How would changes in the supply of and demand for workers affect their relative scarcity and wages?
- Besides higher wages or salaries what other benefits might a worker who possesses relatively scarce skills be able to command?
- What does a person who gets more education and training refuse in order to develop his or her human capital?
- Why would someone choose to give up income and alternative uses of time in order to develop human capital?
- What risks are associated with the choice to invest in human capital?
MAKING A SPIDERGRAM
- Think of a budget plan where we should include all the costs and incomes. To make it more visual we will draw a spidergram.
- Now it's time to start your group work. You will be divided groups. The task of each group is to complete a chart according to the wages paid for a particular job. You will be given percent of a monthly salary spent on every category of spends. Now the representative of each group will take a card with a profession and a monthly salary. Then you will get a card with the chart.
Graffiti: art or vandalism
Mural is a picture or design on a wall or ceiling. Most murals decorate interiors of buildings, but some are used as exterior ornament. Most murals are public art. The mural is one of the oldest art forms. Prehistoric people decorated caves with murals of animals. Artists have used several techniques to create murals including frescos, oil paintings and mosaics.
Fresco is a painting made on damp plaster using pigments mixed with water. Fresco is the Italian word for "fresh", so it is watercolour painting on a wet wall.
Mosaics are designs composed of pieces of glass, stone or other material.
Scribble is something written in careless way.
Signature is a personal sign in a passport or document.
Graffiti is aerosol art, an important part of youth culture, has existed since the 1970s.
- What Ukrainian women painters do you know?
- What did they reveal on their canvases?
- Did they lead a successful and eventful life?
( The 17th – 19th Centuries )
1. Answer the questions:
2. Are you a great art lover?
3. Do you often visit art galleries?
4. What do you feel when you see a masterpiece?
5. Do you have the ability to see and enjoy the beauty of nature (masterpieces of
art, the beauty of poetry, dance, music)?
6. What is the main aim of art?
7. What role does art play in your life?
- Where can you see the paintings and pictures of great artists?
- What galleries and museums of fine arts do you know in Kyiv?
- Have you visited them?
- What museums in London do you know?
- Would you like to visit them?
ART GALLERIES IN LONDON
It is in London naturally that the lover of paintings has the best opportunity of visiting galleries.
The idea of the Tate Gallery took shape in 1890. In that year Henry Tate's gift of sixty-five paintings and two sculptures, almost all of them the work of Victorian contemporaries, was offered to the nation, but the gallery had still to be built to house them. It was built on the north bank of the Thames at the expense of Sir Henry Tate. When opened seven years later, the Tate Gallery consisted of eight rooms, and was intended as a collection of contemporary British painting only; it was, moreover, a mere annex to the National Gallery, Trafalgar Square.
The Tate Gallery has become the national collection of British painting of all periods, and in addition to this the national collection of modern foreign paintings, and the national collection of modern sculpture, both British and foreign.
The National Gallery, in Trafalgar Square, is open free to public. It was only started in 1824. Now it has a splendid collection of oil paintings by artists of all the important British and European schools of art, nearly every great painter being represented. It includes, for example, 19 Rembrandt's paintings. The gallery covers more than two thousand pictures.
Answer the questions.
The Tate Gallery
- When did the idea of the Tate Gallery take shape?
- What did Sir Henry Tate offer to the nation as a gift?
- Where was the gallery built and at whose expense?
- When was the Tate Gallery opened?
- How many rooms did it consist of?
- What collection did it have at that time?
- What collection does it have now?
The National Gallery
- When was it founded?
- Where is it situated?
- What collection does it include?
- How many Rembrandt's paintings does it have?
- How many pictures does it cover?
Complete the sentences.
1. It is in London that the lover of art...
2. Sir Henry Tate offered to the nation a gift of...
3. The Tate Gallery was built...
4. The Tate Gallery consisted of...
5. The Tate Gallery has become the national collection of...
6. The National Gallery is in...
7. It was founded in...
8. It has a splendid collection of...
9. The Gallery covers more...
Among the best painters represented in the Tate Gallery are Hogarth, Reynolds, Gainsborough, Constable, Turner etc.
William Hogarth (1697-1764) is one of the greatest English painters. In his pictures he reflected social life and in many of them the beauty of his painting was accompanied by satire. The "Marriage-a-la-Mode", "The Election Entertainment" were painted to show life very satirically.
In 1742, Hogarth painted "The Graham Children" where he brilliantly used his delicate colours to show the charm of childhood.
John Constable(1776-1837) was fond of the place where he was born and spent his childhood on the River Slour. He saw very beautiful woods, greens in nature and, being very talented, reflected nature's colours in his sketches which he then composed into pictures. He painted the landscape without any changes and the trees or other objects were in his paintings very true to life. He is said to be the first landscape painter in England.
William Turner (1775-1851) began his activity in art as a watercolour master. Light and atmosphere was his characteristic feature. Turner is a super colourist. In 1805, he painted "The Shipwreck". He showed a terrible disaster at sea. Green was a colour that Turner particularly disliked.
In "Snow Storm" he reflected with the help of snow the idea of survival and even in our days it looks very prophetic. It is considered one of his most original paintings. He studied colour very seriously and is said to have anticipated the art of Impressionists and abstract painters of the 20th century. In his "Rain, Steam and Speed" (1844) he worked much on the colour interrelation.
Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) was a very lyrical painter who successfully connected man and nature. A very strong psychologist, he painted mostly women on the background of a scenery. He liked blue colours best of all. His portraits are optimistic and the light and shade of colour are in full harmony with the lines.
Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792) is one of the outstanding British portraitists who had an important influence on his contemporaries. By the age of twenty he had set himself up as a portraitist in his native town. In 1749, he went to Rome and stayed there three years. He returned to London and within a short time had achieved a considerable success. In 1755, for example he did 120 portraits.
His sitters included the socially prominent people of the time and when the Royal Academy was founded in 1768, he naturally became its first president. His portraits are effective because their expression is related to the type of sitter. His colours are difficult to judge today because they were not scientifically applied, so many paintings have cracked and faded.
Fill in the chart.
Complete the charts.
1. )__ is an outstanding (a prominent, brilliant) English painter of century.
2. )__ is well-known as a portraitist.
__ is well-known as a landscape painter.
__ is well-known as a colourist.
__ is well-known as a humorist and satirist on canvas.
__ is well-known as a marine painter.
__ is well-known as a watercolour master.
3. )__ reflected the inner world of the sitter.
__ showed the scenes of social life.
__ portrayed the beauty of his native countryside.
__ depicted socially prominent people of that period.
__ painted the portraits of the most famous people.
__ depicted the sea, as it affected the ships, storms,
7. best works are (masterpieces/ paintings/ portraits/ landscapes).
Music in our life
Do you believe rock music can be harmful? Why or why not?
- music is often played loud and can damage people's hearing:
- it can make people aggressive:
- the words to the songs may cause negative emotions (sometimes the
texts are absolutely senseless):
- in Australia taped rock music is used to frighten the sharks off the
public beaches. Obviously, the sharks' nerves cannot endure such noise etc.
POSSITIVE HARMLESS EFFECTS
- it can make people feel excited and fit 11 of life, energy;
- it makes people want to dance:
- it stimulates their minds and gives people creative power:
- young people search for new rhythms and new styles;
- the words of the songs relate to the younger people world, their hopes,
dreams, disappointments, and joys;
- young people "get tremendous kick' listening to this kind of music etc.
Surprising power of music
Marane Sterbely was lying on a hospital bed waiting for her operation. She was hooked up to a computer that monitored her heart rate and brain waves. She was also hooked up, by earphones, to a CD of Vivaldi's The Four Seasons.
During the operation, the surgical team listened to Mozart and Brahms from another CD player. "Music reduces staff tension in the operating theatre", says Dr Clyde Nash, Marianne's surgeon, "and also helps to relax the patient".
Marianne claims the music was much better than medication. This was her
second operation and this time the music helped her to remain calm and she didn't need as much sedation. After the operation she was able to manage without pain killers simply by listening to music.
Nash is one of many doctors who are finding that music can help to heal the sick. But how does it help?
When the body is stressed, our heart beats faster, and we take in more air. Studies show that music can help us to reduce the effect of this by lowering our blood pressure and breathing rate. Music can also reduce pain by making our bodies produce endorphins (natural pain relievers).
The benefits of music are not confined to people who are ill. Music can help us in our daily lives. For example, playing a favourite song before an important exam or big match can allow us to relax and forget our worries. In this way we can face difficult situations with a calm heart and a dear mind.
1. Do you agree that music helps to ease pain during the operation?
2. What kind of music do you think really helps in this case?
3. Is music better than medication?
4. Does body depend on how our heart beats?
5. Have you ever experienced a great power of music for healing?
6. How can music help to overcome different problems in our daily life?
Write down a piece of information how music helped you in a difficult situation.
Read and retell the text
I love music, I think people can not live without it. The first thing I do in the morning I switch on my tape - recorder. We can hear music everywhere: in the streets, in the shops, on TV, over the radio, in the cars, in the parks, everywhere. I think it's really doesn't matter what kind of music you prefer: rock, pop, classical, jazz. A lot of people are fond of music. They buy tapes, go to the concerts, visit Concert Halls and Opera Theatres.
I enjoy listening music because it reflects my moods and emotions. Very often when I'm blue, I play my favourite merry songs and feel much better.
Sometimes I attend music halls and the concerts, when popular groups and singers are there. I like watching music programs on TV. I like to know more and more about popular talented groups and singers I like. One wall of my room is covered with posters of "Bon Jovi", "Scorpions", "Roxette", Russian singers Agutin, Sjutkin, Linda and others.
Some people go to music schools, they play different musical instruments, sing in the chorus, try to compose music.
Unfortunately there are so many ungifted singers on the stages, that it makes me sad. To have a good producer doesn't mean to have good ears and voice. I think that only talented people can claim to be singers.
Think and say what you associate with the term ‘terrorism’.
Possible mind map:
• Pre-listening task
T: You will listen to the letter written by a boy to the magazine "An End to Intolerance". What do you think you will hear about?
LIVING IN THE NEW CENTURY
There are no impossible things. Today it is even possible to ruin skyscrapers and to change the way of thinking of the whole nation. After 11 September we are living in a new world where the madness of some terrorists made the airplanes flying bombs. Maybe the half-destroyed Pentagon shows us that safety is just a word, imagination and dream. Even here in Bulgaria I cannot be sure that someday the American Embassy won't be destroyed. I expect worse scenarios like disasters caused by chemical or bacteriological weapons which don't choose whether you will die or not. My parents think the same way as I do. They also think we should buy gas masks and move to the village if something happens.
Perhaps the whole human race will have to unite against those terrorists, so I believe there is only one sure thing: mankind must put an end to war before war puts an end to mankind. After all we have to be optimistic. We should believe that some people still have brains in spite of the religious ideas, because instincts help humans to survive.
Europeans and Americans always talk about democracy and human rights, but why don't such people, the terrorists, use their right to explain and fix problems with their neighbours? Maybe they gore just mad. But I suspect that there is something wrong with our way of living or behaviour. Such problems must be fixed as soon as possible because the buildings will be still falling down, and the relatives will still be crying.
In this world one won't find safety anywhere. We all are potential victims, so we must improve the life on the planet; because if we don't help ourselves, there is nobody to do it.
T: Nowadays there are so many places in the world where innocent people suffer and die, where the buildings are destroyed, and where there is no peaceful place, no hope, no life. You know there exists an international organisation UN, the main task of which is to solve the international conflicts and to help people in difficult moments. I suggest that you divide into two groups, one of which will represent the victims of intolerant attitudes, and the other will work as the experts of UN listening to them and giving their opinions.
The situations for the victims:
-You were among the hostages in Moscow Theatre.
- You are a child from Chechnia. Your family had to leave the country.
- Your friend was in the Trade Centre in New York on September 11.
- You are from Iraq, a schoolboy of 15.
SI: I was among those who survived a nightmare. It seemed to be quite a usual and unusual day at the same time. I was having a nice evening at the theatre watching a famous popular musical. It was like a great holiday. Suddenly the holiday was over. The terrorists destroyed the holiday, the theatre and the people's lives. Those were innocent people, whose sufferings and deaths brought only grief to their families and friends. The terrorists took their lives. Did they "get anything in return? Did they achieve anything? Did they solve their problems?
S2:1 am from Chechnia. Together with my family I was a hostage in Budionovsk. I thank God we have survived;. Being a hostage has changed my thoughts about Good and Evil, my ideas and views about the world. In Chechnia I saw that human life is of no importance or value. If someone's goal is death, why then one causes death to thousands of innocent people in the world. Plenty of people die in Chechnia. The buildings are destroyed, the schools don't work. People have forgotten what a holiday is. Their life is in grey and black colours. The whole generation has grown up in such conditions. It's not human, we should stop it.
S3: "Why did it happen?" people ask themselves. The death toll is beyond our imagination.
We have always thought we were the most protected and safest country. Now we see we were wrong. My Friend worked in the Trade Centre and he perished in the ruins. I will never see him again. This unbelievable tragedy has changed our lives, the words we use, the way we think.
From this moment I believe that I live in danger and such nightmares can happen not only in films but also in real life.
S4: I am from Iraq. I live with my family in a small town. I attend school, my father works, and my mother takes care of the family. We are doing nothing wrong. I heard that our time is called "the age of Muslim wars". I should say that my religion doesn't teach people to kill others. I also want to live in peace, I don't want my town to be destroyed with bombs, I don't want war. It is not humane. It should be stopped.
The samples of the experts ' answers:
S1: Long time ago terrorism appeared in our society, and now it is one of the burning and terrible problems. As every problem it has got reasons and must have the solution. From my point of view the terrorist acts are undertaken by the people who can't or don't even want to look for a peaceful wise solution to the problem.
The harm caused by the terrorist acts is huge. The worst thing here is that innocent people usually suffer or are even murdered.
In September 2001, the whole world was shocked, frightened, and looked in despair at the ruins of the Trade Centre. I think that the terrorist act was directed riot against the USA, but the whole world. The aim was to threaten, to fill the hearts of all people on the Earth with fear.
• LESSON 12
• Mass Media: Radio and Television
Radio is one of the most important means of communication. Radio broadcasts feature music, news, interviews, discussions, descriptions of sports events, advertising.
There are more than 25.000 radio stations and more than 1.750 millions of radios in the world. A major reason for the widespread use of radio is its portability. It means that a radio can be carried around easily. People like to listen to it in homes, at beaches and picnics, while walking down the street or driving a car
. Music is the chief kind of radio entertainment. Usually, stations specialize in one kind of music such as rock, classical, country, etc. Such stations have disc jockeys who introduce and comment on the music.
Programs that provide information include newscasts, talk shows, and descriptions of sport events. Newscasts may include weather forecasts, traffic reports and stock market information. Talk shows present discussions on current political topics such as an election or government policy or on a social issue, such as crime, pollution, poverty, racism, or sexism. Each show has a host or hostess who leads the discussion. Listeners are invited to telephone the stations to ask question or give their opinion about the topic. Most of the games played by major league baseball, basketball, and hockey teams in the US and Canada are broadcast on radio.
Television, also called TV, is one of our most important means of communication. It brings moving pictures and sounds from around the world into millions of homes.
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