Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Family, parent-child problems, generation gap.
I'm 15. My parents got divorced five years ago. My father drank a lot and made our life miserable. Although he made good money, we were always broke. After they had got divorced, I had to stay with my father, although my mother had custody. She had no money and she wouldn't pay child support. When Mum met another man, I was invited to live with them. Now she is thinking of leaving me. Site has told me I'll have to go back to my father. I will not put myself in that position. What should I do? (Tom, 15)
I'm the only child, so I'm often with adults - my parents or their friends. I can sometimes do things with them other children can't do. Both my parents work and so I get more pocket money than children in larger families. I usually invite my-friends from school to come on holidays with us. (Bill, 13)
My family is very big — there are six children, our parents and my grandmother, all in. one house. I have to share a bedroom with two sisters, and we really enjoy that. Big families are fun, you can't get lonely, and that's for sure. We girls share our clothes, and we usually share one birthday party too. (Jane, 14)
Answer the following questions:
How are the families alike or different?
Which of them has met the family problems?
PERSON'S CHARACTER AND APPEARANCE
1. Read and memorize the following words and expressions:
What does he (she) look like ?
He (she) is handsome, beautiful, ugly, attractive, broad-shouldered, dark-eyed, dark-skinned, long-sighted, long-legged, long-armed, near/short-sighted, good-looking, plain, short, stout, slim, slender, stooping, solidly-built, tall, thin.
His (her) hair is curly, dark, fair, grey, straight, short, long, bobbed, thin, scanty, rich, wavy.
He (she) wears his (her) hair parted in the middle, parted on the left (right) side, combed back, done in a knot, in plaits. Her hair falls over her shoulders.
His (her) eyes are dark, blue, hazel, green, close-set, deep-set. His (her) nose is straight, hooked, flat, snub, up-turned, aquiline.
What is he (she) like?
He (she) is shy, generous, reasonable, reserved, frank, modest, shy, timid, reliable, ambitious, pompous, obstinate, obedient, (un)selfish, self-confident, gifted, kind, rude, naughty, chivalrous, straightforward, introverted, (dis)honest, cold, vain, energetic, impulsive, even-tempered, snobbish, hard-working, full of common sense, (unpractical, a man (woman) of action of few words, of strong will (power), irresponsible, thrifty, impudent, tactless, prudent, good-humoured, two-faced, devoted, caring.
How does he (she) look?
He (she) looks tired, fresh, upset, happy, disappointed, sleepy, worried, miserable, unwell, healthy, surprised, as glum as a bear.
Learn the following phrases:
I have a high (low) opinion of him Я високої (поганої) думки про нього
He is easy (hard) to get along with 3 ним легко (важко) порозумітися.
He is a man of (no) character- Biн людина з характером
He is always in a good humour. Biн завжди в доброму гуморі.
She has a bee in her bonnet Вона з дивацтвами.
She is as busy as a bee. Biн холодний, як лід (байдужий)
He is as cold as a fish. Він холодний, як риба.
He is neither fish nor flesh. Biн нi риба, нi м'ясо.
Read and retell the text
I have a very good friend. His (her) name is ... Friends are very important in our life. I think one cannot live without friends. The most important thing for being good friends, to my mind, is to be ready to help one another in any situation, nevertheless how difficult it is, to support one another and to solve all the problems together. And never mind, that the friends may have different interests and hobbies, different likes and dislikes. They say that the friend in need is a friend indeed. I think it is really so. My friend and I always do our best to help one another. We discuss all our troubles and try to find the best decision in any situation. My friend is a very good, kind and clever boy (girl). We often spend our free time together. It is not very easy now, because both of us are very busy — we are going to enter institutes and have a lot of work to do. My friend is going to become a doctor (a teacher, an engineer, a lawyer). Our future professions are different (the same) and the subjects we have to study are different (the same) too, but (and) we like to work together and to help one another in our study. When we have some free time, we go for walks, read and discuss books, watch films, go to discos or play computer games. Playing computer games is our hobby. Both of us are fond of sport. We go in for swimming (tennis) and often go to the swimming pool (tennis court) together. We are football fans and we like to watch and discuss football matches on TV or to go to the stadium. I love my friend very much. I think he (she) is a true friend. Our friendship is very dear to me and I try to do my best to be a good friend too.
The following facts are taken from a government survey of the problems and interests of 14 to 19-year-olds in Britain.
Almost 50 per cent of British teenagers have a part- time job. The most popular jobs are working in shops and stores (usually on Saturdays), doing a paper round (mornings, before school), or babysitting.
Helping at home
Nearly all teenagers (91 per cent) claim they help with the housework. But most admit they only do it because they have to.
Most teenagers get along with their parents quite well. Although 50 per cent believe their parents are too strict, most agree that their parents offer help and support in times of crisis. When there are arguments, however, they are usually about what time they should come home at night, where they are going, and who they are going with.
About three quarters of 14 to 19-year- olds admit that they are not interested in politics. Only 2 per cent ever attend any political meetings, while over 60 per cent believe their interests and concerns are ignored by politicians
Two thirds of those interviewed take part regularly in one or more sporting activities. Swimming is very popular with both sexes (53 per cent), while 40 per cent of boys play football. Other popular sports include ice-skating, table-tennis and darts.
Money is seen as a problem by most teenagers. Without it they can't buy clothes or records, pay for transport, or go to concerts, cinemas or discos.
The majority of girls spend their pocket- money on clothes; half the boys spend it on cassettes. Three quarters try to save at least some money.
The majority of all teenagers agree that it is important to help old or disabled people and to improve the environment. About half want to help poor people in the Third World.
Over half of all teenagers — boys and girls — are concerned about how they look or worried about the clothes they wear. Many are annoyed that they're often treated like children, not adults. Possible unemployment was a major worry for nearly two thirds of those still at school.
- What is most surprising/interesting to you?
-Write down what you think would be the results of such a survey in your areas.
Leisure time and hobby
Many man, many minds. All people are different and so they prefer spending their free time in different ways. Some of them go the parks, forests, to the country and enjoy the beauty of nature. Others like to stay at home watching TV or reading books. There are people who are fond of cinema and theatres, so they try to go there as often as possible. As for me I prefer to spend my free time in different ways. I like to go in for sports, to play football, basketball or volleyball with my friends. I like to watch TV, to listen to a tape recorder and play computer games. Also I like to go for a walk in the country and enjoy the beauty of nature. And my way of spending free time is connected with my hobby. And my hobby is reading books...
I’d like to say that it’s hard to imagine our life without books. Books play such a great role in the development of personality. They help as to forget our daily problems and to pretend we travel to the past, future and to many different, wonderful places that we can’t visit in reality. I am also sure that books are our good friends and teachers. From them we get to know the life around as better, they teach as how to tell right from wrong, to love our Motherland, to understand friendship, people’s feelings. So, they teach us how to live. As for me I like to read different kinds of books.
WHAT I THINK ABOUT SPORT
We all need exercise. This is true for young people in their teens as it is for adults from 20 to 80. Even if you do not plan to make sport your main occupation or career, you still have to exercise at least 2-3 times a week. Regular exercise temporarily tires the body but then actually gives you more energy. This is why many people who suffer from general tiredness should take more exercise rather than more rest. Exercise makes you feel and look better and can also help you to lose weight because it burns up fat to produce energy.
What kind of exercise to choose? The best exercise is one which involves repeated, easy movements: walking, jogging, swimming and cycling are all good examples. They all make your muscles move freely and easily.
Also, exercises such as bending and stretching will add flexibility and a feeling of lightness. If you want to make yourself strong, push-ups and weightlifting will help you. But you shouldn't start with lifting very heavy weights unless you are very fit.
You should soon begin to feel the effects of regular exercise. Your physical and mental energy at school will improve, as well as your sleep. Your physical appearance will change too. You will notice that your body looks better, slimmer: And, what is also important, you will seldom get sick. So, don’t delay and start your exercises today!
1. Answer the questions.
• Do people of all ages need exercise?
• How often do we need to exercise?
• How does regular exercise change our body?
• What is the best kind of exercise? Why?
• What exercise can strengthen your body?
• What are the effects of regular exercise?
Sport is popular all over the world. People go in for sports in all parts of our Earth. I'd like to say that some sports are extremely dangerous and risky," some of them are thrilling, fun, interesting, relaxing, creative, competitive, challenging. Some of them are boring and tiring. Unfortunately there are a lot of tough, barbaric, violent and cutthroat sports.
People who prefer to risk go snorkelling, parachuting, hang gliding, water skiing, surfing, horse riding, sailing, motor-racing, snowboarding, diving; ice skating and skiing.
A great number of people like entertaining, cooperative and energetic sports.
They enjoy playing cricket, rugby, baseball, volleyball, basketball, tennis, badminton, golf, hockey, water polo and other games. I'd like to add that a lot of people like to do archery and weightlifting.
Athletes need special equipment for certain sports. Skis, saddles, tennis racquets, flippers, masks, snorkels, shuttle-cocks, bows and arrows, golf clubs are used for certain sports.
Sport is an exciting thing. Each sport requires courage bravery, accuracy, persistence, determination, dedication, discipline and enthusiasm.
Man and environment
We live in a changeable world where it is very difficult to keep up with new ideas and inventions.
Our life becomes more comfortable and more interesting. We get to know about the smallest details of a child's birth and space computers have become the part of everyday life, we use new devices which make housework much easier. But we seldom think that the majority of inventions, new technologies bring harm to a man.
Today the greatest problem for humanity is pollution. Pollution is contamination of the environment including air, water and land. This problem is extremely topical for heavily industrialised cities. Uncontrolled emissions of harmful substances and dust pollute everything around us. Very often they are the reason of acid rains which fell miles away from the plants and poison earth and water. It is worth mentioning that one third of all emissions into the atmosphere originate from automobile transport.
In 1986, Chornobyl' disaster showed that nuclear energy can be extremely dangerous. Research data show that significant areas of agricultural and forest lands of Ukraine will remain unsafe for a man for eight thousand years.
Another problem of big cities is wastes. The .wastes from plants and factories contaminate water and soil. It has become dangerous to drink unboiled water or eat vegetables and fruit.
These are only some of the problems of the environment. The list may be endless. All these factors threaten mankind and nature, reduce their life, even kill them.1
Millions of people all over the world fight against pollution. It is very important that every person should be responsible for ecologically clean world and act correspondingly.
Answer the questions to the text. 
- What is the greatest problem for humanity today?
- What is pollution?
- What did Chornobyl' disaster show?
- What can be done to protect nature and human life?
- to prepare for discussion such questions:
1. Ecological situation in your native city is very serious. What can be done to improve it?
2. A new chemical plant is to be built in your city. Some people like this idea, others are against it. What is your point of view? Give your reasons "for" and "against" the idea.
- Fill in the blanks to complete the statements below based on the text.
1. We live in ... ... ... where it is difficult to keep up with new ideas and inventions.
2. Today the greatest... ... ... is pollution.
3. This problem is ... ... for industrialized cities.
4. Chornobyl' disaster showed that…. …can be extremely dangerous.
5. It has become dangerous to drink ... ... or to eat fruit and vegetables.
6. It is very important that every person should be responsible for… …and
The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data using the standard Internet.
It is a worldwide network of computers that allows the "sharing" or "networking" of information at remote sites from other academic institutions, research institutes, private companies, government agencies, and individuals.
The Internet is widespread all over the world. It is a three level hierarchy composed of backbone networks ( ARPAnet, NSFNet, MILNET), mid-level networks, and stub networks. The Internet, sometimes called simply “the Net,” allows users to send and receive information from other computers, commercial, university and other research networks. It is a collection of approximately 60,000 independent, interconnected networks.
Nowadays this electronic network of computers includes nearly every university, government, and research facility in the world. It started with four interconnected computers in 1969 and was known as ARPAnet.
The first calculating machine was invented by Charles Babbage, a professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University, in 1912. This machine could do complicated calculations faster than a human mathematician.
Computers became smaller, and now they can stand on a writing desk in a flat, but do calculations much faster. Now a computer can do one million sums in one second. No man can do that.
Today computers are used widely, because they are more efficient .than human beings. They can calculate the orbits of sputniks and spaceships, control machines in factories, work out tomorrow's weather, reserve seats on plane, pay wages; play chess, write poetry or compose music. Computers can also make a translation from one language into another.
They are a great help to a student, a doctor, a teacher, a librarian, a composer, a designer, an agronomist. How much information computer can store! They are ready to help people at any moment. In fact, they can do many of the things we do, but faster and better.
Today computers control nearly everything we do in the world. They serve people in their daily lives and work.
Answer the questions.
1. Who invented the first calculating machine?
2. What could this machine do?
3. When was the computer invented?
4. Why were the first computers very big?
5. What did scientists invent instead of electronic tubes?
6. Are computers smaller now?
7. Can they do calculations faster?
8. What can computers do nowadays?
9. Why are they used widely now?
The rules of dressing
STUDENTS THINK RULES SUPPRESS INDIVIDUALITY
The rules of dress codes have been forever disputed in high schools locally and nationally. Through the years, threats of uniforms in public schools have, sounded due to the problems that many kids have in following these regulations.
Some dressing rules include: no hats or sunglasses in the building; no advertising of alcohol and drugs; no clothes for beaches.
"I understand the reasons for the rules and generally don't have any problems with them," says 15-year-old Tab Guthrie. "You have to look at it from the viewpoint of the teachers. The way we dress shows their reputations."
Others, such as Brian Anderson, 15, disagree. "I find the dress code rules ridiculous. I mean, why can't you wear a hat? I say, as soon as school buys my clothes, I'll wear what they want me to wear."
The High School student handbook says that students should be clean, serviceable and wear suitable clothes, but dress codes are not always followed by students.
The way one dresses reflects their image arid personality. Could it be limited by the rules? The dress code dispute has been an age-old topic. As society grows, and everything is becoming accepted, perhaps, the individual styles of each student will as well.
Answer the following questions.
• How do you understand the phrase "dress code"?
• Do you have the rules of dressing in your school?
• What are the most common rules of dressing in schools?
• What viewpoints of students are represented in the article?
• Do they all support the dress code?
• If you were the principal in your school, would you make the dress code?
• Which of the rules, mentioned in the article, would you include there?
• Could the way of dressing express the individuality of a person? In what way?
- What professions demand the uniform? Why?
- How did the purpose of clothes change through the whole history of humankind?
BAD HABITS. SMOKING.
Read it and think which of these statements are True and which are False.
PLAYING WITH FIRE
• Smokers are more likely to get colds and the flu than non-smokers.
• Cigarettes aren't tested on animals.
• Nicotine is more addictive than most illegal drugs, including heroin.
• One in four smokers starts at the age of 12.
• Cigarettes companies specifically target young people in their advertising.
• Smoking when you're pregnant doesn't hurt your baby.
• Smoking causes heart problems, cancer and ulcers.
• Second-hand smoke from other people's cigarettes is harmless.
• If you don't start smoking before the age of 20, you probably won't ever start.
• More girls than boys smoke.
• Doctors claim that lots of teenagers smoke because they lack self-confidence.
• Giving up smoking can make you gain weight
Smoking used to be considered fashionable. But now people understand the dire consequences of smoking. It's a recognised fact that cigarettes kill 50,000 people every year. Each cigarette shortens your life for five minutes. Smoking causes such diseases as cancer, heart attacks, and ulcers. Tobacco kills more people than alcohol, illegal drugs, AIDS combined.
Smokers not only ruin their own health but also the health of other people. We have to inhale the poisonous air they blow out.
The tobacco industry is allowed to spend huge sums of money on advertising. It's dishonest! We are never shown pictures of real smokers coughing out their lungs early in the morning.
Strict measures should be taken against smoking.
- Smoking should be banned in all public places — schools, hospitals, libraries, restaurants, bars.
- It's necessary to double taxes on tobacco, to raise the price on cigarettes.
It's necessary to ban all kinds of advertising of tobacco on TV, radio, in
- No T-shirts, caps, bags with cigarette ads.
- Tobacco industry should reduce the content of nicotine in cigarettes.
- There must be reliable information about medical findings of hazardous consequences of smoking.
Imagine such a situation. A group of young people is smoking. What will you do if they offer you a cigarette? One boy refuses and says that he doesn’t advise them to smoke as well. Another boy is afraid to refuse the offer and begins to cough, almost faints.
Why do you think he took his first cigarette? Why do people start smoking?
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