ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
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Match the descriptions with the names of parts of a book.
Read the text and refer the headings (A-E) to the appropriate paragraphs.
A. Writers of the Sixties
B. The father of the national revival
C. Different literary movements
D. The dominant Ukrainian literary figure in the last quarter of the 19th century
E.The most important follower of Kotliarevsky
F.New opportunities for literary expression
G. Period of imprisonment, exile or execution
H.Reawakening of Ukrainian national consciousness
I. Period of relative freedom of thought
J.The new trend of realism and its philosophy of positivism
K.The Romantic movement
L.A gentle little woman - a giant of Ukrainian literature
M.The "father" of the vernacular literature
N.The transition to modernism
O. The most important Romantic after Shevchenko
LITERATURE OF UKRAINE
o It was not until the end of the 19th century that modern Ukrainian literature emerged out of the colloquial Ukrainian tongue and the writers of that time greatly contributed to the reawakening of Ukrainian national consciousness.
o Ivan Kotlyarevsky, classical poet and playwright, inaugurated modern Ukrainian literature with his “Eneyida”, a brilliant parody on Virgil’s “Aeneid”, turning ancient Greek characters into Ukrainian Cossacks. Kotlyarevsky’s works, full of humour and recognizable portraits, were very popular with common people, and influenced many other writers.
o Classical prose appeared with Hryhorii Kvitka-Osnovyanenko’s novel “Marusia” and his short stories “Little Russian Stories”.
o In the 1830s the city of Kharkiv became the centre of Ukrainian Romanticism and under its influence the authors Izmail Sreznevsky, Levko Borovykovsky, Amvrosy Metlynsky and Mykola Kostomarov published ethnographic materials, native interpretations of Ukrainian history, and collections of folk legends and Cossak chronicles. The Romantic movement reached its peak and found its expressions in M. Kostomarov’s work “Book Of Genesis of the Ukrainian People”, which called for an end to tsarist rule and the creation of a free, democratic Ukraine within a Slavic Federation.
o The early poetry of Taras Shevchenko, the outstanding Ukrainian poet of the 19th century, drew a sad and unhappy portrait of Ukrainian history. His poem “The Haidamaks”, “The Dream”, “Caucasus”, “The Epistle” and many others made him the founder of modern Ukrainian realistic literature.
o After T. Shevchenko, the most important Romantic was Panteleymon Kulish, the author of “The Black Counsil”.
o Ukrainian realism began with one of the first women-writers Marko Vovchok and was continued by the novelist Ivan Nechuy-Levytsky who draw the true picture of the village life in his work “The Kaidash Family” and the life of Ukrainian intelligentsia in “The Clouds”. Panas Myrny took the realistic traditions and depicted contemporary social injustice and the birth of social protest in his work “Do the Oxen Low When the Manger is Full?”.
o The outstanding Ukrainian poet Ivan Franko in his dramas, lyric poetry, short stories and poems “Moses” and “Noblemen’s Jests” wrote a chronicle of contemporary Galician society and called Ukrainian people to fight against social and national oppression.
o It will always be a mystery how a gentle little woman with an incurable disease, Lesya Ukrainka (the pen name of Laryssa Kosach), could turn into a giant of Ukrainian literature. Her verses “Dum Spiro Spero”, “On the Wings of Songs” and poems like “The Old tale” and “The Forest Song” gave hope to the oppressed people of Ukraine and made them stronger in their spirit.
o At the close of the 19th century, realism gave way to modernism, which produced such great Ukrainian writers as Mykhailo Kotsyubynsky with his revolutionary novel “Fata Morgana” and Vasyl Stefanik.
o In the first three decades of the 20th century, Ukrainian Literature experienced a renaissance. Different literary movements quickly changed each other or lived side by side and competed with each other. Realism with a decadent strain was characteristic of Volodymyr Vynnychenko’s prose. Pavlo Tychyna was a leading Symbolist poet. Neoclassisism produced outsanding poets in Mykola Zelov and Maksym Rylsky. Futurism was represented by one of the greatest 20th century Ukrainian poets Mykola Bazhan.
o After the Russian Revolution of 1917, until 1932 Ukrainian literature experienced relative freedom. Many new literary groups and organizations were formed, young writers’ works were published, new literary magazines appeared. The books of Mykola Kulish, Mykola Hvylyovyi, Hryhorii Kosynka, Yuriy Yanovsky, Oleksandr Dovzhenko, Ostap Vyshnia and many other Ukrainian writers and poets were popular among common people.
o In 1932 the Communist Party began enforcing Socialist Realism as the required literary style. Its typical representatives became Oleksandr Korniychuk and Mykhailo Stelmakh. The others who did not follow the directive of the Party leader were repressed. It is believed that during that period 250 Ukrainian writers were imprisoned, exiled or executed. But despite the repressions Ukrainian literature gave the world such outstanding writers as Oles Honchar and Oleksandr Dovzhenko.
o The post-Stalinist period saw the birth of a new generation of Ukrainian writers, known as the “Writers of the Sixties”, who rejected Socialist Realism. Their ranks included Vasyl Stus, Lina Kostenko, Vasyl Symonenko, Vilaly Korotych, Ivan Drach and some others. Repressive measures taken in the 1970s silenced many of them who either turned back to the approved style or were driven from the country.
o Independence of Ukraine opened new opportunities for literary expression, and we are sure that the 21st century will see a new flourish of Ukrainian literature.
3. THINK SMART!
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