ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

VII. Answer the following questions



 

1) What is the Webster's dictionary definition of the hardware?

2) What groups of hardware exist?

3) What is input hardware? What are the examples of input hardware?

4) What is the mouse designed for?

5) What is processing hardware? What are the basic types of memory used in a PC?

6) What is a storage hardware? What is CD-ROM used for? Can a user record his or her data on a CD? What kind of storage hardware can contain more information: CD-ROM, RAM or ROM?

7) What is modem used for? Can a PC user communi­cate with other people without a modem?

VIII. Which of the following statements are true and which are false. Give your reason.

 

SENTENCES TRUE FALSE CORRECTION
1. The purpose of the input hardware is to collect data and convert them into a form suitable for computer processing.      
2. Scanner is used to input graphics only.      
3. CPU reads and interprets software and prints the results on paper.      
4. User is unable to change the contents of ROM.      
5. Printer is a processing hardware because it shows the information.      
6. Modem is an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data from one computer to another via telephone or other communication lines.      
7. The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions and data.      
8.Flash drives are connected to а hard disc of the computer      

IX. Match the sentences and find the continuation

 

1. Input hardware collects data and converts them into 2. The central processing unit (CPU) is 3. Hard disk is a rigid disk 4. Modem is 5. Hardcopy output can paper with text (word or numbers) or graphics printed on it. Softcopy output is displayed on a monitor. 6. The purpose of storage hardware is   a) coated with magnetic material.     b) an electronic device.   c) a form suitable for computer processing d) the brain of the computer. e) to store computer instructions f) be held in your hand.

 

-It makes possible the transmission of data to or from computer via telephone or other communication lines - The most common input device is a keyboard. - It is used for storing programs and relatively large amounts of data. - It reads and interprets software instructions and coordinates the processing. - It stores data as electromagnetic signals. -It can be a sheet of paper with text (word or numbers) or graphics printed on it.  

X. Fill in the gaps

 

microphone component interprets flexible hand-held input information coated processing execution coordinates

1. The central processing unit reads _________and software instructions and _________ the processing.

2. The mouse is a ________device connected to the computer by a small cable.

3. Floppy disk (diskette) — a thin, ___________plastic disk _________with magnetic material.

4. Memory is the ___________ of the computer in which ____________is stored.

5. ___________ and video camera can be also used to _________ data into the computer.

6. _________ hardware directs the ____________of software instructions in the computer.

 

XI. Make the right choice

1. Hard disk is ___________coated with magnetic material.

a) a floppy disk c) a flexible disk
b) a plastic disk d) a rigid disk

 

2. Monitor is a display screen for _________computer data, television programs.

a) processing c) viewing
b) executing d) coordinating

 

3. The most common components of processing hardware are ____________________________

a) microphone and video camera c) loading and running programs
b) programmed instructions d) the central processing unit and main memory.

 

4. CD-ROMs are very popular now because of the _______________.

a) growing speed c) rigid material
b) flexibility d) software instructions

 

5. Modem is an electronic device that makes possible _________________.

a) the procession of data c) the transmission of data
b) the creation of data d) the storage of data

6. ROM (read only memory) is computer memory used to __________________ to the system.

a) transmit the data c) store the information
b) hold programmed instructions d) keep the information

XII. Make up sentences

1. cable / the / is / a / small / device / by / to / mouse / computer / connected / a / hand-held / the.

2. perform / have / operations / you / more / in / your / can / the / more / memory / you / computer / the.

3. graphics / is / a / output / produces / device / that / computer / of / data / copy / a / paper / or / printer.

4. data / screen / viewing / computer / is / for / a / display / monitor.

5. the / keyboard / a / input / device / is / common / most.

6. material / with / coated / a / rigid / disk / is / disk / magnetic / hard.

7. stored / of / the / in / is / the / computer / which / component / information / is / memory.

XIII. Translate the sentences from Ukrainian into English

1. Центральний процесор - мозок комп'ютера.

2. Принтер - комп'ютерний пристрій виводу, який видає паперову копію даних або графіки.

3. Чим більше пам'яті ви маєте в своєму комп'ютері, тим більше операцій ви можете виконати.

4. ROM (постійна пам'ять) є пам'яттю комп'ютера, яка використовується для того, щоб утримувати запрограмовані інструкції до системи.

5. RAM (оперативна пам'ять) є пам'яттю, яка використовується для того, щоб створити, завантажити і виконати програми.

6. Гнучкий диск (дискета) - тонкий, зазвичай гнучкий пластмасовий диск покритий магнітним матеріалом.

7. Пам'ять - компонент комп'ютера, в якому зберігається інформація.

8. Флэш-память є твердотілою, перезаписуваною пам'яттю.

 

XIV. Points for discussion

Which device or format would be most suitable for storing these things?

1) The operating system and the programs on a home computer

2) An electronic encyclopedia for children

3) A movie in digital format

4) The music tracks by your favourite artist

5) All the files generated by a company in one day

6) The photos taken with a digital camera


Text 4

COMPUTER OPERATIONS

(Types of data)

 

I. Read and translate the text

Much of the processing computers can be divided into two general types of operation. Arithmetic operations (арифметичні дії) are computations (обчислення) with numbers such as addition (додавання), subtraction (віднімання), and other mathematical procedures. Early computers performed (виконували) mostly arithmetic operations, which gave the false impression (помилкове враження) that only engineers and scientists could benefit (мати користь) from computers. Of equal importance(рівна важливість) is the computers ability to compare(здатність порівнювати ) two values(величини) to determine(визначати) if one is larger than, smaller than, or equal (рівний) to the other. This is called a logical operation. The comparison (порівняння) may take place between numbers, letters, sounds, or even drawings (малюнки). The processing of the computer is based on the computer's ability to perform logical and arithmetic operations.

Instructions must be given to the computer to tell it how to process the data (обробляти дані) it receives and the format needed for output (виведення даних) and storage(зберігання). The ability to follow the program sets computers apart from most tools (інструментів). However (Проте), new tools ranging from typewriters to microwave ovens have embedded computers (вбудовані комп’ютери), or built-in computers. An embedded computer can accept (приймати) data to use several options in its program, but the program itself cannot be changed. This makes these devices flexible and convenient but not the embedded computers itself.

Types of data

With the advent (прихід) of new computer applications and hardware, the definition of data (визначення даних) has expanded (розширяти) to include many types. Numeric data consists of numbers and decimal points (десяткові крапки), as well as the plus (+) and minus (-) signs. Both arithmetic operations and logical operations are performed on numeric data(числові дані). This means that numbers can be used for calculations (підрахунки) as well as sorted and compared to each other.

Text, or textual data (текстові дані), can contain (містити) any combination of letters, numbers and special characters. Sometimes textual data is known as alphanumeric data(буквено-цифрові дані).

Various forms of data that we can hear and see makes up audio-visual data. The computer can produce sounds, music and even human voice. It can also accept audio information as an input. Data can also take form of drawings and video sequences(відео послідовності).

Physical data is captured from the environment. For example, light, temperature and pressure are all types of physical data. In many large buildings, computer systems process several kinds of physical data to regulate operations. Computers can set off security alarms, control temperature and humidity (вологість), or turn lights on and off, all in response to (у відповідь на) physical data. These applications increase people’s safety and save the time and money.

II. Match the meaning





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