X. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate prepositions.

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X. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate prepositions.


up; at(3); to(8); on(3); of(5); in; for(5); from.  


1. Before the Civil Procedure Rules, it was largely __ __ the parties, and their legal advisers, to progress the case __ their own pace, to decide what issues they wanted to have heard and to call whatever evidence they wished __ the trial.

2. Now courts must restrict expert evidence __ what is reasonably required to decide the case, they can order that instead of each party having its own expert, а single ‘joint expert’ can investigate and report __ a technical problem __ behalf of all parties.

3. If а defendant does not reply__ the claim, the claimant may obtain а default judgment – and the court will award judgment in his favour without the need __ going to trial.

4. In cases of defamation jury trials have acquired а bad reputation as they have to decide how much money should be awarded as compensation __ the defamation. Jurors have no experience__ this area, and __ time __ time have made some extraordinarily high awards.

5. Civil litigation had become very expensive, with the costs __ going to court being far too high and out of proportion __ the amount __ stake in the case.

6. A person may be sued __ damages if he commits a trespass __ someone else’s land or goods or body.

7. The tort __ defamation concerns damage __ reputation.

8. If someone assaults you, you will have a claim __ trespass __ the person.

9. The original owner of property creates a legally binding trust, giving the property __ trust to another person __ the benefit of a third person.

10. If a person deliberately disobeys any court order he will be guilty __ a contempt __ court and the punishment __ it is a fine or committal to prison.

XI. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

1.Гражданский процесс есть установленный нормами гражданского процессуального права порядок разбирательства и разрешения судом гражданских дел, исполнения решений и постановлений судов.

2. Суд общей юрисдикции может рассматривать судебные дела любой категории.

3. Суд специальной юрисдикции может рассматривать судебные дела только одной категории, например: только дела о банкротстве, дела се­мейных отношений - развод, усыновление, удочерение и др.

4. Нападение на человека, избиение его означает нарушение прав личности.

5. Воровство и ограбление со взломом помещения означает нарушение права владения собственностью.

Grammar Revision



I. Analyze the following sentences paying attention to the use of the modal verbs and their equivalents. Explain their meaning. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. Judges must set timetables to bring cases on for trial as quickly as possible; they must control and try to simplify the issues that have to be decided; and they must put strict limits on the evidence which may be called at the trial.

2. Family cases may involve the court giving orders which relate to the circumstances in which family members are to live.

3. In civil cases the applicant does not have to make the court sure about the case.

4. It must always be easier to make someone else believe that something is probably so than to make them sure of it.

5. The court has to decide if either party has acted “in breach of contract”, and if so, what the compensation should be.

6. For a contract to be enforceable six conditions must be met.

7. Anyone who takes your belongings without permission may be prosecuted in the criminal courts for theft.

8. If a police officer arrests you without lawful cause, a claim can be brought against him.

9. Sometimes a judge may decide that both sides have been to blame to some extent; then the court will have to apportion blame accordingly.

10. Because almost any question involving the welfare of a child can be referred to the Family Division, the judges of this court can be asked to make important and difficult decisions about the medical treatment of children.




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