II. Answer these questions about the text.

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II. Answer these questions about the text.

1. In most countries there is only one legal profession. Can you explain what it means?

2. What expression did the author use to underline that there are two types of lawyers in England?

3. What is the main difference between solicitors and barristers?

4. What is the first thing revolutionaries usually do on seizing power and why?

5. What is the reason for lawyers’ unpopularity?

6. In what circumstances do people usually appreciate the role of lawyers?

7. What influence did the lawyers have on the development of personal liberties?

8. What are the main provisions of the lawyers’ codes of professional conduct in respect of the professional secrets?

9. What is the lawyers’ ”duty to the court”?

10. What is a question relating to the legal profession that has troubled people for many years?

11. What was Dr. Johnson’s reply on the question “What do you think of supporting a cause you know to be bad?

12. What are the rules lawyers must obey if they defend someone guilty?

13. What should every lawyer do even if he feels that the defence is unlikely to succeed?

14. Why is it so important for lawyers to remember that they should represent their clients, not to judge them?

15. What does the expression ‘professionally embarrassed” mean?

16. What do the judges and members of the legal profession have in common?

17. Can you give any examples of advances in the civil liberties due to lawyers?

18. Can a solicitor be a barrister and vice versa?

19. What is the difference between fees and costs?

20. Who pays the lawyers’ costs? Is there any order regulating the system of payment?

21. What can litigants do if they can’t afford to pay the fees of their lawyers?

22. Where can people who have legal problems receive free advice?

23. What do you know about legal advice clinics and Law Offices?

24. What new system of payment of fees was introduced?

25. What are the “pros” and the “cons” of this system mentioned in the text?

26. What is the legal privilege given to the clients?

27. In what circumstances can we say there is no legal privilege?

28. What is the essence of the lawyers’ immunity from suit?

29. How was this old law changed?

30. In what circumstances is this change applicable? Give an example.

31. Why is the problem of being sued for professional negligence so regularly discussed?

III. Draw up the plan for rendering the text and then summarize it.

IV. Discuss these issues.


1. Do you know a lawyer whose career was (or is) so successful that he (or she) became a part of our history? Make a plan of your story and present it to your group-mates. Try to find reasons of his (or her) popularity. Can we say that the development of the law is due to this person?

2. What are the positive and the negative sides of the legal profession? To answer this question, reread the quotations presented on p. 87.

3. Find out some interesting facts about the legal profession in the USA, Canada, Australia.



Chapter XIX

Human Rights


Vocabulary List


1. alter - изменить

2. apologist - защитник

3. applicant - проситель

4. assault - физическое насилие

5. breach - разрушать, нарушать

6. challenge – давать отвод

7. chastisement – дисциплинарное взыскание

8. cling (to) – стараться сохранить что-то, оставаться лояльным

9. confront – противостоять

10. conspiracy – секретность

11. construe – толковать, объяснять

12. conviction – осуждение, признание виновным

13. cross-examine – подвергнуть перекрестному допросу

14. debase – унижать достоинство

15. discontinue – приостановка, прекращение дела

16. discretionary – предоставленный на усмотрение

17. draw up – составлять

18. impartiality – беспристрастность

19. inalienable – неотчуждаемый, неотъемлемый

20. incorporation – вхождение, слияние

21. lawfulness – законность

22. legitimate – законный

23. relief – компенсация, пособие

24. uphold – поддерживать


Vocabulary notes


1. compulsory labour – принудительный труд

2. contempt of court – неуважение к суду

3. converse principle – обратный принцип

4. Declaration of Incompatibility – Декларация о несовместимости (пр. какого-либо законного акта с конвенцией)

5. equality of arms – равноценность оружия

6. marital status – семейное положение

7. of necessity – по необходимости

8. on the agenda – в повестке

9. Parole Board – совет по досрочному или условному освобождению

10. positive law – установленное законодательство

11. racial bias – расовое предубеждение

12. racial hatred – расовая ненависть

13. seam of freedoms - пласт свобод

14. bring smth. into line – привести в соответствие с чем-то

15. make applications for the Court – подавать заявления в суд

16. raise the rights – защищать права

17. resolve the matter – разрешить вопрос, проблему

18. universal human rights – общие для всех права



Reading Comprehension


I. Scanning

1. Find in the text the information about the preamble to the Human Rights Act 1998.

2. Find the place indicating the first task of the Council of Europe.

3. Find in the text the information about the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg.

4. Find three fundamental characteristics of Convention Rights.

II. Skimming.

1. Look more closely through the first part of the chapter and decide what it is devoted to.


a. Human Rights.

b. the Human Rights Act origin.

c.Convention Rights.


2. Look through the second part of the chapter and decide which of the following statements renders the main idea of the given passage.


a. The provisions of the Act affect us all.

b. Human rights law is not simple.

c. The Act is a result of human rights movement.


Vocabulary Work


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