US STATES FIGHT BACK TO PROTECT RIGHTS OF PROPERTY OWNERS



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US STATES FIGHT BACK TO PROTECT RIGHTS OF PROPERTY OWNERS



Before you listen to the following broadcast match the key words and expressions in the left column with their translation in the right one.

1. local governments 2. eminent domain 3. to take the land for public uses 4. eminent domain for private development 5. Supreme Court 6. justice 7. fair decision 8. to act on threats 9. to take steps 10. to pass the law 11. to restrict eminent domain 12. voter 13. state of law 14. right of property a) право собственности; имущественное право b) местные органы власти c) право государства на принудительное отчуждение частной собственности d) законодательство штата (региональное) e) отчуждать землю в пользу общественных нужд f) право государства на принудительное отчуждение частной собственности в пользу иного частника g) лицо, имеющее право голоса; голосующий, участник голосования h) Верховный суд (федеральный и в большинстве штатов США) i) судья j) ограничить права государства на принудительное отчуждение частной собственности k) справедливое решение l) реализовывать угрозы m) принимать меры n) принимать закон

 

Listen to the text; answer the questions below using the abovementioned key words.

1. What does eminent domain mean? What is a traditional way of using it within the frameworks of local (regional) government powers?

2. Describe the case of Kelo versus. What was the decision of local government subject to this case? Do you think it was a fair decision or not? Why do you think so?

3. Why did the Castle Coalition fight the Kelo case before the Supreme Court? What were the main arguments of this nonprofit group in order to restrict eminent domain for private development?

4. What were the main results of such fighting on the level of states?

5. What do you know about the business law and its influence on the business activities?

Listen to the text again; check your answers; name the main idea and retell the story.

II. Read and translate the following texts and be ready for their discussion on the basis of active vocabulary, key terms quiz, review and discussion questions.

BUSINESS LAW

One can not conduct any type of business activity without reference to business law. All business decisions must take into account their legal consequences.Sometimes in-depth planning and review of the law are necessary; other times it is a simple matter to check the legality of a proposal action. Executives learn how to apply legal standards to their decisions in much the same manner as they develop any other business skill; thorough constant practice and ongoing study. If they lack the experience and judgment to determine the legality of a matter, they should consult the attorney.

Law consists of the standards set by government and society in the form of either legislation or custom. The broad body of principles, regulations, rules, and customs that governs the actions of all members of society, including business people, is derived from several sources.

Common lawrefers to the body of law arising out of judicial decisions related to the unwritten law the United States inherited from England. This unwritten law is based on customs and court decisions made in early England.

As U.S. investments in foreign countries grow, and as more U.S. firms form joint ventures offshore, knowledge of international law becomes crucial. International lawrefers to the numerous regulations governing international commerce. These laws arise from many sources. Companies must be aware of the domestic laws of trading partners, the rules set by the international trading community, and the guidelines established by regional and international organizations.

Nature of Business Law

In a broad sense, all law is business law because all businesses are subject to the entire body of law, just as individuals are. But, in a narrow sense, business law consists of those aspects of law that most directly influence and regulate the management of various types of business activity. Specific laws vary widely from industry to industry. Laws affecting small firms are different from those governing large corporations. The legal interests of automobile industry, for example, differ from those of real estate developers. State and local statutes also have varying applications. Some state laws effectively regulate all business operating in a particular state, regardless of the size or nature of the enterprise. Workers’ compensation laws, which govern payments to workers for injuries incurred on the job, are an example. Other state laws control only certain businesses or business activities. For example, states have specific licensing requirements for business like law firms, funeral homes, and hair styling salons. Many local ordinances also deal with specific business activities. For example, many communities regulate the size and type of signs that business display.



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