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This week, President Barack Obama went before Congress and the nation to better explain his health care proposals. He said they would provide security and stability to people who have insurance, and make it possible to insure millions who do not. Individuals would be required to have basic health insurance, the way most states require automobile insurance. Large businesses would have to either offer their workers health care or help cover the costs. Insurers could not deny coverage to people who already have a condition, or cancel coverage if people get sick. Reaction to the speech suggested that it may have done more to unite the president's own Democrats than to gain Republican support. But the Democrats will need party unity if they try to pass reform legislation on their own.

Liberal Democrats support the proposal for a self-supporting government insurance plan to compete with private ones. The government already insures Americans who are retired, poor, disabled or military veterans. The president says offering this choice would keep insurance companies "honest" and lead to better prices and quality. But insurance companies and conservatives in Congress say the so-called public option would mean unfair competition. Opponents also say it would lead to restrictions on care. In his speech Wednesday night, President Obama said the idea is only one part of his plan and should not be used as an excuse.

BARACK OBAMA: "I will not waste time with those who have made the calculation that it's better politics to kill this plan than to improve it. [Applause] I won't stand by while the special interests use the same old tactics to keep things exactly the way they are. If you misrepresent what's in this plan, we will call you out. [Applause]"

He estimates the cost of the plan at around nine hundred billion dollars over ten years, but says it would not add to the federal deficit. Most of it, he says, could be paid for by reducing waste in the existing health care system.

The Census Bureau says more than forty-six million Americans, about fifteen and a half percent, did not have health insurance last year. On Thursday the president noted estimates that nearly six million more have joined the uninsured since the recession intensified last September.

Also Thursday, Mister Obama said he accepted an apology from Representative Joe Wilson. The South Carolina Republican shouted "You lie!" during the speech to a rare joint session of Congress.

Three committees in the House of Representatives and two in the Senate were asked to develop bills. The House committees have approved versions that will need to be worked into a single bill. One Senate committee has completed action. That leaves the Finance Committee, which is expected to consider a proposal next week. Three Democrats and three Republicans have been negotiating a bill for several months. Vice President Joe Biden says he expects health care legislation to be completed by November. President Obama notes that it was Theodore Roosevelt who first called for health care reform nearly a century ago. "I am not the first president to take up this cause," he said, "but I am determined to be the last."


3. What are the relationships between terms risk and insurance? What are the main methods of dealing risks under the framework of insurance?Describe some of the risks which can be covered by insurance. Why do you think that political risks are not usually covered by insurance policies?

4. What does marine insurancemean?Why is it considered to be the basic and the oldest form of insurance?

5. What does the term P&I Clubmean?What are its main differences from the other types of insurance companies? Describe the main principles and procedures of P&I Club policies within the frameworks of marine insurance.

6. P&I clubs practically are the only insurance companies which arrange the policies against the political and war risks. What does the term war risk mean in this connection? In order to understand the problem under discussion read and translate the following contract clause and be ready to discuss it from the positions of insurance and linguistics:



a. For the purpose of this Clause, the words "War Risks" shall include any war (whether actual or threatened), act of war, civil war, hostilities, revolution, rebellion, civil commotion, warlike operations, the laying of mines (whether actual or reported), acts of piracy, acts of terrorists, acts of hostility or malicious damage, blockades (whether imposed against all vessels or imposed selectively against vessels of certain flags or ownership, or against certain cargoes or crews or otherwise howsoever), by any person, body, terrorist or political group, or the Government of any state whatsoever, which may be dangerous or are likely to be or to become dangerous to the Vessel, her cargo, crew or other persons on board the Vessel.

b. The Vessel, unless the written consent of the Owners is first obtained, shall not be ordered nor continue to or go through any port, place, area or zone (whether land or sea), or any waterway or canal, where it reasonably appears that the Vessel, her cargo, crew or other persons on board the Vessel, in the reasonable judgement of the Owners, may be, or are likely to be, exposed to War Risks. Should the Vessel be within any such place as aforesaid, which only becomes dangerous, or is likely to be or become dangerous, after her entry into it, the Owners shall have the right to require the Vessel to leave such area.

c. The Vessel shall not load contraband cargo, or to pass through any blockade, whether such blockade be imposed on all vessels, or is imposed selectively in any way whatsoever against vessels of certain flags or ownership, or against certain cargoes or crews or otherwise howsoever, or to proceed to an area where she shall be subject, or is likely to be subject to a belligerent's right of search and/or confiscation.

d. If the insurers of the war risks insurance, when Clause 13 is applicable, should require payment of premiums and/or calls because, pursuant to the Charterers' orders, the Vessel is within, or is due to enter and remain within, any area or areas which are specified by such insurers as being subject to additional premiums because of War Risks, then such premiums and/or calls shall be reimbursed by the Charterers to the Owners at the same time as the next payment of hire is due.

e. The Charterers shall have the liberty:

(i) to comply with all orders, directions, recommendations or advice as to departure, arrival, routes, sailing in convoy, ports of call, stoppages, destinations, discharge of cargo, delivery, or in any other way whatsoever, which are given by the Government of the Nation under whose flag the Vessel sails, or any other Government, body or group whatsoever acting with the power to compel compliance with their orders or directions;

(ii)to comply with the orders, directions or recommendations of any war risks underwriters who have the authority to give the same under the terms of the war risks insurance; (iii) to comply with the terms of any resolution of the Security Council of the United Nations, any directives of the European Community, the effective orders of any other Supranational body which has the right to issue and give the same, and with national laws aimed at enforcing the same to which the Owners are subject, and to obey the orders and directions of those who are charged with their enforcement.


7. Piracy is one of the major components of the War Clauseas well as one of the most difficult problems within the process of marine insurance. What do you know about piracy in general as well as insurance coverage in case of piracy insured accident? Hope the following broadcast will help you to understand the problem under discussion. Read and translate the text and be ready for its discussion from the positions of insurance and linguistics:


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