GETTING A JOB, THE INTERVIEW



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

GETTING A JOB, THE INTERVIEW



Before you listen to the following broadcast match the key words and expressions in the left column with their translation in the right one.

1. job interview 2. human resources consultant 3. to work for a company 4. behavioral-based interview 5. interviewer (“killer”) 6. to walk in the door 7. thank you letter 8. “how your skills match the company needs” 9. business etiquette 10. communication skills 11. teamwork skills 12. to fly off the handle 13. to take a weakness and make it into a positive 14. “you are assessing the company as much as they are assessing you” a) «насколько вы оцениваете компанию, настолько компания оценивает вас» b) собеседование при приеме на работу c) консультант (менеджер) по кадрам d) превратить вашу слабость в достоинство e) работать в компании f) собеседование на основе поведения соискателя g) сорваться, разозлиться h) интервьюер (лицо, ведущее собеседование) i) входить в помещение j) навыки работы в команде k) благодарственное письмо l) “как ваши навыки удовлетворяют потребности компании» m) навыки общения n) деловой этикет  

 

Listen to the text; answer the questions below using the abovementioned key words.

1. What does job interview mean? What is its main purpose?

2. What does behavioral-based interview mean? What does STAR mean in Sharon Armstrong’s opinion? What methods of preparing for behavioral-based interview does she propose in order not to fly off the handles?

3. How do you understand the word business etiquette? What does “thank you letter” mean? What are the major purposes and structure of such letter?

4. What does the terms “communication skills” and “teamwork skills” mean? Do you have such skills?

5. Can you show your misunderstanding within a process of interview? What should you do in case you don’t understand the interviewer? May you ask the questions to an interviewer?

6. “The secret is to take a weakness and make it into a positive”. How can you change your weakness into your strength? Give some examples.

7. “You are assessing the company as much as they are assessing you”. Comment this statement of Sharon Armstrong.

Listen to the text again; check your answers; name the main idea and retell the story.

II. Read and translate the following texts and be ready for their discussion on the basis of active vocabulary, key terms quiz, preparing for job interview worksheets, review and discussion questions.

THE JOB INTERVIEW

The first objective of your job search is to obtain an appointment for an interview with prospective employers. Once you have the appointment, begin planning for the interview. You will want to enter the interview equipped with a good understanding of the Company, its industry, and its competition. Prepare yourself by researching the following essential information about the Company:

· How was the Company founded?

· What is the current position in the industry?

· What is the financial status?

· In which markets does it compete?

· Who are its competitors?

· How many people does it employ?

· Where are its plants and offices located?

This information is useful in several ways. First, it helps to give you a feeling of confidence during the interview. Second, it can keep you from making an unwise employment decision. Third, it can impress interviewers, who often try to determine how much applicants know about the Company as a way of evaluating their interest level. Candidates who do not make the effort to obtain such information often are eliminated from further consideration.

Where can you get this pre-interview information? First, your school placement office or employment agency should have information on prospective employers. Business instructors at your school also may provide tips. Your school or community library should have various references to help you investigate a firm, or you can write directly to a Company. Many firms publish careers brochures as well as annual reports. Finally, ask friends and relatives for input. Often they, or someone they know, may have had an experience with the Company.

There are two main reasons for poor performance in an interview. Interviewers report that many students fail due to ineffective communication, either because of inadequate preparation for the interview or a lack of confidence. Remember that the interviewer first will determine whether you can communicate effectively. You should be specific in answering and asking questions and should clearly and positively express your concerns. The questions interviewers ask most often include the following:

· Why do you want this job?

· Where do you see yourself ten years from now?

· What are you strengths?

· What are your weaknesses?

· Why should I hire you?

It is important to know who is doing the interviewing and who will make a decision. Most people who conduct initial job interviews work for the firm’s human recourses division. They are in staff positions, which mean that they can make recommendations to other managers about which individuals should be employed. Generally, line managers get involved in interviewing latter in the hiring process. In some instances, the decision is made by human resources personnel and the immediate supervisor of the prospective employee. More likely, it is made entirely by the immediate supervisor. Rarely do the human resources have solve hiring authority for professional jobs.

A typical format is the open-ended interviewin which the interviewer does not talk much, forcing you to talk about yourself and your goals. If you appear unorganized, the interviewer may eliminate you on that basis alone. When face with this type of situation, be sure to express your thoughts clearly and keep the conversation on target. Talk for about ten minutes, and then ask some specific questions of the interview. Listen carefully to the responses. Remember that if you are prepared for a job interview, it will involve a mutual exchange of information.

If you do well in the first interview, you probably will be invited to come back for another interview. Sometimes you will be asked to take a battery tests. Most students do very well on these tests because they have had plenty of practice in college!

Tests

The primary aim of testing is to obtain data about the applicants that help predict their probable success as managers. The most commonly used tests can be classified as follows:

1. Intelligence testsare designed to measure mental capacity and to test memory, speed of thought, and ability to see relationships in complex problem situations.

2. Proficiency and aptitude testsare constructed to discover interests, existing skills, and potential for acquiring skills.

3. Vocational testsare designed to show a candidate’s most suitable occupation or the areas of in which the candidate’s interests match the interests of people working in those areas.

4. Personality testsare designed to reveal candidate’s personal characteristics and the way candidates may interact with others, thereby giving a measure of leadership potential.

Tests have a number of limitations, however. First, competent industrial psychologists agree that tests are not accurate enough to be used as the sole measure of candidate’s characteristics but must be interpreted in the light of each individual’s entire history. Second, the test user must know what tests do and what their limitations are. Third, before any test is widely used, it should be tried out, if possible on personnel currently employed for an enterprise, to see whether it is valid for employees whose managerial abilities are already known. Fourth, it is also important that tests be administered and interpreted by experts in the field. Finally, tests should not discriminate unfairly and should be consistent with laws and government guidelines)

(Based on:Kurtz D., Boone L., Boon and Kurtz Business)

 

III. Read and translate this text from English into Russian and be ready for its discussion on the basis of active vocabulary, key terms quiz, review and discussion questions.

 

INTERVIEWS

Virtually every manager hired or promoted by a company is interviewed by one or more people. Despite its general use, the interview is considerably distrusted as a reliable and valid means for selecting managers. Various interviewers may weight or interpret the obtained information differently. Interviewers often do not ask the right questions. They may be influenced by the interviewee’s general appearance, which may have little bearing on job performance. They also frequently make up their minds early in the interview, before they have all the information necessary to make a fair judgment. Several techniques can be used to improve the interviewing process and overcome some of these weaknesses.

First, interviewers should be trained so that they know what to look for. For example, in interviewing people from within the enterprise, they should analyze and discuss past records. They should study the results achieved as well as the key managerial activities were performed. When selecting managers from outside the firm interviewers find that this data are more difficult to obtain, and they usually get them by checking with the listed references.

Second, interviewers should be prepared to ask the right questions. There are structured, semi structured, and unstructured interviews. In an unstructured interview, an interviewer may say something like “Tell me your last job.” In the semi structured interview, the manager follows an interview guide but may also ask other questions. In a structured interview, the interviewers ask a set of prepared questions, such as the following:

1. What were your specific duties and responsibilities in your last job?

2. What did you achieve in this job, and how does this compare with the normal output for this job?

3. Who could be asked to verify these achievements?

4. To what extent were these achievements due to your efforts?

5. What were the contributions of other people?

6. Who are they?

7. What did you like or dislike about your job?

8. What innovations did you make in your job?

9. Why do you want to change your job?

A third way to improve selection is to conduct multiply interviews utilizing different interviewers. Thus, several people can compare their evaluations and perceptions. However, not all interviewers should vote in the selecting a candidate; rather, they should provide additional information for the manager who will be responsible for the final decision.

Fourth, the interviewer is just one aspect of the selection process. It should be supplemented by data from the application form, the results of various tests, and the information obtained from persons listed as references. Reference checks and the letters of recommendation may be necessary to verify the information given by the applicant. For the reference to be useful, the person must know the applicant well and give a truthful and complete assessment of the applicant. Many people are reluctant to provide complete information, and so an applicant’s strong points are often overemphasized, while his or her shortcoming may be glossed over. The Privacy Act of 1974 and related legislation and juridical ruling have made it even more difficult to obtain objective references. Under the Privacy Act, the applicant has a legal right to inspect letters of reference unless this right is waived. This is one of the reasons that teachers are sometimes reluctant to make objective and accurate job referrals for their students.

(Based on:Heinz Weichrich, Harold Koontz. Management. Global Perspective)

 

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

annual report aptitude test   feeling of confidence firm’s human resources division hiring authority job search immediate supervisor interview intelligence test interviewer (“killer”) lack of confidence line manager managerial abilities mental capacity   mutual exchange of information open-ended interview personality test proficiency test strengths to be consistent with laws and government guidelines to be responsible for the final decision to hire smb. to make a decision to make a fair judgment to make up one’s mind to provide tips vocational test weakness ежегодный отчет проверка способности (с целью определения целесообразности приема на работу) чувство уверенности отдел кадров компании   полномочие по приему (найму) на работу поиск работы непосредственный руководитель (супервайзер) собеседование критерий проверки умственных способностей лицо, проводящее собеседование о приеме на работу отсутствие уверенности линейный руководитель организаторские способности психические способности; умственные способности, интеллект взаимный обмен информацией   единовременное собеседование проверка личных качеств работника проверка квалификации (при приёме на работу) сильные стороны соответствовать законодательству и правительственным законодательным актам отвечать (нести ответственность) за окончательное решение   нанимать кого-либо на работу принимать решение выносить справедливое решение принять решение, решиться (на что-л.) подсказывать; рекомендовать проверка профессиональных качеств слабые стороны

IV. Translate the following text from Russian into English and be ready for its discussion on the basis of active vocabulary, key terms quiz, review and discussion questions.

ДЕЛОВОЙ ЭТИКЕТ СОИСКАТЕЛЯ

Готовясь к собеседованию, большинство людей думают о том, каких вопросов следует ожидать и как на них отвечать. Почти все, даже мужчины, прикидывают, во что лучше одеться. А вот над тем, как себя вести, размышляют немногие. Однако впечатление работодателя о соискателе при личной встрече с ним начинает складываться еще до того, как кандидат скажет что-нибудь существенное.

Приход на интервью

Для соискателя лучше прийти несколько раньше, но не стараться досрочно попасть к интервьюеру. Если имеется такая возможность (а она часто есть), осмотритесь в офисе - как он выглядит, и что там делается. Это хороший способ ближе познакомиться с фирмой, с которой вы собираетесь сотрудничать. Когда настанет время войти в кабинет, не следует стучать в дверь. Довольно типичная ошибка - перенос норм бытового этикета на ситуацию делового общения. Просто откройте нужную дверь, осмотритесь и выберите, к кому обратиться. Тот, кто предварительно стучит, демонстрирует свою неуверенность, хотя обычно это является следствием незнания правил.

Поза

Позой мы тоже формируем впечатление о себе. Иногда соискатель, пришедший с портфелем, папкой или сумочкой, держит данный предмет во время собеседования на коленях. Это неправильно. Следует найти место и отложить его, освободив руки. Они могут пригодиться, когда вы начнете рассказывать и убеждать. Поза должна быть достаточно открытой. Плохо, если руки все время соединены "в замок". Лучше, когда они лежат на коленях или столе (хотя бы одна рука). Ноги также не стоит скрещивать под стулом. Поза "нога на ногу" некоторым интервьюерам опять же не нравится, будьте осторожны. Беспроигрышный вариант - "зеркалить" позу визави.

Зрительный контакт

Некоторые придерживаются ошибочного мнения, что смотреть в глаза собеседнику неприлично. Кто-то просто не задумывается над этим, и так уж получается, что во время разговора слишком часто смотрит в потолок и в сторону. Это - одна из наиболее распространенных ошибок. Информация передается от человека к человеку не только словами, но и интонацией, позой, жестами, мимикой. Внимательно глядя на говорящего, вы лучше понимаете его. Более того, производите впечатление заинтересованного, уверенного в своих силах человека. Взгляд "в глаза" придает словам убедительность. С другой стороны, наблюдая за выражением лица, позой и движениями собеседника, вы улавливаете, как он воспринимает ваши слова. При необходимости корректируете свой ответ или рассказ.

Паузы

Человек, который хорошо и убедительно говорит, должен уметь держать паузы. Например, высказав одну или несколько мыслей, остановиться и внимательно посмотреть на собеседника, как бы ожидая от него обратной связи. При этом может быть получена информация, позволяющая точнее построить дальнейший ответ или рассказ. Правильная пауза должна сопровождаться правильной позой, правильным взглядом и правильным выражением лица. Иногда интервьюер "испытывает" паузой претендента на работу. Он задал вопрос, вы ответили. Он молчит. Создается стрессовая ситуация. Кто не выдерживает - пытается что-то добавить, хотя на вопрос уже ответил. Такое "дополнение" очень часто работает против кандидата. Нужно уметь демонстрировать спокойствие, внимание и готовность к продолжению беседы.

Мимика

Типично американский призыв - "Smile!" (улыбайтесь!). Работодатель скорее пригласит на работу благополучного "победителя". Так вот, если вы улыбаетесь, больше шансов показаться именно таким человеком. Скучное или напряженное выражение лица вряд ли кому-то понравится. Но, разумеется, все хорошо в меру. Не улыбайтесь непрерывно, это выглядит странно. В общем, произведет на работодателя хорошее впечатление и получит предложение работы тот, кто не только говорит правильные вещи, но и говорит эти вещи правильно.

(Based on:Pease A., Dunn P., Body Language)

V. Key Terms Quiz



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