Task 4. A. Find the English equivalent of Russian words in the text and study the words combinations.



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Task 4. A. Find the English equivalent of Russian words in the text and study the words combinations.



столица замена

резиденция страстно желать чего-либо

спорткомплексы воздвигать

восходить решающий

татарское иго памятник

награждать отступать

поджигать город-герой

B. Make your own sentences with these words and word combinations.

Task 5. A. Find the words with the same meaning.

Famous, to be located, to possess, to erect, outskirts, different

___________________________________________________

To be situated, well-known, to build, suburb, to have, various

B. Find the words with the opposite meaning.

Best, oldest, highest, long, quick, many, rich

_____________________________________ ­

Poor, worst, short, lowest, youngest, few, slow

C. Match the words with definitions.

Urban перестраивать

Rebuilt образовательный

Educational научный

Former городской

Scientific бывший

Grammar

Task 6. Word formation. Look at the word and fill in the table.

Word Prefix Base Suffix
Educational      
Invader      
Rebuild      
Cultural      
Occupied      

Task 7. A. Find sentences, examples with Past Simple in the text. Translate them into Russian.

B. Choose the right variant, explain your choice.

1. Mary was in Moscow in 2005.

2. She took her entrance examinations in July.

3. Last week they had two seminars.

4. I was never in Moscow.

5. He helped somebody yesterday.

6. She bought an expensive dress because she had earned a lot of money.

7. He got ill because he had drunk a glass of cold water.

8. I was late because there had been a traffic jam.

9. He didn’t win because he hadn’t work hard.

10. When they entered the hall, the performance had already begun.

11. I didn’t recognize many people because they changed a lot.

12. All my friends were glad that I had passed my exams successfully.

C. Check yourself consulting the rules below.

PAST SIMPLE (ПРОСТОЕ ПРОШЕДШЕЕ ВРЕМЯ)

Глагол в форме простого прошедшего простого времени (The Past Simple Tense) выражает действие как факт, совершившийся в прошлом:

It happenedsix years ago. Это случилось пять лет тому назад.

Другими характеристиками прошедшего времени являются:

1.Повторяемость в прошлом (начиная с двукратного повторения).

2.Указание на то, что действие произошло однажды в прошлом.

Указатели времени: ago (тому) назад, yesterday вчера, last month / year / week в прошлом месяце / в прошлом году / на прошлой неделе и т.п.

Глагол в форме простого прошедшего времени часто принимает окочание -ed. Такие глаголы называются правильными: work – worked; live – lived; open – opened.

Глаголы, которые образуют форму прошедшего времени не по данному правилу, называются неправильными. Чтобы употребить такой глагол в форме прошедшего времени, нужно воспользоваться таблицей неправильных глаголов (вторая форма).

Вопросительная и отрицательная формы в простом прошедшем времени образуются вспомогательного глагола do,который принимает форму прошедшего времениdid.

I / You / He / She / It / We / They   Played / won.
Did I / you / he / she / it / we / they play / win ?
I / You / He / She / It / We / They Did not (didn’t) play / win.

Did / didn’tупотребляется с инфинитивом без частицы to: Did I play? I didn’t play.

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE ( ПРОШЕДШЕЕ СОВЕРШЕННОЕ ВРЕМЯ)

Прошедшее совершенное время (The Past Perfect Tense), или «суперпрошедшее время», употребляется для того, чтобы показать, что событие или действие в прошлом произошло раньше, чем другое.

Прошедшее совершенное время образуется при помощи глагола had+ третья форма основного глагола.

Past Perfect употребляется :

1. когда нужно показать, что одно событие произошло раньше другого;

2. когда действие заканчивается к какому-то моменту:

He had learned the text by the exam. Он выучил этот текст к экзамену.

I / You / He / She / It / We / They had (‘D. Learned / met / visited.
I / You / He / She / It / We / They had not (hadn’t) Learned / met / visited.
Had I / You / He / She / It / We / They Learned / met / visited?

Task 8. Make up your own sentences using the Past Simple and Past Perfect Tenses.

Task 9. Choose the right sentence.

1. Yesterday he got up early. Yesterday he has got up early.

2. Last Sunday they had come to see me. Las Sunday they came to see me.

3. I didn’t know that my friend hadn’t come yet. I didn’t know that my friend didn’t come.

4. Lanny said that he got his education in London. Lanny said that he had got his education in London.

Comprehension

Task 10. Choose the right answer to the questions.

1. Where is Moscow located?

A. in Siberia B. in the central part of Russia C. in Asia

2. What happened in 1812?

A. Napoleonic Army entered Moscow. B. Napoleonic Army retreated. C. Polish invader entered Moscow.

3. What is the title of Moscow?

A. The largest city of the world. B. The richest city of the world C. Hero City.

4. What is the most famous university in Moscow?

A. Bauman Moscow State University B. Lomonosov Moscow State University C. Moscow Conservatory

Task 11. Complete the sentences.

1. …. is the capital and the largest city of Russia.

2. The first Russian reference to Moscow dates from ….

3. In … the Napoleonic army entered Moscow.

4. Moscow is awarded the title of the ….

Task12. Define true and false statements.

1. St. Petersburg is the capital of Russia.

2. Moscow ranks fourth among the cities of Europe.

3. Moscow is the largest city in Europe.

4. Oxford University is the best university in Moscow.

5. Moscow was founedein1147.

6. Ivan III was the founder of Moscow.

7. Moscow is famous for its Metro.

8. There are a lot of educational institutions in Moscow.

Task 13. A. Match the title with the corresponding passage of the text.

1. Cultural life of Moscow.

2. Geographical position of Moscow.

3. History of Moscow

4. Moscow in general.

5. Education in Moscow.

B. Write out the key sentences for each point of the plan.

Task 14. Put the sentences into the right order.

1. There are 222 institutions offering higher education in Moscow,

2. It is located on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District, in the European part of Russia.

3. It is the site of the Moscow Kremlin, which serves as the ceremonial residence of the President of Russia.

4. The first Russian reference to Moscow dates from 1147.

5. It was under Ivan III that Moscow became the capital of state Muscovy.

6. Moscow is awarded the title of the Hero City.

 

Task 15. Make up the summary of the text using the tasks 13B. and 14.

Additional Reading

Task 16. Read the following texts for more information about Moscow. Make the outline of the texts.

Cultural life of Moscow

Moscow’s world-famous museums and galleries with their collections, are some of the largest and most important in the world. Frequent art exhibitions thrive on both the new and the classic, as they once did in pre-Revolutionary times, and are derived from diverse branches of the arts - painting, photography, and sculpture.

One of the most notable art museums in Moscow is the Tretyakov Gallery, which was founded by Pavel Tretyakov, a wealthy patron of the arts who donated a large private collection to the city. The Tretyakov Gallery is split into two buildings. The Old Tretyakov gallery, the original gallery in the Tretyakovskaya area on the south bank of the Moskva River, houses the works of the classic Russian tradition.] The works of famous pre-Revolutionary painters, such as Ilya Repin, as well as the works of early Russian icon painters can be found in the Old Tretyakov Gallery. Visitors can even see rare originals by early-fifteenth century iconographer Andrei Rublev. The New Tretyakov gallery, created in Soviet times, mainly contains the works of Soviet artists, as well as of a few contemporary artists, but there is some overlap with the Old Tretyakov Gallery for early twentieth century art. The new gallery includes a small reconstruction of Vladimir Tatlin's famous Monument to the Third International and a mixture of other avant-garde works by artists like Kazimir Malevich and Wassily Kandinsky. Socialist realism features can also be found within the halls of the New Tretyakov Gallery.

Another art museum in the city of Moscow is the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, which was founded by, among others, Marina Tsvetaeva's father. The Pushkin Museum is similar to the British Museum in London in that its halls are a cross-section of world civilisations, with many plaster casts of ancient sculptures. However, it also hosts famous paintings from every major Western era of art; works by Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne, and Pablo Picasso are all sampled there.

The State Historical Museum of Russia (Государственный Исторический музей) is a museum of Russian history wedged between Red Square and Manege Square in Moscow. Its exhibitions range from relics of the prehistoric tribes inhabiting present-day Russia, through priceless artworks acquired by members of the Romanov dynasty. The total number of objects in the museum's collection numbers in the millions. The Polytechnical Museum, founded in 1872 is the largest technical museum in Russia, offering a wide array of historical inventions and technological achievements, including humanoid automata of the 18th century and the first Soviet computers. Its collection contains more than 160,000 items. The Borodino Panorama museum located on Kutuzov Avenue provides an opportunity for visitors to experience being on a battlefield with a 360° diorama. It is a part of the large historical memorial commemorating the victory in the Patriotic War of 1812 over Napoleon’s army, that includes also the Triumphal arch erected in 1827. There is also a military history museum not to be missed, it includes statues, military hardware, along with powerful tales of that time.

Moscow is also the heart of Russian performing arts, including ballet and film. There are ninety-three theatres, 132 cinemas and twenty-four concert-halls in Moscow. Among Moscow’s many theatres and ballet studios is the Bolshoi Theatre and the Malyi Theatre as well as Vakhtangov Theatre and Moscow Art Theatre. The repertories in a typical Moscow season are exhaustive and modern interpretations of classic works, whether operatic or theatrical, are quite common. State Central Concert Hall Rossia,] famous for ballet and estrade performances, is the place of frequent concerts of pop-stars such as Alla Pugacheva and is situated in the soon to be demolished building of Hotel Rossiya, the largest hotel in Europe.

Moscow International Performance Arts Centre,opened in 2003, also known as Moscow International House of Music, is known for its performances in classical music. It also has the largest organ in Russia installed in Svetlanov hall.

There are also two large circuses in Moscow: Moscow State Circus and Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard named after Yuri Nikulin.

Soviet films are integral to film history and the Mosfilm studio was at the heart of many Soviet classic films as it is responsible for both artistic and mainstream productions. However, despite the continued presence and reputation of internationally-renowned Russian filmmakers, the once prolific native studios are much quieter. Rare and historical films may be seen in Salut cinema where films from the Museum of Cinemacollection are shown regularly.

 

Sports

Moscow possesses a large number of various sport facilities and over 500 Olympic champions lived in the city by 2005. Moscow is home to sixty-three stadia (besides eight football and eleven light athletics maneges), of which Luzhniki Stadium is the largest and the 4th biggest in Europe (it hosted the UEFA Cup 1998-99 and UEFA Champions League 2007-08 finals). Forty other sport complexes are located within the city, including twenty-four with artificial ice. There are also seven horse racing tracks in Moscow, of which Central Moscow Hippodrome, founded in 1834, is the largest.

Moscow was the host city of the 1980 Summer Olympics, although the yachting events were held at Tallinn, in present-day Estonia. Large athletic facilities and the main international airport, Sheremetyevo Terminal 2, were built in preparation for the 1980 Summer Olympics. Moscow had also made a bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics. However, when final voting commenced on 6 July 2005, Moscow was the first city to be eliminated from further rounds.

The two most titled multi-sport clubs in the world are Moscow's CSKA Moscow and Dynamo Moscow.

The most titled Ice Hockey team in Russia and in the world, HC CSKA Moscow comes from Moscow. Another big Ice Hockey clubs from Moscow are HC Dynamo Moscow.

The most titled Russian, and one of the most titled Euroleague clubs, is the Basketball club from Moscow PBC CSKA Moscow. Another strong Basketball club from Moskow is MBC Dynamo Moscow. Moscow had more winners at the Russian Chess Championship then any other city. Some of them were the best players in the world.

The most titled Volleyball team in the Soviet Union and in Europe (CEV Champions League) is CSKA Moscow.Two of the best teams in the world in Ware Polo are CSKA Moscow and Dynamo Moscow.

In Football FC Spartak Moscow is the club that won most championship titles in the Russian Premier League than any other team.

Because of Moscow's cold local climate, winter sports have a large following as well. Many of Moscow's large parks offer marked trails for skiers and frozen ponds for skaters.

Moscow also hosts the annual Kremlin Cup, a popular tennis tournament. It is regarded as a very prestigious tournament and is one of the ten Tier-I events on the women's tour and a host of Russian players feature every year.

Slava Moscow are a professional rugby union club, competing in the national Professional Rugby League. Moscow recently became home to the offices of the Rugby Union of Russia, formerly located in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia.

Education and science

There are 1696 high schools in Moscow, as well as 91 colleges.Besides these, there are 222 institutions offering higher education in Moscow, including 60 state universities and the Lomonosov Moscow State University, which was founded in 1755.The university main building located in Vorobyovy Gory (Sparrow Hills) is 240 meters (787 ft) tall and when completed, was the tallest building outside the United States. The university has over 30,000 undergraduate and 7,000 postgraduate students, who have a choice of twenty-nine faculties and 450 departments for study. Additionally, approximately 10,000 high school students take courses at the university, while over two thousand researchers work. The Moscow State University library contains over nine million books, making it one of the largest libraries in all of Russia. Its acclaim throughout the international academic community has meant that over 11,000 international students have graduated from the university, with many coming to Moscow to learn the Russian language.

Bauman Moscow State Technical University, founded in 1830, is located in the centre of Moscow and provides more than 18,000 undergraduate and 1,000 postgraduate students with an education in science and engineering offering a wide range of technical degrees. Since it opened enrolment to students from outside Russia in 1991, Bauman Moscow State Technical University has increased its international enrolment to up to two hundred.

The Moscow Conservatory, founded in 1866 is a prominent music school in Russia, whose graduates included Sergey Rachmaninoff, Alexander Scriabin, Aram Khachaturian, Mstislav Rostropovich, and Alfred Schnittke.

The Gerasimov All-Russian State Institute of Cinematography, abbreviated as VGIK, is the world's oldest educational institution in Cinematography, founded by Vladimir Gardin in 1919. Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, and Aleksey Batalov were among its most distinguished professors and Mikhail Vartanov, Sergei Parajanov, Nikita Mikhalkov, Eldar Ryazanov, Aleksandr Petrov, Vasily Shukshin, Konrad Wolf among graduates.

Moscow State Institute of International Relations, founded in 1944, remains Russia's best known school of international relations and diplomacy, with six different schools focused on international relations. Approximately 4,500 students make up the university's student body and over 700,000 Russian and foreign-language books — of which 20,000 are considered rare — can be found in the library of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations.

Among other prominent institutions are the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, also known as Phystech, Moscow Aviation Institute and the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology has taught numerous Noble Prize winners, including Pyotr Kapitsa, Nikolay Semyonov and Lev Landau, while the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute is known for its research in nuclear physics.. The highest Russian military school is the Combined Arms Academy of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. Other institutions, such as the Financial Academy, the State University of Management, the Plekhanov Academy of Economicsand the Higher School of Economics offer degrees in management and economic theory. Several Moscow institutions have divisions in other regions and countries around the world.

Although Moscow has a number of famous Soviet-era higher educational institutions, most of which are more oriented towards engineering or the fundamental science, in recent years Moscow has seen a significant growth in the number of commercial and private institutions that offer classes in business and management. Many state institutions have expanded their education scope and increased their student enrolments. Institutions in Moscow, as well as the rest of post-Soviet Russia, have begun to offer new international certificates and postgraduate degrees, including the Master of Business Administration. Student exchange programs with different (especially, European) countries also have become widespread in Moscow's universities, while many schools within the Russian capital will also offer seminars, lectures, and courses for corporate employees and businessmen.

Moscow is known as one of the most important science centres in Russia. The headquarters of the Russian Academy of Sciences are located in Moscow as well as numerous research and applied science institutions.

The Kurchatov Institute, Russia's leading research and development institution in the field of nuclear energy, where the first nuclear reactor in Europe was built, Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems and Steklov Institute of Mathematics are all situated in Moscow.

There are 452 libraries in the city, including 168 for children. The Russian State Library, founded in 1862 is the national library of Russia. The Russian State Library is home to over 275 kilometres of shelves and forty-two million items, including over seventeen million books and serial volumes, thirteen million journals, 350,000 music scores and sound records, and 150,000 maps, making it the largest library in Russia and one of the largest in the world. Items in 247 different languages comprise approximately twenty-nine percent of the collection. The State Public Historical Library, founded in 1863, is the largest library, specialising in Russian Histiry. Its collection contains four million items in 112 languages (including 47 languages of the former USSR), mostly on Russian and world history, heraldry, numismatics, and the history of science.



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