Seven Modern Wonders of the World



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Seven Modern Wonders of the World



The Panama Canal,begun in the 1880s, wasn't finished until 1914. It joins the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Engineers describe the canal as a victory of humans over geography: Workers dug huge amounts of land and tamed rivers.

For 40 years after it was completed in 1931, the Empire State Building,in New York City, was the tallest building in the world. Amazingly, this 102-story building was constructed in just 410 days.

The Netherlands North Sea Protection Worksis another victory over geography. The Netherlands, which is below sea level, was often flooded by the North Sea and by rivers. Then, between 1927 and 1932, a dam was built to shut out the sea. Twenty years later, dams and canals were built to control the rivers.

The Golden Gate Bridge,completed in 1937, was also a challenge for workers: San Francisco Bay has very strong winds and rough waves. The Golden Gate is still the world's tallest bridge. It has enough steel to wrap around the world three times.

At 1,815 feet, the CN Tower,in Toronto, Canada, is one of the world's tallest free-standing buildings. Completed in 1976, the tower is used for TV and radio broadcasting.

The Itaipú Dam,completed in 1984, goes across the Paraná River at the Brazil-Paraguay border. It is the world's largest hydroelectric plant.

Completed in 1994, the Channel Tunneljoins France and England. The "Chunnel" is a remarkable convenience: Cars, buses, and trucks are all carried through the tunnel by train.

 


 

Lesson 15. Traditions and Holidays in Great Britain

Pre-reading

Task 1. A. Answer the questions to the text.

1. When was Robert Burns born?

a) on April 23, 1564;

b) on January, 25 1802;

c) on January, 25 1564.

2. What traditional Scottish dishes are tasted on Robert Burns’ birthday?

a) chicken broth, boiled herring and haggiswith boiled turnip and potatoes;

b) chicken broth, boiled herring and fried meat with wine;

c) haggis, boiled herring and potatoes.

3. What is the celebration of R. Burns’ birthday followed by?

a) it is followed by dancing, pipe music and reciting Burns’ poems;

b) it is followed by singing the poet’s famous “Auld Lang Syne”;

c) it is followed by dancing, pipe music, reciting Burns’ poems and singing the “Auld Lang Syne”.

4. How is the anniversary of William Shakespeare’s birth celebrated?

a) flags are hung in the main street, people buy springs of rosemary;

b) a long procession goes along the streets to the church where everyone puts flowers at the poet’s grave;

c) Flags are hung in the main street, people buy rosemary, and people go to the church and to the Royal Shakespeare Theatre.

5. Why is the Edinburgh International Festival one of the important events in the world?

a) because the Edinburgh International Festival is held annually;

b) because the Festival is international, it gives a representation of the best artistic production from many countries;

c) because the Edinburgh International Festival is one of the greatest festivals in the world.

B. Compare the celebrations of R. Burns’ and W. Shakespeare’s birthdays.

Task 2. Read and translate the texts on traditions and holidays in Great Britain.

Burns’ night

January 25 is the birthday of Scotland’s greatest poet Robert Burns1. There are hundreds of Burns clubs in Britain and throughout the world; on the 25th of January they mark the birth of Scotland's greatest poet. The first club was founded in 1802. Thousands of people drink a toast to the memory of Robert Burns. The traditional dishes are tasted. To the sounds of bagpipes there appear on the tables the traditional dishes of the festival dinner: chicken broth, boiled herring, and haggis – a typical Scottish dish. It is eaten with boiled turnip and potatoes. The dinner is followed by dancing, pipe music, and reciting Burns’ poems. The celebration ends with singing the poet’s famous Auld Lang Syne2.

Shakespeare’s Birthday

Every year the anniversary of William Shakespeare’s birth is celebrated in Stratford-upon-Avon3. He was born on April 23, 1564. Flags were hung in the main street, people buy springs of rosemary4. A long procession goes along the streets to the church where everyone puts flowers at the poet’s grave. In the evening there is a performance in the Royal Shakespeare Theatre5.

The Shakespeare Birthday is celebrated from spring to autumn. So, when his birthday comes each year, people think of William Shakespeare, a son of Stratford.

The Edinburgh International Festival

The Edinburgh International Festival6 is held annually in August and September. The Festival is international as it gives a representation of artistic production from many countries. Leading musicians of the world take part in it.

The first Festival was held in 1947. The Edinburgh International Festival is one of the important events in the world.

 

Robert Burns – Роберт Бернс

2. Auld Lang Syne – песня «Забыть ли старую любовь»

3. Stratford-upon-Avon – Страдфорд-на-Эйвоне

4. springs of rosemary – веточки розмарина

5. the Royal Shakespeare Theatre – Королевский Шекспировский театр

6. The Edinburgh International Festival – Эдинбургский международный фестиваль

 

Vocabulary

Task 3. Give the Russian equivalents of the English words and word combinations:

a toast, memory, a bagpipe, boiled herring, haggis, performance, a representation of artistic production.



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