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ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
THE WORLD A PART OF WHICH YOU HAVE BECOME
this book will not only develop your skills in English, but also give you understanding of the notion “university” together with introducing you the University Community. We, the authors of the book are members of this community, just as you now, and that`s why we were so much interested in this book creation. We became members of this community in the early 70s getting to understand its values, first, as students and later as teachers and researches. You’ll definitely agree that its values being universal make them important for students of all generations.
Having become a university student, you have joint the world university community. And you have an advantage of getting to know about it using a foreign language that is from the point of view of a different language culture.
Module 2 consists of 3 units called topics. Each of them is subdivided into sections that teach you definite skills: how to build up your own vocabulary on the topic, to read different kinds of texts, how to communicate, to verbalize and discuss problems. The new thing for you is to form the skills of a research work just as the skills of effective learning at the university level (effective learning strategies). You will learn how to read and render (review) educational and research texts, find out key words and make summaries, how to specify objects and subject-matters of your research or any other educational activity, how to set objectives (goals) and aims (tasks) of your study or research together with finding the proper methods of their realization. To have a good command of a foreign language is not just to know a certain amount of words and grammar rules so that to be able to communicate with a foreigner. You cannot be an effective communicator without understanding situations of communication and communities you are involved. Thus studying at the university and communicating with university people you need to know this particular community and its rules of interaction.
You will have opportunity to use your creative thinking and social abilities while working on the projects offered at the end of each topic. Together with your group mates you will look for the answers to different tasks during your classes looking for the best solution of the problem, you will make presentations of your joint oral and written speech products, play roles and simulate communicative situations.
The majority of the tasks proposed have keys for you to have possibility to check your answers and correct if necessary. You will have opportunity to evaluate your knowledge and skills gained, to highlight its most important elements. At the end of each topic in the section “Check yourself” you will have opportunity to make a test and complete your self-assessment table.
In Appendices proposed you will find supportive material together with information on learning strategies.
A number of tasks are marked with special symbols. It won’t be difficult for you to define tasks for listening (²), work in pairs (^) and groups (_). The symbol 1 means that your task fulfillment should be placed in your ‘knowledge bank’ called Portfolio. Thanks to Portfolio (a real or imaginary file with documents) you will be able to accumulate your written papers which may be useful in future collecting your achievements and correcting the procedure of your studies. Collecting Portfolio is advised by European documents on foreign languages learning. Your Portfolio will consist of two parts. The first one is “Self-assessment table” filled after each topic of the Module. You will find it in the section “Check yourself!”. The second one is “My dossier’. It involves all the task of three topics that are marked with the symbol 1.
So now turn your page and open the door to our joint world.
Symbols used in the book:
²there is an audio recording to this task;
Ñ there is a key to this task;
^ speaking in pairs;
_speaking in small groups;
1material for Portfolio;
academician, administration, assignment, assistant professor (associate professor), announcement, bachelor (of arts, sciences),
campus (on campus), candidate of sciences, classes, colloquium (on smth), coordinator, council, curriculum, chair (head of a chair), chart (scheme, table), course (subject),
dean (deputy dean), degree, department (of international affairs), doctor of sciences, dormitory (hostel),
E, f, l
editorial house, educational establishment (institution), employee, Erasmus (be on Erasmus program), faculty, lecturer,
M, o, p, r
major, master, member (university member), office hours, PhD (PhD paper, PhD thesis), (job) position, postgraduate (postgrad), program (study program), (vice-) rector, room
S, t, u
staff, session, set (of courses), timetable, term (semester), trait, thirst (for smth), university community
academic, distinguished, educational, huge, flexible, scientific, strategic;
Verbs (10) :
C, d, e
carry out (research activities), coordinate, discover, enter (the university)
G, m, o, r
get (to some place), major in (PR), obtain (knowledge),render (the text)
specialize (in some field), share (experience), sit closer (with smth), train (specialists for);
Ñ1.1. Listen to the dialogues and simultaneously look through them marking their order. Where could they take place?
№ 1 (…)
– Hi, Jane! What a surprise to see you here on campus! I bet you are a student already.
– Hi, Kate! You are right. I’ve entered the Information and Communication Department of the Institute of Journalism, this year. How about you?
– Oh, I am doing my 3d year here, at the university, By the way, I study at a similar department, the only difference is that mine is at the faculty of Philosophy and Social Sciences. Anyway, they have classes in the same building so we’ll see each other quite often.
– Sounds great! And what’s your major?
– PR management. And what’s your major and minor?
– After graduation I am planning to work in advertising business so I specialize in this field.
№ 2 (…)
– Excuse me, I am not quite sure how to get to the Department of International Affairs. I am from Poland, actually, and I am here on Erasmus program. Could you help me, please?
– Sure. You should go to the administrative part of the same building. The office is on the ground floor, room 110. Turn to the left, go down the stairs and then turn to the right. Ask for Erasmus coordinator.
– Thank you! That’s very helpful.
– Good luck!
№ 3 (…)
– Andrew, do you have any idea what classes we are having tomorrow?
– Colloquium on argumentation, 1st class in the morning.
– Oh, no! I’ve quite forgotten about the Colloquium. I am afraid I won’t be ready for it. I haven’t done any reading yet. It just couldn’t be worse.
– How come?
– You know, I’ve lost my Xeroxed copy of the timetable and mixed up some classes.
– That’s not good. Do you want me to send you our time-table by e-mail? I can do it tonight when I am home after the classes.
– Of course I do, thank you so much.
№ 4 (…)
– Good morning, Professor. I am calling to find out whether we are gathering at the Dean’s Office today for our Academic Council session.
– Morning, colleague. In fact, today we are having a joint meeting of the Academic Council together with Students’ Association and our library staff in 2 hours. We are meeting this time in room 119, which can house all of us.
– Thank you. Sorry for bothering.
– You are welcome!
№ 5 (…)
– Any plans for tonight, Steve?
– Nothing special. It looks like I can relax a bit. And what about you?
– Oh, I’ve got a huge assignment. I doubt if I’ll manage to prepare it for tomorrow.
– Oh, dear. Is it really so much?
– Yes, tomorrow we are having English. I have words to learn and a text to render and I must tell you this text is really difficult to grasp. When I first looked it through, I could hardly make any head or tail of what it’s all about. I need to sit closer with it. Plus I need to be ready for making a group presentation, and I cannot find any material on the Internet. So I’ll have to look for the sources in the library.
№ 6 (…)
– Good appetite, Mike. Can I join you?
– Today it’s been the first time when I gave students a twenty-minute lecture in the course of my scientific supervisor. Have you already had any experience in lecturing?
– Of course, I have. This is a usual thing for a 2nd year post-grad.
– Do you find it difficult to do?
– I really enjoyed it. The lecture I gave was on the same topic as my postgraduate paper is. There were several situations when I didn’t feel comfortable, though. The students asked me tricky questions, you know, and I had to use all my expertise not to fail.
Chart 3. Faculty structure
13.2. Using your chart as a semantic map (see Appendix 3) and charts 1-3 as Vocabulary map retell who work and study at the university.
3.3. Examine Chart 4 and comment on a possible career of a student, if one chooses the academic field. Use the following structure in your comments:
Chart 4. Academic Career
² 3.4. Listen to and repeat after the speaker the names of sciences registered by academician structures (Table 1) and fill the right column of the table with the names of the faculties at which these sciences are being studied at your university
Ñ 4.1. Look through 4 informational texts of the university world (pages …) and match them with the following headlines: Announcement, Office hours of University administration, (Induction) Timetable, Studies program.
L-lectures, T-tutorials, S-seminars, PT-practical training, Lab- laboratory work, PR – practice, E-examination, C - Credit
Monday 21st – Friday 25th September 2009
* On Wednesday morning, you will be divided into groups for an IT session on Wednesday afternoon.
** Please note: If you are considering taking a language as an optional module, you will need to attend a placement test to assess your level of competence. These take place between 10.00 and 12.00 on Friday, 25th September in Room D104, Social Sciences Building.
All First Year Students are expected to attend EVERY session on Monday, Wednesday and Thursday
№ 4: …?
Ñ 4.2. Which of informational texts from task 4.1. you need, if:
· you want to find your friend on Wednesday at 2 p.m. and you know that he must be studying at that time at the university;
· you want to join your university theater (debate club, etc).
· you want to become a dormitory resident;
· you are a 2nd year student and want to know how many subjects (courses) you can choose on your own;
· you want to know how many credits you’ll get for the elective course.
14.3. Get acquainted with the study program of your specialization and make a list of subjects which you study this academic year.
14.4. Write down in English your timetable.
Faculty (from Latin ‘facultas’ – possibility, capability) – a part of the higher educational establishment, where a certain cycle of adjoining scientific courses is being taught. F. is an educational-organizational part of a higher educational establishment which unites chairs (departments) that trains students and postgraduates on a number of related courses.
Rector (in Latin ‘rector’ – ruler, leader from ‘rego’ – I reign) – the head of the university and a number of other higher educational establishments. The r. is appointed to lead all activities of the university or other higher educational institution including curricula and programs functioning and planning of research activities. The r. is a chairperson at the meetings of the Scientific Council of the university and approves its decisions.
Ñ6.3. Are the messages adequately verbalized? If not, give the right variant.
Ñ6.4. Speak about the university with the help of the semantic map. It is a good idea to record your retelling, listen to and evaluate your answer.
Ñ6.5. Can the given informational text that gives statistics on Moscow State University be an article in a newspaper. If yes, then in which? under what title?
6.6. Fill in Check list (Self-assessment table):
Use the following symbols:
80% of ticks mean that you have coped with the topic properly
KNOWLEDGE OF YOUR NEW WORLD
IN A BROADER CONTEXT:
THE UNIVERSITIES OF EUROPE
«How much has not been done
and how much we… won’t do in future!»
You have already realized that university is a world in itself which is new for you and needs to be understood. You have also got acquainted with typical situations of communication in it and learnt how to communicate in them. The information that you will find in this topic will extend your knowledge of universities and give you the basics of university knowledge and skills including classification issues, ability of interpreting texts of others and expressing your points of view, stating problems and solving them by means of scientific discussions, finding and sorting out necessary facts and constructing your own ones. On the example of lives of great scientists – both teachers and students who cooperate and enrich each other you will feel the spirit of academic
You will know:
· about different Universities of Europe and their types;
· what it means to interpret a text;
· about the format of a Round table for problem solving;
· what is informational review;
· how to prepare and perform a 5-minute presentation;
· about science and people in science or scientists.
You will be able to:
· use topic vocabulary;
· name the criteria of a University choice;
· interpret mini-texts;
· raise a problem and discuss it in a Round table format;
· find thematically filled pieces in big texts and write informational reviews on the themes found;
· to make a 5-minutes presentation.
The number of words and word expressions (collected by the students) – around 60
archetype, cognition, cortege, creator, curricula,
depth, discipline, dispute, doctrine,
educational equipment, experience, follower,
H, i, k
hierarchy, holisticity (linkage), initiator, interpretation, inventor, knowledge,
L, m, n
lifetime, linkage (holisticity), Middle Ages, multiplicity, network,
prerequisites, Renaissance, researcher, polymath,
scientist-universalist, sense, scope, speculation, scholar, Socratic method, supervisor
value, universalism, University (type).
A, h, f, r
actual (understanding), attitude, holistic, false, renowned,
M, s, t, u,
material, significant, technological (ingenuity), true, universal (genius).
advance (the state of knowledge), cause,
define, denote, differentiate,
I, l, m
interact, investigate, interpret, learn, map, mold (syn: build, form),
pursue (any field of knowledge), publish,
R, s, t
render, set up, strive (at), transmit, teach,
Adverbs (4) :
as a whole, completely, by analogy, evidently
Types of Universities
(from “Russian higher school: on the way to new institutions”
by S.A. Smirnov in: http://www.antropolog.ru/doc/persons/smirnov/smirnov17)
There are several types of Universities that historically changed each other and were different in the way of study.
Industrial Shop Corporation
First European Universities originate from Industrial Shop Corporations. Sorbonne and University of Prague featured shops of masters. Pupils gathered around the master (teacher) to get the mysteries of trade from hand to hand, by the teacher in person. The teacher had small number of pupils. Such conditions of teaching formed Associative Pedagogy. Nowadays this form of teaching disappeared as University type, but the importance of associative pedagogy still exists. This is the way Brahmanas and Daoists were and are taught now. Orthodox Cloisters keep to this educational pattern as well. This type of teaching is important for understanding the role of the teacher as a model and his activity while teaching.
Factory University Type
Gradually by XX century, by the beginning of the intensive industrial development, Factory University Type is becoming more and more in demand. This type of University prepared great number of specialists satisfying the needs of developing economy. This is the type of University where science takes the sidelines and, instead of assimilating the scientific basics, students assimilate different systems of knowledge, packed in academic subjects. Moreover, students learn great number of subjects (about 80-100 academic subjects). This mass model is more producible. This is a kind of educational conveyor, fulfilling the curriculum. A new figure appears here – teacher-specialist who, following the standard scheme, transfers knowledge estranged from its holder. His task was to prepare hundreds and thousands of specialists who know and can use standard set of actions and procedures.
This model is still followed by the majority of Russian Universities. Due to the rapidly developing economy and knowledge growth and complication (the number of knowledge doubles every 5 years), boost of professional requirements, this University type is becoming behind the development and losing its positions. This is the reason why Professional Education gets into crisis now. It needs reconsideration and rebuilding of existing University types.
Supermarket University Type
AfterWorld War II,due to democratizationand mass spread of education, education in developed countries is becoming more and more affordable and open branch of economy, bringing high income that causes its commercialization. Education is buying and selling service here. University is understood as a big supermarket with great number of services to be bought. Student goes round this supermarket and chooses services that he needs. Не takes these services as a customer takes goods into his basket in a supermarket.
This model was worked out in American Universities. This type is connected with the credit system of education. Students study academic disciplines and get a number of credits that can be reckoned with another University of the State or even other country. Students get a definite list of disciplines, the majority of which is optional. The more prestigious the University is the more such optional disciplines one can take. In this case it was necessary to bring credits as a constraint giving the possibility of control and transferring students to next year, another course or from one University to another.
A new figure of educational manager appears in this type. He doesn't treat students as persons. His job is to supply the process of students’ following educational schemes and getting credits and also to control the work of educational mechanism in general. This is also a kind of conveyer, but more flexible, giving conditions for students’ independent work. The number of direct contact between the professors and students is minimized in such system. Professors sometimes give tutorials, but usually ask more than answer.
5. Project University
This type also originates in developed countries, especially in the USA in advanced Universities and in best Universities of USSR (Physic Technological University). This type doesn’t suppose teaching groups of students or services selling. It supposes familiarizing students with design practice and earl professional training through involving students into the work of the places of their future professional activity after graduation (industrial campaigns, corporations and laboratories).
There is a very slight difference between teachers and students in this type. Team work is necessary here. Students and postgraduates, getting involved into a scientific project, come into the team of designers. There are different specialists in this team who have their own goals in the project. Quite concrete input into the project is required from students. Being a part of this designing process, students get education. It’s important that students get not just universal knowledge, but also project thinking, creativity, communicative and business competence.
This type is impossible in mass in large numbers. It`s difficult to control. This University type can`t be very big, with high number of students. This types can be installed into vast University Corporations as educational modules (colleges, institutes, business schools).
Network University Type
By virtue of more and more strengthening tendency of world relations development, world business and economy formation and global corporation relations growth and corporations and Universities competition boost as well, Universities (especially strongest ones) started so-called network models development.
They are characterized by being placed in different geographical positions (there are offices), working in accordance with common international programs (double diplomas program, joint projects and research programs), producing strategies of country development, development of economy, projects and programs for business companies and corporations, not just teaching future specialists. In such conditions University is not just an educational establishment. It`s a kind of corporation-holding, fulfilling different culture functions. SU Higher School works this way.
This is the only type to survive in contemporary conditions. It`s impossible to survive with one educational function aiming to transmit experience.
Interpretation is explanation; meaning; translation; exposition; the expression of a person’s conception of anything (text, piece of art, etc.).
(Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Interpretvt to explain; to translate; to construe; to give one’s own conception of, as in a play or musical composition. *vi to translate between speakers of different languages. –interpretation.
Review what a paragraph is and using the paragraphs 3, 8 and 13 write down a review on Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci as a learner. Build your review on 4 paragraphs including a paragraph-introduction or argument for the choice and a summing up paragraph. The amount of your review signs is 3000.
Paragraph is a distinct section of a piece of writing, usually dealing with a single theme and indicated by a new line, indentation, or numbering.
(Oxford Advanced Learner1s Dictionary of Current English.
Oxford University Press, 1997)
Paragraph (n) is clause, item, notice, passage, section, sentence, subdivision
(Concise Edition Dictionary and Thesaurus, Geddes & Grosset, 2002)
You will know
· how other students think about their studies at the university;
· that at there exist different styles (types) of thinking and one can think according to a chosen type;
· what is key words and how to make a resume (sum up) the ideas grasped from texts;
· that everything can be treated from a research point of view that is in a ‘university way’.
You will be able to:
· collect and use topic vocabulary;
· formulate your model of studying at the university;
· choose key words and build summaries based on them;
· verbalize your opinion in accord with certain style (type) of thinking;
· study your problems from the point of view of the researcher.
A, c, d
association, consciousness, community, (distance learning) course, dream,
expectation, meditation, self-realization, surrounding, thinking (analytical, way of…),
A, c, e, g
admit, come across smth, confess, expertise, get used to…,
O, p, t
overcome, provide, try oneself in,
thoroughly, beforehand, as regards to…,
1.1. You will read an extract “Dreams” from the novel “The Youth” by Lev Tolstoy in its English translation by C. J. Hogarth (eBooks@Adelaide, 2004); Build hypothesis on the content of this extract before you start reading: what do you expect to find in it?
Read the text on one of university subjects and define its field, object, subject-matter and goal; in this way you cover the path of both the teacher and the learner: you’ll formulate what the teacher teaches and what the student studies in the framework of a particular discipline.
Informatics is the science of information, the practice of information processing and the engineering of information systems. Informatics studies the structure, algorithms, behavior, and interactions of natural and artificial systems that store, process, access and communicate information. It also develops its own conceptual and theoretical foundations and utilizes foundations developed in other fields. Since the advent of computers, individuals and organizations increasingly process information digitally. This has led to the study of informatics that has computational, cognitive and social aspects, including study of the social impact of information technologies.
3.4. Let us study the lower part of the sand-clock. Read the definitions of four terms and explain them on the example of the text in task 3.3. Thus you will know what you will do, how you will do, and, what is most important, should you do it at all or not.
Term 1. Tasks (steps)– the outline of a step-by-step realization of the goal;
Term 2. Method(also methodology, perspective, theory – everything that predetermines the way we operationalize our research categories) – a choice of a research matrix according to which we choose categories for analysis and methods, techniques, ways of their analysis which we consider proper for our goal realization. There exist 3 groups of methodologies (methods), that is the ones within logical, philosophical, and pure professional thinking. All three can be regarded by researchers as basic matrix:
Term 3. Topicality– the acceptance of a research project within its own set of approaches (field-object-subject matter-goal-tasks-methods) as necessary for the society within the aspect “here and now”;
Term 4.Significance – the acceptance of a research project within its own set of approaches as necessary for the science, its development and\or its further revision (approaches and\or data verification).
Goal – effective driving,
Yellow and Green hats put on in your further work. As for the Blue one, put it and be in it, because you have just joint university community but your real life and interaction in it is still in future.
We wish you luck and success! J
Ñ5.1. Fulfill 4 tasks as your lexical test:
Task 1. Write down proper phrase expressions combining the words from the left and right columns.
KEYS TO THE TOPICS
1.1.The order of dialogues presentation is 2, 5, 1, 6, 3, 4.
Place of studying, students’ homework, research activity, academic staff work, international cooperation, university levels of education and job positions, the way studying process is organized.
For text 1:
Reality of Middle Ages
Different communities Open schools
trade production shops, etc)
Words to name open schools
Universitas magistrorum et scholarium
(corporation of teachers and students)
It’s important to present the idea of 4 levels (the form may vary):
· Rector’s (general university level)
· Dean’s (general faculty level)
· Chair’s (academic level implying research and teaching)
· Students (Bachaler’s and Master’s level)
1.2 Oxford, Cambridge, the Scottish Universities.
Industrial Shop Corporation
First European Universities originate from Industrial Shop Corporations (Sorbonne and University of Prague). In this model pupils gathered around the master (teacher) to get the mysteries of trade from hand to hand, by the teacher in person. The teacher had small number of pupils. Nowadays this form of teaching is called Associative Pedagogy.
Factory University Type
Factory University Type is the type of University where science takes the sidelines and, instead of assimilating the scientific basics, students assimilate different systems of knowledge, packed in academic subjects. Students learn about 80-100 academic subjects. One of the defining traits is a teacher-specialist who, following the standard scheme, transfers knowledge estranged from its holder. His task was to prepare hundreds and thousands of specialists who know and can use standard set of actions and procedures. Due to the rapidly developing economy and knowledge growth and complication, boost of professional requirements, this University type is becoming behind the development and losing its positions nowadays, though some Russian Universities still use this model.
Supermarket University Type
This model was worked out in American Universities. This type is connected with the credit system of education. Students study academic disciplines and get a number of credits that can be reckoned with another University of the State or even other country. Students get a definite list of disciplines, the majority of which is optional. The more prestigious the University is the more such optional disciplines one can take. There is a kind of educational manager whose job is to supply the process of students` following educational schemes and getting credits and also to control the work of educational mechanism in general. This type is quite flexible and gives conditions for students` independent work.
5. Project University
This type originates in developed countries, especially in the USA in advanced Universities and in best Universities of USSR (Physic Technological University). It supposes familiarizing students with design practice and earl professional training through involving students into the work of the places of their future professional activity after graduation. There is a very slight difference between teachers and students in this type. Team work is necessary here. There are different specialists in this team who have their own goals in the project. It`s important that students get not just universal knowledge, but also project thinking, creativity, communicative and business competence. This type is impossible in mass in large numbers as it is difficult to control.
Network University Type
This type of Universities ischaracterized
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