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MODERN Germanic languages and their distribution in various parts of the world



MODERN Germanic languages and their distribution in various parts of the world

The west Germanic language constitute (образовывает) the largest of the tree traditional branches of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as Germanic, English , Dutch, Africans, the Frisian languages and Yiddish. The other two of these three traditional branches of the Germanic languages are North and East Germanic languages. Family tree has three main groups: Eastern, Northern, And Western which in turn has two main groups: German and Anglo-Frisian. Distribution of Germanic languages (West Germanic English about 443 million speakers, German about 118 mil. speakers, Dutch-21 mil, Africans-10 mil speakers, North Germanic Swedish-9 million, Danish 8 mil, Yiddish 5 mil, Frisian ½ mil.)

THE comparative and historical method

Linguistics uses various methods to study languages. One of them is Comparative and Historical

method. This is a scientific way of reconstruction of those language phenomena of the past, which were not fixed in written texts. The reconstruction can be effected by means of comparing later facts of two or more languages which are known from either written texts or real speech. Sometimes only it works in studying language phenomena. Steps of the process of comparing language phenomena:

1) to compare sounds and morphemes;

2) to establish common laws;

3) to establish chronological correspondences among (соответствия) them;

4) to reconstruct a primary form.

The method is not ideal, it has some drawbacks:

-it can’t give exact dates of this or that language change;

-it doesn’t explain several phenomena;

-it’s not suitable for all types of languages.

This method is based on the following principles:

- Genetic commonness of the compared units.

- Comparison the meaningful units (not simply sounds). (смысловые единицы)

- Regularity of correspondences.

- Phonetic laws.

- Semantic laws.

The first scientists who developed this method are William Jones (1746-1794), Rusmus Rask.

Linguistic substratum, superstratum, adstratum

Substratum (bedding) is a historical change in a language when a conquering (завоеванное) minority that imposes (навязывает) its language on a conquered (завоеванному) population has its language modified by its victims (жертвами). It influences mainly phonetics and partially vocabulary and grammar. An example of substratum is the Celtic language for the English language.

Superstratum (upper layer) – when the conquerors` language wins out completely. It influences vocabulary and syntax. An example of it is French and Latin for English.

Adstratum- а parity (равенство) between two or more alien languages. It influences the structure of languages. An example of it is Irish and English.

External and internal causes of changes in the languages.

External cause is the changes outside of the language. Such historical events as social changes, wars, migrations can hardly fail to influence a language, more especially its vocabulary.

Internal cause is the changes within the language itself. It influences pronunciation, phonetics and structure of a language.

Theories of the Germanic languages origin.

Theories of the Germanic languages origin developed in different directions depending on the time of their appearance. Some theories were well-established, the others were weak. Among the strongest was the theory of August Schleicher called «a tree diagram» of the family tree.

According to this theory the proto-germanic languages as a trunk gave birth to 3 main branches.

Proto-Germanic

1)Low German 2)Gothic 3)Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Faroese, Icelandic

-German Frisian

-Yiddish Dutch

-English Africans

The linguists who offered a tree diagram were the representatives of the main idea of which was the view on the language as living organism which has a date of birth, the period of childhood and middle-ages and the time of death.

EARLY GERMANIC SOCIETY

Germanic tribes are great ethnic complex of ancient Europe, a basic stock in the composition of the modern people of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Northern Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Northern and Central France, Lowland Scotland and England. It is considered that they lived in the territory between the rivers Elbe and Odra, on the peninsula Jutland and the Southern Sweden. From archaeology it is clear that the Germans had little ethnic solidarity (единство). Their rise to significance (4th B.C.) in the history of Europe began roughly with the general break-up of Celtic culture in central Europe.

Geography made the territory of the Germanic tribes attractive to the Romans as a potential province to add to the already powerful strategic value made the Romans eager to gain acquisition (приобретение) of this territory. The main resources that Germany had to offer came in the form of metals, more specifically, iron. Their iron was of such quality and was acquired in such abundance that it was exported to Rome for use in most everything that was created from iron.

The Germanic agricultural system was vital to the economy in Germany. Most of Germans were farmers but a large potion of the population was herders. The Germans were agriculturists from the beginning of their existence. The main crops that they raised were cereal grains such as wheat, barley, oats and rye. Around the North sea area there was an emphasis on cattle raising.

The tribes that eventually settled in the Germanic area were tribes that had for the most part been migrating throughout Europe for many years.

Runic Alphabet

The word “rune” is translated as “secret” The most important sources about runic history are ancient texts of Scandinavian pagan religion – Old Edda and Lesser Edda. German runic writing was the letter system of peculiar look, accounted by the writing technique on bone, wood and metal.

Nowadays we have the main runic alphabet, consisting of 24 signs, may be more, but another ones are regarded as variants or combined runes. The whole system is divided into 2 parts –futharks: Old futhark and Late futhark

24 signs traditionally gradate into 3 groups of 8 symbols called atts.

There were two main theories:

1) Runic writing appeared on the basis of Latin alphabet

2) Cradles (истоки) of these signs are in Transalpine and North Italian scripts. Scientists have a lot of historical facts, approving the Etruscan merchants (купечество) used this system. Probably they brought it to the North (6th BC). The top of development and complete formation of Runic alphabet system was in 1-2c AD.

28 signs appeared in the middle of the 6th in Britain where German runes penetrated (проникли) in the 5th with Anglo-Saxon invasion. Frisian futhark was improved by the some additions and changes (mostly combined runes) and numbered 29 units.

In Northumberland 33 rune system existed already, with the mixture of Celtic runes.

In the middle of 7th the tendency to simplification appeared – some runes changed in inscription, some were lost. To the middle of the 10th the number of runes decreased to 16 units and late futhark formed.

The next step in development of RA took place in the middle of the 12th by adding dots to 16 sign system.

They attract attention by their unusual form – it is too difficult to regard it as ordinary symbol.

GOTHIC ALPHABET

The Gothic alphabet (4th century) was probably created by bishop Ulfilas who also translated the Bible. A peculiar alphabet based on the Greek alphabet, with some admixture of Latin and Runic letters. The Gothic alphabet should not be mixed up with the so called Gothic script which is still used in German writings and which is a modified shape of Latin script. The Gothic alphabet is a writing system used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language.

LATIN ALPHABET

The Latin Alphabet superseded (вытеснять) both the Runic and the Gothic alphabet in order to organize church service. First glosses (толкования) appeared to render (воспроизводить) the names into Latin. The Latin alphabet of that time had only 23 letters. Historically there were the following types of Latin writing: scriptura capitalis, scriptura uncialis, semiuncialis and minusculis.

GRIMM’S LAW

Grimm’s law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift) was the first systematic change ever to be discovered. It was discovered in 1822 by Jacob Grimm. It establishes a set of regular correspondences between early Germanic stops and fricatives and the stop consonants of certain in other Indo-European languages

1. IE p, t, k à Germanic f, p, x: pater-faeder

2. IE b, d, g à Germanic p, t, k: cordis-heorte, duo-twa

3. IE bh, dh, gh à b, d, g

VERNER’S LOW

Verner’s Law, discovered by Karl Verner in 1875, describes sound changes in the PG language whereby voiceless fricatives become voiced if the preceding syllable was unstressed but otherwise remained unchanged:

1. p, t, k à f, p, x, (h) à (v) b, d, g: ter – mōdor: Pater - fæder

2. s à z

RHOTASISM

The term derived from the name of the Greek letter “rho” which partly explained essence of the notion. Thus in the case of RHOTASISM if the preceding vowel was unstressedS changed Zeventually Zbecome Rin West Germanic and Northern Germanic languages (but not in Gothic):Maiza – maira – more

s à z z à r

Ablaut and its functions.

The term ablaut was coined in the early 19th c. by the linguist Jacob Grimm. The process of Ablaut or Gradation is an independent vowel change accompanying a change in grammatical function. For example, the vowel change in English from I and A to U in sing (present tense)-sang (preterit)—sung (past-participle) referred to as an ablaut. In the G language gradation was preserved and could be seen the most vividly on the example of strong English verbs while the other IE language also had the examples of ablaut on other parts of speech. Gradation is not confined (ограниченный) to verbs. We see the alternation of e and o grades in the Greek lego(I speak) and the related noun logos(speech). And the same alternation lies behind the MnE: bind-band; ride-rode.

Front mutation. Umlaut.

Umlaut – is a modification of the vowel which causes it to be pronounced more to the front of the mouth to accommodate (вмещать) a vowel in the following syllable, especially when it’s an inflectional suffix: woman-women; long-length; old-elders. Umlaut may be derived into two kinds: front mutation, velar umlaut. Front mutation is the most important type of umlaut, which is caused by an i/j. Having brought about a complete change in vowel quality (one phoneme is replaced by another), the i/j or I disappear or change toe.

a > enamian-nemnon

o + i/j > emohti-mehta

u > yfullian-fyllan

VELAR UMLAUT

Umlaut – is a modification of the vowel which causes it to be pronounced more to the front of the mouth to accommodate (вмещать) a vowel in the following syllable, especially when it’s an inflectional suffix: woman-women; long-length; old-elders. Umlaut may be derived into two kinds: front mutation, velar umlaut. Velar umlaut is a type of assimilation, caused by back vowels u, o, a of the following syllable:

I > iosifon-siofon

e > eohefon-heofon

a > easaro-seary

Strong verbs.

*Strong verbs use the Germanic form of conjugation – спряжение ( known as Ablaut).In this form of conjugation , the stem of the word changes to indicate the tense. We still have verbs like this in modern English : "sing, sang, sung" is a strong verb, as are "swim, swam, swum" and "choose, chose, chosen".

* The root portion of the word changes rather than its ending. In Old English, there were seven major classes of strong verbs; each class has its own pattern of stem changes.

Strong verbs inherited from PIE a special type of tense and number forming.

4 main forms:

 Infinitive

 Past (sing)

 Past (pl)

 Participle ||

Remember!!!

Strong verbs – 7 classes

Weak verbs -- 3 classes

In Gothic -- 4 classes

Weak verbs

All verbs were divided into:

- Strong verbs

- Weak verbs

- Preterit-present

- Atypical

 

Weak verb

A verb which is inflected by ending a dental suffix -d-/-t- to the stem, not by an internal vowel change. The origin of the weak conjugation is uncertain. One theory is that the ending was originally a part of the verb “to do”, rather as though he walked had developed out of he walk did. According to another view, the origin of the suffix is to be sought in the -t- of such Latin participles as lectus, auditus, or Russian битый, бритый, колотый, etc.

 

Weak verbs are formed principally by adding endings to past and participles. An example is “walk, walked” or “learn, learned”. There were only 3 different classes of weak verb:

Classes of weak verbs

1) with the stem in j- nerian-nerede-nered (save)

2) with o-stem endian-endode-endod (end)

3) with ai-stem habban-haefde-haefd (have)

in Gothic there were 4 classes of weak verbs.

The weak verb at a definite period of time merged with some strong verb as a result these 2 categories partially mixed and the group of weak verb adopted a large number of those verb which previously belong to strong that’s why the modern category of regular verbs is larger than the parallel category of old Germanic verb to learn-learnt, learned; to light-lit, lighted.

Preterit-present verbs

All verbs were divided into:

- Strong verbs

- Weak verbs

- Preterit-present

- Atypical

Preterit-present verbs were a very ancient group. Their root of the present form derived from past form, and the Past tense was formed by means of the dental suffix -D(-T), which possibly derived from the old form of the verb DO, or from Indo-European suffix of Verbal Adjectives. Examples: sculan-sceal-sceolde (shall); magan-maeg-meahta (may).

OG Irregular Verbs

Differ from all other OD verbs in that their forms are derived from different roots, that is their system is based on suppletivity.

(Отличие от всех других старогерманских глаголов в том, что их формы образуются от разных корней, то есть их система основана на suppletivity.)

 

 

№14Practice. Part 1. Page 19

King

O.E. cyning, from P.Gmc. *kuninggaz (cf. Du. koning, O.H.G. kuning, O.N. konungr, Dan. konge, Ger. könig). Possibly related to O.E. cynn "family, race" (see kin), making a king originally a "leader of the people;" or from a related root suggesting "noble birth," making a king originally "one who descended from noble birth." The sociological and ideological implications make this a topic of much debate. Finnish kuningas "king," O.C.S. kunegu "prince" (Rus. knyaz, Boh. knez), Lith. kunigas "clergyman" are loans from Germanic.

Book

O.E. boc "book, writing, written document," traditionally from P.Gmc. *bokiz "beech" (cf. Ger. Buch "book" Buche "beech”)the notion being of beechwood tablets on which runes were inscribed, but it may be from the tree itself (people still carve initials in them). The O.E. originally meant any written document.

Thing

O.E. þing "meeting, assembly," later "entity, being, matter" (subject of deliberation in an assembly), also "act, deed, event, material object, body, being," from P.Gmc. *thengan "appointed time"

№15Practice.Part 1.page 19

“wall” from Latin vallum ‘rampart’

“camp” early 16th cent.: from French camp, champ, from Italian campo, from Latin campus ‘level ground’

“street” Old English stræt, of West Germanic origin, from late Latin strata

15) camp (n.)

1520s, from French camp, from Italian campo, from Latin campus "open field, level space" (also source of French champ; see campus), especially "open space for military exercise."

A later reborrowing of the Latin word, which had been taken up in early West Germanic as *kampo-z and appeared originally in Old English as camp "contest, battle, fight, war." This was obsolete by mid-15c. Transferred to non-military senses 1550s. Meaning "body of adherents of a doctrine or cause" is 1871. Camp-follower first attested 1810. Camp-meeting is from 1809, originally usually in reference to Methodists.

wall (n.) Look up wall at Dictionary.com

Old English weall "rampart" (natural as well as man-made), also "defensive fortification around a city, side of a building, interior partition," an Anglo-Frisian and Saxon borrowing (cf. Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Middle Low German, Middle Dutch wal) from Latin vallum "wall, rampart, row or line of stakes," apparently a collective form of vallus "stake." Swedish vall, Danish val are from Low German.It penetrated into the English language in early 900s.

street (n.)

Old English stret (Mercian, Kentish), stræt (West Saxon) "street, high road," from Late Latin strata, used elliptically for via strata "paved road," from fem. past participle of Latin sternere "lay down, spread out, pave," from PIE *stre-to- "to stretch, extend," from root *stere- "to spread, extend, stretch out" (see structure (n.)). One of the few words in use in England continuously from Roman times.

№16 Practice. part 1. Page 19

King +PG kuninggaz

Earl + PG erlo

Queen +OE cwen

Rich + OE rice

Sea + OE sa

Ship +OE scip

Fee – OF fieu

Riddle+ OE radels

Book+ OE boc PG

Beech+ OE bece

Boer-from Dutch boer

Boor - OF bovier

Wall +OE weall

№17 Practice. part 1. Page 19

Oslo

Norwegian capital, probably based on Old Norse os "estuary, river mouth," based on the place's situation.

Tuesley - ????

Ст.13 зелененький словарь ,дни недели

Birmingham Look up Birmingham at Dictionary.com

industrial city in central England, 1086, Bermingehame, literally "homestead of the place (or people) named for Beorma, some forgotten Anglo-Saxon person, whose name probably is a shortening of Beornmund. The Birmingham in Alabama, U.S., was founded 1871 as an industrial center and named for the English city.

Tuesday O.E. Tiwesdæg, Tiw was the Germanic god of war and sky (his name came from the same source as produced Latin deus «god», from which Eng. gets «deity») When the Germanic peoples took over the Romam system of naming the days of the week after the gods, they replaced the term «dies Maries»- «day of Mars, the war-god» with «Tiw’s day» hence Tuesday.

Monday O.E. mondæg, monandæg "Monday," is the «moon’s day». It comes from a prehistoric German translation of Latin «lunae dies» - «day of the moon», which also produced German Montag, Dutch Maandag, etc.

Tuesley (Old English Tīws leah) meaning "Tiw's Clearing"

Wednesday O.E. Wodnesdæg "Woden's day," a Germanic loan-translation of L. dies Mercurii "day of Mercury" (cf. O.N. Oðinsdagr, Swedish Onsdag, O.Fris. Wonsdei, M.Du. Wudensdach). For Woden, see Odin. Contracted pronunciation is recorded from 15c. The Odin-based name is missing in German (mittwoch, from O.H.G. mittwocha, lit. "mid-week"), probably by influence of Gothic, which seems to have adopted a pure ecclesiastical (i.e. non-astrological) week from Greek missionaries. The Gothic model also seems to be the source of Pol. środa, Rus. sreda "Wednesday," lit. "middle."

Easter Old English Easterdæg, from Eastre (Northumbrian Eostre), from P.Gmc. *Austron, a goddess of fertility and spring, probably originally of sunrise whose feast was celebrated at the spring equinox, from *austra-, from PIE *aus- "to shine" (especially of the dawn).

Birmingham The name Birmingham is derived from the Old English or Anglo-Saxon "Beormund ingas ham." 'Beormund' is a proper name, 'ingas' means 'people,' and 'ham' means 'farm/homestead.' So, "the farm of Beormund's people" is a reasonable gloss.

Fulham, or in its earliest form Saxon word "Fullonham", is uncertainly stated to signify "the place" either "of fowls" or "of mud" (which probably had to do with the fact that the River Thames would flood it periodically), or alternatively, "land in the crook of a river bend belonging to a man named Fulla".

№21 Practice. part 1. Page 20

Main runic alph is divided into 2 parts – futaks(arises from the 1st symbols…): Old Futark( runes of Old Germ orogin)&Late Futark.

26.page.20. part.1.Practice.

In prosody, alliterative verse is a form of verse that uses alliteration (alliteration refers to repetition of a particular sound in the first syllables of a series of words and/or phrases.) as the principal structuring device to unify lines of poetry, as opposed to other devices such as rhyme. The most commonly studied traditions of alliterative verse are those found in the oldest literature of many Germanic languages. The Old English epic Beowulf, as well as most other Old English poetry, the Old High German Muspilli, the Old Saxon Heliand, and the Old Norse Poetic Edda all use alliterative verse

2 часть словаря филолога Ст.15,№1

Боль – balu – It is explained by Velar umlaut

Salz –соль –it is explained by Verners law

Pecus – feoh – Grimm`s law

Нагой – naked-nackt – Grimm`s law

Приятель- friend Grimms law

Domare – tame – Grimms law

№2 Practice. part 2. Page 16

Камень – stone?

Tooth –зуб

Decem –десять-ten-zehn 1vowel

Piacis –пескарь-fish 1cons sh

Слабый-?weak

№29 Practice. part 2. Page 18.

Pater-1 cons sh Grimm’s law, Verner;s law

Tu

poda

№30 Practice. part 2. Page 18.

Болото – pool

iugum – yoke

иго

№31.Practice. part 2. Page 18.

Piscis-gudgeon; pecus – cattle; tenuis - thin,weak,narrow; granum-grain; полный – full, plump.

 

MODERN Germanic languages and their distribution in various parts of the world

The west Germanic language constitute (образовывает) the largest of the tree traditional branches of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as Germanic, English , Dutch, Africans, the Frisian languages and Yiddish. The other two of these three traditional branches of the Germanic languages are North and East Germanic languages. Family tree has three main groups: Eastern, Northern, And Western which in turn has two main groups: German and Anglo-Frisian. Distribution of Germanic languages (West Germanic English about 443 million speakers, German about 118 mil. speakers, Dutch-21 mil, Africans-10 mil speakers, North Germanic Swedish-9 million, Danish 8 mil, Yiddish 5 mil, Frisian ½ mil.)







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