Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
THE ADJ. IN OG LANGUAGES AND IN MnE
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In PIE the adjective inflections had been essentially the same as the noun inflections, because originally there was no distinction between the noun and the adjective (for example, красно-солнышко). But in many daughter-languages they became distinguished from them. This happened in PG which developed two distinct sets of inflections for the adjectives, called the strong and the weak declensions. Every adjective was declined both according to the strong and the weak declension. Weak declension forms were used when the adjective was preceded by a demonstrative pronoun or the definite article. They were associated with the meaning of definiteness (OE se goda mann – ME this good person). Strong declension forms were used in all other contexts. They were associated with the meaning of indefiniteness (OE god mann – ME a good person). Adjectives in PG had the following categories: number (singular and plural), gender (masculine, feminine and neuter) and case (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative and instrumental).
OG adjectives had the superlative and comparative degrees of comparison. Degrees of comparison were formed by means of suffixes added to the Positive form. Comparative degree was formed by means of suffixes –iz, -oz (in Gothic), -ra, -ir, -or (in other languages due to rhotacism): hauhs – hauhiza, soft – softra, hoh – hohiro. Superlative degree was formed by means of suffixes –ist, -ost, -est: hauhs – hauhista, soft – softost, hohiro – hohisto. In modern English there are comparative and superlative degrees of comparison, too. They are formed by means of suffixes –er (comparative degree) and –est (superlative degree) or by means of words more (comparative degree) and most (superlative degree): long – longer, the longest; big – bigger, the biggest; beautiful – more beautiful, the most beautiful.
The pronoun in OG languages and in Modern English
OG pronouns fell roughly under the same main classes as ME pronouns: personal, demonstrative, interrogative and indefinite. They had the same categories as Nouns.
Most OG pronouns have the categories of person, number, case, and gender. In the plural form most OG pronouns have only one form for all genders.
Most OG pronouns are declined by four main cases: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, and Accusative.
In ME only some pronouns have the grammatical categories of person, gender, case, and number. The categories of person and gender (in the third person singular) exist only in personal and possessive pronouns.
ME pronouns have two cases but whereas some pronouns have the Nominative and objective cases, others have the common and Genitive cases.
OG pronouns have three numbers: singular, plural and so-called dual («we two", "you two" or "they two").
ME pronouns have only two numbers: singular and plural.
Many OG pronouns are quite similar to their modern equivalents. For example, OG ūre became "our", mīn became "mine" and others.
The numerals and adverbs in OG languages and in ME.
In OG languages, as well as in the ME, numerals were a part of nominal group. They were divided into such types as cardinal and ordinal. Ordinary numerals were derived from cardinals with the help of suffixes tjo-to.
Some OG numerals, unlike ME numerals, had the form of cases - Nominative, Genitive and Dative.
OG numerals from one to three were declined as a strong Adjective and from four to nineteen were usually invariable if used as attributes to a substantive, but they were declined if used without a substantive.
OG cardinal numerals were declined as weak adjectives.
ME cardinal numerals from 1 to 12 and 100, 1000, 1000000 are simple words. Numerals from 13 to 19 are derivatives with the suffix -teen. The cardinal numerals indicating tens are formed with the help of the suffix -ty.
With the exception of the first, second and third the ME ordinal numerals are formed from cardinal with the help of the suffix -th.
There were several structural types of OG adverbs:
1)simple(primary), usually monosyllabic(inn 'inside', ūt 'near');
2)adverbs with suffixes(-e- hēr 'here', -a- sonā 'soon');
3)adverbs derived from a case noun form, usually Genitive or Dative(anes-'once');
4)adverbs formed by the use of preposition and the noun( of dune - 'down').
ME adverbs are divided into:
1)simple (long, there, etc.);
2)derivative( slowly, forward, etc.);
3)compound( anyhow, nowhere, etc.);
4)composite( at once, at last, etc.).
Some OG adverbs have the degrees of comparison: comparative and superlative.
The comparative degree was formed by adding -or(in OE), -ozh(in PG), -is(in Gt) and other. The superlative one was formed by adding -ost(or -ist). ( widely=wīde-wīdor-wīdost; forward= fram-framis-frumist). Some comparative forms were formed only by means of mutation of the root vowel, without any suffixes(feorr-fierr(-or)-fierrost =far).
Some ME adverbs also have comparative and superlative degrees of comparison.
The comparative one is formed by adding -er or with the use of more.
The superlative degree is formed by adding -est or with the use of most.
Some of ME adverbs have irregular forms of comparison (little-less-least; much- more-most).
Morphological classification of OG verbs.
Morphological classification of OG verbs was extended into four main groups:
The first group was the largest and the most difficult to be understood. OG strong verbs were graded into 7 classes according to the root vowel changes (Ablaut).
Strong verbs inherited from PIE a special type of tense and number forming. It means that every verb has 4 main forms: Infinitive, Past singular, Past plural and Participle II.
Strong verbs transformed into irregular verbs.
The category of weak verbs was less numerous than strong one and it had a set of peculiarities. Weak verbs formed their past tenses principally by adding endings and with the help of dental suffix -d(-t). There were only three different classes of weak verbs:
1) with the stem in -j( nerian-nerede- nered (save));
2)with -o- stem (endian-endode-endod (end));
3)with -ai- stem (habban-haefde-haefd (have)).
In Gothic there were 4 classes of weak verbs.
Preterit-Present verbs were a very ancient group. Their root of the present form derived from past form, and the Past tense was formed by means of the dental suffix -d(-t), which possibly derived from the old form of the verb do.
E.g. sculan- sceal-sceolde (shall)
cunnan-cann, cuthe (can).
Atypical verbs is a group of four verbs which are anomalous, the verbs "will", "do", "go", and "be". These verbs have their own conjugation schemes which differ significantly from all the other classes of verbs. They are the most commonly used verbs in the language, and are very important to the meaning of the sentences they are used in.( bēom, eart,bist,is,sind; was, waes (OE)).
OG verb. The category of tense in comparison with the modern.
The category of tense was presented only in two aspects : Present, Past and the Infinitive form. All Germanic verbs did not have Future Tense as a grammatical model. To present the Future Tense in words all the Germanic languages used modal verbs scullan, willan + infinitive or with the help of Present Time form equal to modern "to be going to".
OE verbs scullan/willan were the sources and prototypes of the modern Future Tense.
There are Present, Past and Future Tense in modern English.
OG verb. The category of voice in comparison with the modern.
Voice – Active, Passive, (Medio-passive in Gothic)
In modern English the verb has two voices : the Active Voice and the Passive Voice.
*Strong verbs use the Germanic form of conjugation – спряжение ( known as Ablaut).In this form of conjugation , the stem of the word changes to indicate the tense. We still have verbs like this in modern English : "sing, sang, sung" is a strong verb, as are "swim, swam, swum" and "choose, chose, chosen".
* The root portion of the word changes rather than its ending. In Old English, there were seven major classes of strong verbs; each class has its own pattern of stem changes.
Strong verbs inherited from PIE a special type of tense and number forming.
4 main forms:
Strong verbs – 7 classes
Weak verbs -- 3 classes
In Gothic -- 4 classes
All verbs were divided into:
- Strong verbs
- Weak verbs
A verb which is inflected by ending a dental suffix -d-/-t- to the stem, not by an internal vowel change. The origin of the weak conjugation is uncertain. One theory is that the ending was originally a part of the verb “to do”, rather as though he walked had developed out of he walk did. According to another view, the origin of the suffix is to be sought in the -t- of such Latin participles as lectus, auditus, or Russian битый, бритый, колотый, etc.
Weak verbs are formed principally by adding endings to past and participles. An example is “walk, walked” or “learn, learned”. There were only 3 different classes of weak verb:
Classes of weak verbs
1) with the stem in j- nerian-nerede-nered (save)
2) with o-stem endian-endode-endod (end)
3) with ai-stem habban-haefde-haefd (have)
in Gothic there were 4 classes of weak verbs.
The weak verb at a definite period of time merged with some strong verb as a result these 2 categories partially mixed and the group of weak verb adopted a large number of those verb which previously belong to strong that’s why the modern category of regular verbs is larger than the parallel category of old Germanic verb to learn-learnt, learned; to light-lit, lighted.
All verbs were divided into:
- Strong verbs
- Weak verbs
Preterit-present verbs were a very ancient group. Their root of the present form derived from past form, and the Past tense was formed by means of the dental suffix -D(-T), which possibly derived from the old form of the verb DO, or from Indo-European suffix of Verbal Adjectives. Examples: sculan-sceal-sceolde (shall); magan-maeg-meahta (may).
OG Irregular Verbs
Differ from all other OD verbs in that their forms are derived from different roots, that is their system is based on suppletivity.
(Отличие от всех других старогерманских глаголов в том, что их формы образуются от разных корней, то есть их система основана на suppletivity.)
№14Practice. Part 1. Page 19
O.E. cyning, from P.Gmc. *kuninggaz (cf. Du. koning, O.H.G. kuning, O.N. konungr, Dan. konge, Ger. könig). Possibly related to O.E. cynn "family, race" (see kin), making a king originally a "leader of the people;" or from a related root suggesting "noble birth," making a king originally "one who descended from noble birth." The sociological and ideological implications make this a topic of much debate. Finnish kuningas "king," O.C.S. kunegu "prince" (Rus. knyaz, Boh. knez), Lith. kunigas "clergyman" are loans from Germanic.
O.E. boc "book, writing, written document," traditionally from P.Gmc. *bokiz "beech" (cf. Ger. Buch "book" Buche "beech”)the notion being of beechwood tablets on which runes were inscribed, but it may be from the tree itself (people still carve initials in them). The O.E. originally meant any written document.
O.E. þing "meeting, assembly," later "entity, being, matter" (subject of deliberation in an assembly), also "act, deed, event, material object, body, being," from P.Gmc. *thengan "appointed time"
№15Practice.Part 1.page 19
“wall” from Latin vallum ‘rampart’
“camp” early 16th cent.: from French camp, champ, from Italian campo, from Latin campus ‘level ground’
“street” Old English stræt, of West Germanic origin, from late Latin strata
15) camp (n.)
1520s, from French camp, from Italian campo, from Latin campus "open field, level space" (also source of French champ; see campus), especially "open space for military exercise."
A later reborrowing of the Latin word, which had been taken up in early West Germanic as *kampo-z and appeared originally in Old English as camp "contest, battle, fight, war." This was obsolete by mid-15c. Transferred to non-military senses 1550s. Meaning "body of adherents of a doctrine or cause" is 1871. Camp-follower first attested 1810. Camp-meeting is from 1809, originally usually in reference to Methodists.
wall (n.) Look up wall at Dictionary.com
Old English weall "rampart" (natural as well as man-made), also "defensive fortification around a city, side of a building, interior partition," an Anglo-Frisian and Saxon borrowing (cf. Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Middle Low German, Middle Dutch wal) from Latin vallum "wall, rampart, row or line of stakes," apparently a collective form of vallus "stake." Swedish vall, Danish val are from Low German.It penetrated into the English language in early 900s.
Old English stret (Mercian, Kentish), stræt (West Saxon) "street, high road," from Late Latin strata, used elliptically for via strata "paved road," from fem. past participle of Latin sternere "lay down, spread out, pave," from PIE *stre-to- "to stretch, extend," from root *stere- "to spread, extend, stretch out" (see structure (n.)). One of the few words in use in England continuously from Roman times.
№16 Practice. part 1. Page 19
King +PG kuninggaz
Earl + PG erlo
Queen +OE cwen
Rich + OE rice
Sea + OE sa
Ship +OE scip
Fee – OF fieu
Riddle+ OE radels
Book+ OE boc PG
Beech+ OE bece
Boer-from Dutch boer
Boor - OF bovier
Wall +OE weall
№17 Practice. part 1. Page 19
Norwegian capital, probably based on Old Norse os "estuary, river mouth," based on the place's situation.
Tuesley - ????
Ст.13 зелененький словарь ,дни недели
Birmingham Look up Birmingham at Dictionary.com
industrial city in central England, 1086, Bermingehame, literally "homestead of the place (or people) named for Beorma, some forgotten Anglo-Saxon person, whose name probably is a shortening of Beornmund. The Birmingham in Alabama, U.S., was founded 1871 as an industrial center and named for the English city.
Tuesday O.E. Tiwesdæg, Tiw was the Germanic god of war and sky (his name came from the same source as produced Latin deus «god», from which Eng. gets «deity») When the Germanic peoples took over the Romam system of naming the days of the week after the gods, they replaced the term «dies Maries»- «day of Mars, the war-god» with «Tiw’s day» hence Tuesday.
Monday O.E. mondæg, monandæg "Monday," is the «moon’s day». It comes from a prehistoric German translation of Latin «lunae dies» - «day of the moon», which also produced German Montag, Dutch Maandag, etc.
Tuesley (Old English Tīws leah) meaning "Tiw's Clearing"
Wednesday O.E. Wodnesdæg "Woden's day," a Germanic loan-translation of L. dies Mercurii "day of Mercury" (cf. O.N. Oðinsdagr, Swedish Onsdag, O.Fris. Wonsdei, M.Du. Wudensdach). For Woden, see Odin. Contracted pronunciation is recorded from 15c. The Odin-based name is missing in German (mittwoch, from O.H.G. mittwocha, lit. "mid-week"), probably by influence of Gothic, which seems to have adopted a pure ecclesiastical (i.e. non-astrological) week from Greek missionaries. The Gothic model also seems to be the source of Pol. środa, Rus. sreda "Wednesday," lit. "middle."
Easter Old English Easterdæg, from Eastre (Northumbrian Eostre), from P.Gmc. *Austron, a goddess of fertility and spring, probably originally of sunrise whose feast was celebrated at the spring equinox, from *austra-, from PIE *aus- "to shine" (especially of the dawn).
Birmingham The name Birmingham is derived from the Old English or Anglo-Saxon "Beormund ingas ham." 'Beormund' is a proper name, 'ingas' means 'people,' and 'ham' means 'farm/homestead.' So, "the farm of Beormund's people" is a reasonable gloss.
Fulham, or in its earliest form Saxon word "Fullonham", is uncertainly stated to signify "the place" either "of fowls" or "of mud" (which probably had to do with the fact that the River Thames would flood it periodically), or alternatively, "land in the crook of a river bend belonging to a man named Fulla".
№21 Practice. part 1. Page 20
Main runic alph is divided into 2 parts – futaks(arises from the 1st symbols…): Old Futark( runes of Old Germ orogin)&Late Futark.
In prosody, alliterative verse is a form of verse that uses alliteration (alliteration refers to repetition of a particular sound in the first syllables of a series of words and/or phrases.) as the principal structuring device to unify lines of poetry, as opposed to other devices such as rhyme. The most commonly studied traditions of alliterative verse are those found in the oldest literature of many Germanic languages. The Old English epic Beowulf, as well as most other Old English poetry, the Old High German Muspilli, the Old Saxon Heliand, and the Old Norse Poetic Edda all use alliterative verse
2 часть словаря филолога Ст.15,№1
Боль – balu – It is explained by Velar umlaut
Salz –соль –it is explained by Verners law
Pecus – feoh – Grimm`s law
Нагой – naked-nackt – Grimm`s law
Приятель- friend Grimms law
Domare – tame – Grimms law
№2 Practice. part 2. Page 16
Камень – stone?
Decem –десять-ten-zehn 1vowel
Piacis –пескарь-fish 1cons sh
№29 Practice. part 2. Page 18.
Pater-1 cons sh Grimm’s law, Verner;s law
№30 Practice. part 2. Page 18.
Болото – pool
iugum – yoke
№31.Practice. part 2. Page 18.
Piscis-gudgeon; pecus – cattle; tenuis - thin,weak,narrow; granum-grain; полный – full, plump.
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