The subjects I studied at school. My favourite subject.



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

The subjects I studied at school. My favourite subject.



We did quite a lot of subjects at school. They were: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, History, Geography, Russian, English, Literature and many others.

Every teacher asked for equal and adequate attention to his subject and it was not an easy work to do. I knew that all the subjects were important, but still I was always indifferent to exact sciences.

Since my childhood I have been fond of reading. My favourite subjects were Literature and languages. When I started studying English, the first thing I got interested in, was the different way to express one and the same idea in English and Russian. I wondered why if an Englishman is upset or gloomy he does not say: "I have a bad mood" like Russians do but says: "I feel blue".

There is an infinite number of such things in any language.

I read English books, tried to translate some articles from "Moscow News". Very often I borrowed English books from our school library. I spend a lot of time studying Grammar and doing Tasks.

At our English lessons we read quite a lot, but didn't talk much. So my friends and I decided to speak English among us. Very often I spoke English with my friends on the way home after classes.


Lesson 4. My University.

Pre-reading

Task 1. Choose the best variant:

1. Tambov State University is about:

A. 70 years old;

B. 15 years old;

C. 5 years old.

2. The official address of Tambov State University is:

A. 93 Sovetskaya St., Tambov, 392000, Russia;

B. 6 Sovetskaya St., Tambov, 392002, Russia;

C. 33 Internatsionalnaya St., Tambov, 392622, Russia.

Task 2. A. Study the following definitions and decide which ones have to do with the name of this unit:

candidate – 1. one that aspires to or is nominated or qualified for an office, membership, or award; 2) a student in the process of meeting final requirements for a degree.

doctor –1. someone who is trained to treat people who are ill; 2. someone who holds the highest degree given by a university.

B. Name the lecturers of your Institute/Academy and their academicdegrees, e.g. Mizis U.A. is a Doctor of History.

Task 3. Study the following text:

My Home University

I study at Tambov State University. TSU named after G.R. Derzhavin was founded in 1994 on the basis of Tambov State Pedagogical Institute and Tambov State Institute of Culture. The University combines both training highly skilled specialists in humanities and natural sciences and the realization of serious research work. My University is a university of a classical type. It is the second largest university in the Central Chernozyom Region of Russia. Over 10, 000 undergraduates and postgraduates study at TSU.

In various Institutes and Academies students study humanities, sciences, arts, business and medicine. They offer an extensive choice of over 50 majors. In TSU there are following subdivisions: the Institute of Foreign Languages, the Institute of Philology, the Institute of Law, the Academy of Management and World Economics, the Institute of Natural Science (Chemistry, Biology, Geography, Ecology, Medicine), the Institute of Physical Training and Sport, the Institute of Physics, Mathematics and Information Science, the Academy of Humanities etc.

Postgraduate teaching and learning form a significant part of the University's activities. The University offers many opportunities for graduates to study at a higher level, both full-time and part-time.

The University is a participant of international programs supported and financed by the following foundations: IREX, INTAS, DAAD, Fulbright Program, Freedom Support Act Program, Soros Foundation, Volkswagen foundation, British Council, Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Russian Foundation for Humanities.

All the Institutes and Academies of TSU have necessary facilities and modern equipment for study and research. At the students' disposal there is a university library with a stock of 850,000 volumes, a university sports complex with numerous gyms. A wide variety of sports, recreation and entertainment clubs and societies are available to satisfy your interests and hobbies.

More than two thousands students live in university hostels.

As for me, I am a fresher, i.e. a first-year student of the Academy of Humanities. My major is Home History. I passed all the State Exams successfully and was admitted to the University. Many applicants failed and many entered evening departments.

My first day at the University was unforgettable. We all gathered in the Assembly Hall where the Rector and the Dean congratulated us. The Dean, the Doctor of History, spoke about the subjects we were to study, the lectures and seminars we were to attend. Now we have three or four periods a day, we study five days a week. Academic year lasts for ten months. Each term is followed by a session period, during which we have to present course-papers and take various exams. Meals are available in various university canteens and buffets. In our building there is a good and roomy cafeteria.

Almost all of our lecturers are doctors and candidates of sciences. We are proud of the fact that among the academic staff of our University there are Members of New York Academy of Sciences, International Slavonic Academy of Sciences, Education, Arts and Culture, International Association of Social Workers, holders of the State scientific grant “To Outstanding Scientists of Russia”, Honoured Scientists of Russian Federation.

I live in one of the university hostels, which is rather convenient for doing my homework and reading for exams. I do my best to get only good and excellent marks.

Vocabulary

Task 4. A. Find out the corresponding equivalents for the following Russian words from the text and make up your own sentences with them:

- быть названным в честь кого-либо

- готовиться к экзаменам

- поступить (в университет)

- Тамбовский государственный университет

- научная работа

- студент

- специальность,

- доктор наук

- кандидат наук

- посещать (занятия)

- доступный

- общежитие

- делать домашнее задание

- представить курсовую работу

- длиться

- ректор

- декан

- история отечества

- актовый зал,

- делать все от тебя зависящее

B. Give the Russian equivalents to the following words and expressions. Use the text or a dictionary:

- an academic year

- an academic staff

- a session period

- studies

- the Dean's office

- a lecture (on)

- to lecture (in)

- a lecturer

- a semester

- a credit test

- a theme

- a canteen

- a gym

- a cafeteria

- a buffet

- to take (pass) an examination (in)

- to fail

- to miss classes

- to make a report (on)

- a satisfactory (unsatisfactory, bad, good) mark

- an excellent mark

- after (before) classes

- in class

- to make notes

- natural sciences

- an undergraduate

- a postgraduate

- a subdivision

- a volume

- a fresher

- a sophomore

- Honoured Scientists of Russian Federation

- in writing

- orally

- by heart

Task 5. Give A. synonyms B. antonyms to the following words/expressions:

A. to establish

a course project

an undergraduate

essential

to present

a fresher

to continue

 

B. to miss classes

local

unimportant

small

to be ashamed (of)

unsuitable

Task 6. A. Match the words with their definitions:

1. Postgraduate a. A long talk given to a group of people on a particular subject, especially as a method of teaching in universities.
2. Hostel b. To please someone by providing enough of what they want.
3. Grant c. Serious study of a subject, that is intended to discover new facts or ideas.
4. Stipend d. Someone who has formally asked, usually in writing, for a job, university place etc.
5. Applicant e. A class in which a small group of students meet to study or talk about a particular subject.
6. Seminar f. An amount of money given to someone, especially by the government for a particular purpose.
7. Lecture g. To complete your education at high school.
8. To graduate h. An amount of money paid regularly to someone such as a priest or student as wages or money to live on.
9. Research i. Somewhere where people, especially people living away from home, can stay and eat fairly cheaply.
10. To satisfy j. Someone who is studying at a university to get a master's degree or a PHD

B. Try to make up your own definitions of the following words:

student –

university –

participant –

facilities –

library –

exam –

rector –

mark –

homework –

Grammar

Task 7. Look at the words and fill in the table:

Word Preffix Base word Suffix
unforgettable un- forget -able
    believe  
    read  
    eat  
    listen  
    love  

МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ

(MODAL VERBS)

Модальность, т. е. отношение говорящего к действительности, по­мимо других средств, может выражаться модальными глаголами сап, could, must, may, might, need, should, shall, will, would, ought to, have to, be to. Модальные глаголы употребляются в сочетании со смысловым гла­голом в форме инфинитива без частицы to (кроме глагола ought). Они не имеют формы инфинитива, а также личных окончаний.

can (could).

1) обозначает физическую возможность совершения действия, способность или умение:

Не can do it. Он может это сделать.

Ann can skate. Энн умеет кататься на коньках.

2) обозначает сомнение в том, что действие имеет место или име­ло место (в сочетании с глаголом to be, продолженной или перфект­ной формой инфинитива - в вопросительном предложении):

Can she be so busy? Неужели она настолько занята?

Can they be still travelling Неужели они все еще

in the Caucasus? путешествуют по Кавказу?

 

Can (could) he have said it? Неужели (разве) он сказал это?

3) обозначает уверенность в том, что действие не может (не мог­ло) иметь место (в сочетании с глаголом to be, продолженной или перфектной­ формой инфинитива − в отрицательном предложении):

She can't be so stupid. He может быть, чтобы она была настолько глупа.

She can't be working in the gar- He может быть, чтобы она сейчас
den. работала в саду.

Не can't (couldn't) have done it. He может быть, чтобы он это

cделал

4) употребляется для выражения разрешения (наряду с глаголом may):

Can I take your book? Можно мне взять вашу книгу?

    Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма
Present I can do it. Can you do it?' - Yes, I can. - No, I can't. He can't do it.
Past I could do it. Could you do it? - Yes, I could. - No, I couldn't. She couldn't do it.
Future I (we) will/shall be able to do it.   You (he, she, it, they) will be able to do it. Shall/Will I (we) be able to do it?   – Yes, I shall/will - No, I shan't/won't. I (we) shan't/won't be able to do it.   You (he, she, it, they) won't be able to do it.
         

Примечание.Для образования формы будущего времени глагола сап используется его эквивалент be able /а (быть способным, в состоянии) в сочетании с вспомогательным глаголом shall (will) и инфинитивом смыслового гла­гола с частицей to.

Must

1) обозначает необходимость, долженствование:

I must do this work. Я должен (обязан) выполнить эту работу. Мне нужно (надо, необходимо) сделать эту работу.

2) выражает уверенность в том, что действие уже имело место или совершается сейчас (в сочетании с глаголом to be, продолженной или перфектной формой инфинитива смыслового глагола – в утвёрдительном предложении):

He must be busy now. Он, должно быть, занят сейчас.

She must be doing her homework. Она, очевидно (вероятно, должно быть), готовит уроки.

They must have left for London. Они, должно быть, уехали в Лон-

дон.

 

  Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная
  форма форма форма
Present I must do it. Must I do it? - Yes, you must. - No, you needn't. I must not do it.
Past I had to do it. Did you have to do it? - Yes, I did. - No, 1 didn't. I did not have to do it.
Future I (we) shall/will have Shall/Will I (we) have I (we) shall/will not
  to do it. to do it? have to do it.
  You (he, she, it, they) -Yes, you will. You (he, she, it, they)
  will have to do it. - No, you won't. - Will you (he, she, it, they) have to do it? -Yes, I shall - No, I shan't. will not have to do it.

Примечания. 1. На общий вопрос с глаголом must в кратком отрицательном ответе употребляется модальный глагол need с отрицанием not (needn't), оз­начающий отсутствие необходимости выполнять какое-л действие. На русский язык needn't переводится: «не нужно, не надо, незачем, нет не­обходимости».

2. Отрицательная форма must not выражает запрещение или необходи­мость не делать что-л.

You must not do it. Вы не должны (вам нельзя) это делать.

May (might)

1) обозначает разрешение совершить действие:

May I have your pen for a while? Можно мне взять вашу ручку на минуту?

You may smoke here. Вы можете курить здесь.

2) предположение, возможность осуществления действия; при этом might обозначает меньшую степень предположения (возможности):

The children may be playing in the Возможно, дети играют в саду.

garden.

Tom might help you. Может быть, Том поможет вам.

Не may (might) have finished his Он, возможно, закончил свою

work. работу.

Need

обозначает необходимость совершить действие и употребляется в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях (с частицей not):

Need I do it? Мне нужно это делать?

You needn't come here tomorrow. Вам нет необходимости (незачем, не нужно) приходить сюда завтра.

Should

1) обозначает пожелание, совет в отношении совершения или не­совершения действия, выражает субъективное мнение:

You should read more. Вам следует больше читать.

She should not work so much. Ей не следует так много рабо­тать.

2) выражает упрек в связи с тем, что действие имело место или не имело места (обычно в сочетании с перфектным инфинитивом смы­слового глагола):

They shouldn't have done it. Им не следовало этого делать.
You should have told me Вам следовало бы сказать мне об

about it. этом.

3) выражает возмущение (обычно в вопросительном предложе­нии с why):

Why should I go there? С какой стати я должен идти туда?

will (would)

1) обозначает желание выполнить действие (в сочетании с 1-м лицом ед. и мн. числа):

I will do it. Я хочу сделать это.

2) выражает нежелание выполнить действие (в сочетании с отри­цанием not), причем по отношению к настоящему времени употребля­ется won't, к прошедшему - wouldn’t:

The door won't open. Дверь не открывается.

I told him several times about Я говорил ему об/этом несколько

it, but he wouldn’t follow my раз, ноон так и не последовал

advice. моему совету.

3) выражает вежливую просьбу выполнить действие (в общем вопросе или в вопросительно-отрицательном предложении):

Will you repeat your sentence? Повторите, пожалуйста, ваше

предложение.
Won't you smoke? He хотите ли курить? (Курите,

пожалуйста.)

Ought to

1) выражает необходимость того, что соответствует морально-этическим нормам, естественно или по логике вещей следует ожидать от лица (предмета):

His parents are old and helpless. Его родители стары и беспомощны.
Не ought to take constant Ему следует (он должен)

care of them. постоянно о них заботиться.

2) выражает упрек (порицание) по поводу того, что действие было или не было выполнено:

She ought to have told me Ей следовало сказать мне об

about it before этом раньше.

You oughtn't to have done this. Вам не следовало этого делать.

Глагол to have в модальном значении

Вкачестве модального глагола to have обозначает долженство­вание как вынужденную необходимость совершения действия и пе­реводится «приходится», «пришлось», «придется».

 

  Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма
Present I have to do it every day. She has to do it. Do you have to do it every day? Does he have to do it every day? - Yes, I do (Yes, he does). - No, I don't(No, he doesn't). I do nothave to go there every day. He does not have to go there every day.
Past I had to do it yesterday. Didyou have to do it? -Yes, I did.-No, I didn't. I did nothave to go there yesterday.
Future I shall/will have to do it. He will have to do it. Shall/Will I have to do it? Will you have to do it? - Yes, you will (Yes, I shall). - No, you won't (No, I shan't). I shall/will not have to go there tomorrow. He will not have to go there tomorrow.

Примечание. Вопросительные и отрицательные предложения с модальным глаголом to have в Present и Past строятся при помощи вспомогательного глагола to do.

Глагол to be в модальном значении

В качестве модального глагола to be обозначает необходимость, вытекающую из заранее предусмотренного плана, графика, расписания, договоренности, установленного порядка и т.д.

 

Present
I am to do it. You are to go there. The plane is to arrive at 6. Мне предстоит это сделать. Вам предстоит поехать туда. Самолет должен прибыть в 6 часов.
Past
The train was to leave at 7.10. The students of our group were to take part in the contest. He was not to come here yester­day. Поезд должен был отойти в 7.10. Студенты нашей группы должны были принять участие в соревно­вании. Он не должен был прийти сюда вчера (не планировалось, не было договоренности, чтобы он пришел).

 

Task 8. Express the following in Russian, paying special attention to modal verbs:

A. 1. When a schoolboy I could play various children's games.

2. I can't speak German. Can you? – No, I can't either.

3. Can I come in and have a word with you?

4. He can't be working at the same problem.

5. Mary can't be so careless.

B. 1. You must attend all the lectures.

2. Must we do such Tasks regularly? – Yes, you must.

3. The doctor says Mary mustn’t go out for a couple of days.

4. Where is Daddy? – He must be in the garden – watering the flowers.

5. Eve looks very happy. She must have passed the exam she was very much afraid of.

C. 1. May I take this book home? – I am afraid you can't.

2. The guests may arrive (at) any time now.

3. Where is Grandma? – She may be in the kitchen – cooking something.

4. This article might have been translated by one of our students.

D. 1. You should pay more attention to your pronunciation.

2. You shouldn’t spend so much money on clothes.

3. Why should I pay for him?

4. the question shouldn’t have been discussed in my absence.

5. Children ought to be attentive to their parents.

6. She oughtn't to have done such things.

e) 1. We are to go on an archaeological expedition this July.

2. the next lecture is to be given by Prof. Shein.

3. The students were to gather in the park.

4. The contest in swimming is to have been held last May.

5. The last train from Glasgow is to come at 9 p. m.

f) 1. You needn't do this Task in writing. You may do it orally.

2. She needn't worry. Everything has been perfectly arranged.

g) 1. The pen won't write.

2. The watch won't go.

3. No matter how hard I tried, the door wouldn’t open.

4. I will help them at the first opportunity.

5. I would give him a piece of good advice, but he wouldn’t follow it.

 



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