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Тема 21.1. История создания полиции.



Грамматическая тема: Повторение грамматического материала.

 

Study the words and the word-combinations.

 

The Metropolitan Police Force – Столичная полиция

accomplice – сообщник

accused – обвиняемый

available – имеющийся в распоряжении (в наличии)

caution – осторожность, предупреждение

charge – обвинять

detain – арестовывать, задерживать

detention – задержание, содержание под стражей

extortion – вымогательство

forensic – судебный

indictment– обвинительный акт

interrogation – допрос

interview – опрос

kidnapping – похищение (людей)

liable – подлежащий, обязанный

murder – тяжкое убийство (с заранее обдуманным злым умыслом)

offender – правонарушитель

prosecutor – обвинитель

provision – постановление, обеспечение

questioning – допрос

record – запись, регистрация фактов

release – освобождение из заключения

robbery – ограбление

search – осмотр

shoplifting – кража из магазинов

smuggling – контрабанда

spy – шпион

summon – вызывать в суд

summons – вызов в суд, судебная повестка

thief – вор

thieve – красть

thievery – воровство (профессиональное), кража

treason – измена

treatment – режим содержания

warrant – ордер (на арест), предписание

warrant – оправдывать; ручаться, подтверждать

witness – свидетель

 

I. Scan through the text.

 

THE HISTORY OF POLICE FORCES

Police is the agency of a community or government that is responsible for maintaining public order and preventing and detecting crime. The basic police mission – preserving order by enforcing rules of conduct or laws – was the same in ancient societies as it is in the contemporary sophisticated urban environments.

The conception of the police force as a protective and law enforcement organisation developed from the use of military bodies as guardians of the peace, such as the Praetorian Guard – bodyguard of the ancient Roman emperors. The Romans achieved a high level of law enforcement, which remained in effect until the decline of the empire and the onset of the Middle Ages.

During the Middle Ages, policing authority was the responsibility of local nobles on their individual estates. Each noble generally appointed an official, known as a constable, to carry out the law. The constable's duties included keeping the peace and arresting and guarding criminals. For many decades constables were unpaid citizens who took turns at the job, which became increasingly burdensome and unpopular. By the mid-16th century, wealthy citizens often resorted to paying deputies to assume their turns as constables; as this practice became widespread, the quality of the constables declined drastically.

Police forces developed throughout the centuries, taking various forms. In France during the 17th century King Louis XIV maintained a small central police organisation consisting of some 40 inspectors who, with the help of numerous paid informants, supplied the government with details about the conduct of private individuals. The king could then exercise the kind of justice he saw fit. This system continued during the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI. After the French Revolution, two separate police bodies were set up, one to handle ordinary duties and the other to deal with political crimes.

In 1663 the city of London began paying watchmen (generally old men who were unable to find other work) to guard the streets at night. Until the end of the 18th century, the watchmen – as inefficient as they were – along with a few constables, remained the only form of policing in the city.

The inability of watchmen and constables to curb lawlessness, particularly in London, led to a demand for a more effective force to deal with criminals and to protect the population. After much deliberation in Parliament, the British statesman Sir Robert Peel in 1829 established the London Metropolitan Police, which became the world's first modern organised police force.

The force was guided by the concept of crime prevention as a primary police objective; it also embodied the belief that such a force should depend on the consent and cooperation of the public, and the idea that police constables were to be civil and courteous to the people. The Metropolitan Police force was well organised and disciplined and, after an initial period of public skepticism, became the model for other police forces in Great Britain. Several years later the Royal Irish Constabulary was formed, and Australia, India, and Canada soon established similar organizations. Other countries followed, impressed by the success of the plan, until nations throughout the world had adopted police systems based on the British model. The development of the British police system is especially significant because the pattern that emerged had great influence on the style of policing in almost all industrial societies.

II. Mark the statements which arc true.

 

1. Britain has its national police force.

2. The police are helped by members of public working voluntarily.

3. The police are not responsible for controlling offences like speeding, careless driving.

4. All police forces are armed.

5. The Metropolitan Police of London is responsible for the whole area of Great Britain.

6. In practice the police bring about 97% of all criminal cases to court.

III. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions.

 

1. дебаты в парламенте

2. обеспечивать соблюдение

3. основная задача

4. оставаться в силе

5. платный осведомитель организация

6. нести полицейскую службу

7. предупреждение

8. раскрывать преступления

9. сдерживать рост правил поведения преступности

10. следить за соблюдением полиции (2) законов

11. постоянно действующая

12. полицейские структуры

13. обеспечение правопорядка преступности

14. блюститель порядка

IV. Answer the following questions.

 

1. What is the basic police mission?

2. How did the police force as law enforcement organization arise and develop?

3. Why did the quality of the constables in England decline?

4. How were policing functions performed in France?

5. What was the form of policing London in the 17th century?

6. Why was there a need for a more effective force to deal with criminals in England?

7. What factors brought about the establishment of the Metropolitan Police Force?

8. What principles were the British police guided by?

9. Why did the Metropolitan Police Force become the model for other police forces in Britain and abroad?

10. Why is the development of the British police system especially significant?

Тема 21.2. Британская полиция и её полномочия.

I. Scan through the text.

THE BRITISH POLICE

The British police officer is a well-known figure to anyone who has visited Britain or who has seen British films. Policemen are to be seen in towns and cities keeping law and order, either walking in pairs down the streets ("walking the beat") or driving specially marked police cars. Once known as 'panda cars' because of their distinctive markings, these are now often jokingly referred to as 'jam sandwiches' because of the pink fluorescent stripe running horizontally around the bodywork. In the past, policemen were often known as 'bobbies' after Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the police force. Nowadays, common nicknames include 'the cops', 'the fuzz', 'the pigs', and 'the Old Bill' (particularly in London). Few people realise, however, that the police in Britain are organised very differently from many other countries.

Most countries, for example, have a national police force which is controlled by central Government. Britain has no national police force, although police policy is governed by the central Government's Home Office. Instead, there is a separate police force for each of 52 areas into which the country is divided. Each has a police authority – a committee of local county councillors and magistrates.

The forces co-operate with each other, but it is unusual for members of one force to operate in another's area unless they are asked to give assistance. This sometimes happens when there has been a very serious crime. A Chief Constable (the most senior police officer of a force) may sometimes ask for the assistance of London's police force, based at New Scotland Yard – known simply as 'the Yard'.

In most countries the police carry guns. In Britain, however, this is extremely unusual. Policemen do not, as a rule, carry firearms in their day-to-day work, though certain specialist units are trained to do so and can be called upon to help the regular police force in situations where firearms are involved, e.g. terrorist incidents, armed robberies etc. The only policemen who routinely | carry weapons are those assigned to guard politicians and diplomats, or special officers who patrol airports.

In certain circumstances specially trained police officers can be armed, but only with the signed permission of a magistrate.

All' members of the police must have gained a certain level of academic qualifications at school and undergone a period of intensive training. Like in the army, there are a number of ranks: after the Chief Constable comes the Assistant Chief Constable, Chief Superintendent, Chief Inspector, Inspector, Sergeant and Constable. Women make up about 10 per cent of the police force. The police are helped by a number of Special Constables – members of the public who work for the police voluntarily for a few hours a week.

Each police force has its own Criminal Investigation Department (CID). Members of CIDs are detectives, and they do not wear uniforms. (The other uniformed people you see in British towns are traffic wardens. Their job is to make sure that drivers obey the parking regulations. They have no other powers – it is the police who are responsible for controlling offences like speeding, careless driving and drunken driving.)

The duties of the police are varied, ranging from assisting at accidents to safeguarding public order and dealing with lost property. One of their main functions is, of course, apprehending criminals and would-be criminals.

 

II. Answer the following questions.

 

1. Who was the founder of the British police?

2. What does "walking the beat" mean?

3. Why are British police cars called 'jamsandwich' cars in colloquial speech?

4. Is there a single police force, organised by central government?

5. What is the major difference in police organisation between Britain and some other countries?

6. When do British police forces co-operate with each other?

7. What is the name of London's police headquarters?

8. In what situations can policemen carry arms?

9. What are the ranks of policemen?

10. What is the job of CID officers?

11. What are the duties of traffic wardens?

 

III. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the appropriate words and expressions from the previous text.

 

In Britain different areas have different____________. For instance, the Metropolitan police operate in London, but there are different police forces in the counties outside London. The top man in each police force is______________. He is appointed by the local Watch Committee which is a__________ of the local government. The Watch Committee can dismiss him, too, if the central government agrees. The Chief Constable appoints all the _________ below him in his force. Things are slightly different in London. The top man is known as the Metropolitan Police Commissioner and his appointment is arranged through the central government. British police are normally not _________. In special cases, when their work becomes dangerous, they can be given __________however. As is well known, the __________ of the British policeman is blue, with a tall helmet. These days, though, you can see a different uniform in the streets. This is the uniform with the yellow hatband worn by__________. Their job is simply to control traffic and__________. The most famous name connected with the British police is __________. It is the headquarters of the London police force. Besides dealing with local police matters, the London police also help all over England and Wales with difficult crimes. They do this at the request of the local police.

 

IV. Scan through the text.

POLICE POWERS

 

The powers of a police officer in England and Wales to stop and search, arrest and place a person under detention are contained in the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984. The legislation and the code of practice set out the powers and responsibilities of officers in the investigation of offences, and the rights of citizens.

An officer is liable to disciplinary proceedings if he or she fails to comply with any provision of the codes, and evidence obtained in breach of the codes may be ruled inadmissible in court. The code must be readily available in all police stations for consultation by police officers, detained people and members of the public.

Stop and Search

A police officer in England and Wales has the power to stop and search people and vehicles if there are reasonable grounds for suspecting that he or she will find stolen goods, offensive weapons or implements that could be used for theft, burglary or other offences. The officer must, however, state and record the grounds for taking this action and what, if anything, was found.

The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 enables a senior police officer to authorise uniformed officers to stop and search people or vehicles for offensive weapons, dangerous implements where he or she has reasonable grounds for believing that serious incidents of violence may take place. The officer must specify the time-scale and area in which the powers are to be exercised.

Arrest

In England and Wales the police have wide powers to arrest people suspected of having committed an offence with or without a warrant issued by a court. For serious offences, known as 'arrestable offences', a suspect can be arrested without a warrant. Arrestable offences are those for which five or more years' imprisonment can be imposed. This category also includes 'serious arrestable offences' such as murder, rape and kidnapping.

There is also a general arrest power for all other offences if it is impracticable or inappropriate to send out a summons to appear in court, or if the police officer has reasonable grounds for believing that arrest is necessary to prevent the person concerned from causing injury to any other person or damage to property.





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