Ex.2 Incorporate the quotation in the text at a suitable point. Decide on a suitable place to include the quotation. Make any changes necessary to the text.




ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Ex.2 Incorporate the quotation in the text at a suitable point. Decide on a suitable place to include the quotation. Make any changes necessary to the text.



A

QuotationIn this context saying thank you is very rude, for it suggests first that one has calculated the amount of a gift and second, that one did not expect the donor to be so generous.

References (Robert Dentan (1968). The Semai: A non-violent people of Malaya. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Page 49.)

TextTo express gratitude for the portion received indicates that you are the kind of person who calculates how much you are giving and taking. Thus to call attention to one's generosity is to indicate that others are in debt to you and that you expect them to repay you. It is repugnant to egalitarian peoples even to suggest that they have been treated generously.

 

B

Quotation“The whole point of selecting a prefabricated string is to bypass analysis.”

References(A. Wray (1999). In a book Formulaic language and the lexicon, published in Cambridge by Cambridge University Press. This quotation is from page 408.)

TextWray (1999) maintains that formulaic language benefits both comprehension and production, in part because such expressions appear to be stored and retrieved as holistic, unanalyzed chunks and thus contribute to economy of expression.

 

C

Quotation“I postulate that the physical and social environment of the young child is perceived as a continuum. It does not contain any intrinsically separate 'things'. The child, in due course, is taught to impose upon this environment a kind of discriminating grid which serves to distinguish the world as being composed of a large number of separate things; each labeled with a name. This world is a representation of our language categories, not vice versa”.

References(E. Leach (1964). Anthropological aspects of language: Animal categories and verbal abuse. In a book of article edited by E. H. Lenneberg New directions in the study of language (pp. 23-63). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. The quote is from page 34)

TextAnthropologists have one popular view of categorization. According to this view, there is no basis for our category structure in the world itself. Instead this structure is imposed by categorical processes of the human mind, which in turn depend upon experiences within a particular culture. Thus the categories we use to distinguish varieties of flowers are simply those used by other members of our culture.

 

Listening

Script 17

Ex. 3 Listen to the tape and tick words, which were not mentioned.

The purpose of using direct quotation is to show the writers exact words. Therefore, you must accurately copy the passage word for word. Do not make any changes to the text. To indicate that the passage is a direct quotation, use the well-known punctuation rules. Pay very close attention to the use of capitalization and the placement of punctuation marks.

Once you have learned how to correctly punctuate direct quotations, it may become tempting to use them a great deal. However, direct quotations are used sparingly (not often) in academic writing.

 

Out-of-class Writing Activity

What are major characteristics of a good student?

Studying in a university is challenging. Some students excel, some do an adequate job, but others fail. Why do some students do well? Discuss two or three major characteristics (qualities) of good students. Provide specific details, examples, and your own personal experience or that of someone you know

(500-600 words every other line).

Vocabulary

to cite contribution to extend to confine
to make explicit to fill gap to strengthen specific
to fit in to add support argument to quote
integral to include to incorporate to express

Paraphrasing

Objectives In this unit you will: learn what paraphrasing is;
  know the rules of paraphrasing;
  discover how to change the structure of the text.

Starting up

Ex. 1 Read and analyze the extract.

Paraphrasing and summarizing is used to acknowledge another author's ideas. You can extract and summarize important points, while at the same time making it clear from whom and where you have got the ideas you are discussing and what your point of view is. Compare, for example:

Brown (1983, p. 231) claims that a far more effective approach is...

Brown (1983, p. 231) points out that a far more effective approach is...

A far more effective approach is ... (Brown, 1983, p. 231)

The first one is Brown's point of view with no indication about your point of view. The second one is Brown's point of view, which you agree with, and the third is your point of view, which is supported by Brown.

Introduction

Paraphrasing is writing the ideas of another person in your own words. You need to change the words and the structure but keep the meaning the same. Please remember, though, that even when you paraphrase someone's work, you must acknowledge it.

Example:

Source: It has long been known that Cairo is the most populous city on earth, but no-one knew exactly how populous it was until last month.
Paraphrase:Although Cairo has been the world's most heavily populated city for many years, the precise population was not known until four weeks ago.

The following stages may be useful:

  1. Read and understand the text.
  2. Make a list of the main ideas.
    1. Find the important ideas - the important words/phrases. In some way mark them - write them down, underline or highlight them.
    2. Find alternative words/synonyms for these words/phrases - do not change specialized vocabulary and common words.

Example: Memory is the capacity for storing and retrieving information.
Memory is the facility for keeping and recovering data.

  1. Change the structure of the text.
    1. Identify the meaning relationships between the words/ideas - e.g. cause/effect, generalization, contrast.
    2. Express these relationships in a different way.

Example: Besides being a theory about the basis and origin of knowledge and the contents of our minds in general, empiricism is also sometimes a methodology.
Not only is empiricism a theory about the basis and origin of knowledge and the contents of our minds in general, it also sometimes a methodology.

c. Change the grammar of the text: change nouns to verbs, adjectives to adverbs, etc.

Example: This rewriting of history was not so much a matter of a new start.
This rewriting of history was not so much a matter of starting again.

- change verbs to nouns

Example: The Normans invaded in 1066.
The Norman invasion took place in 1066.

- change active verbs to passive

Example:We can relate a study of this kind to texts in other media too
A study of this kind can be related to texts in other media too.

- break up sentences

Example: In 1851 the average family size was 4.7, roughly the same as it had been in the seventeenth century, but the 1 million couples who married during the 1860s, which the historian G. M. Young described as the best decade in English history to have been brought up in, raised the figure to 6.2.

In 1851 the average family size was 4.7, roughly the same as it had been in the seventeenth century. However, the 1 million couples who married during the 1860s, which the historian G. M. Young described as the best decade in English history to have been brought up in, raised the figure to 6.2.

- combine sentences

Example: Tropical forests are defined here as evergreen or partly evergreen forests. They grow in areas receiving not less than 100 mm of precipitation in any month for two out of three years. The mean annual temperature is 24-plus degrees Celsius. The area is essentially frost-free.
Tropical forests are defined here as evergreen or partly evergreen forests, in areas receiving not less than 100 mm of precipitation in any month for two out of three years, with mean annual temperature of 24-plus degrees Celsius, and essentially frost-free.

  1. Rewrite the main ideas in complete sentences. Combine your notes into a piece of continuous writing.
  2. Check your work.
    1. Make sure the meaning is the same.
    2. Make sure the length is the same.
    3. Make sure the style is your own.
    4. Remember to acknowledge other people's work.

This is not enough by itself. You also need to change the words and the structure of the text!





Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-04-07; Нарушение авторского права страницы

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 3.221.159.255 (0.005 с.)