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Maps (Message, Audience, Purpose)



A MAP is the list of main points which you will discuss in the body of the essay. Each MAP item, which you choose based on your message, audience, and purpose, will become a paragraph topic. Even if you do not state the MAP in the thesis, you must have a MAP in mind before you write the essay. It is a good idea to state the MAP at the end of the introduction. As you saw from the previous examples of essay introductions, MAPs can be stated as part of the thesis in many ways. Instead of the colon (:), you can say such as, and you can also make another sentence with the MAP. Here are variations of the MAPs you saw earlier.

Examples of Thesis Statements with Maps

• However, there are several problems with forcing children to comply. Forcing children to comply can cause a breakdown in communication between the children and the parents, rebellion, and failure in school.

• An essay has three major characteristics: convincing content, clear organization, and effective use of language.

MAP Points

• are relevant

• are distinctively different (do not overlap)

• belong together (are well-matched, at the same level of generality)

• are parallel

• are thought-provoking

• are logical and appropriate choices focusing on major and representative ideas

• are optional (but highly recommended).

Ex. 2 Analyzing introductions

• Analyze the following introductions.

• On a separate sheet of paper, list the hook, thesis, purpose, method, and MAP for each.

Example

Inventions That Have Revolutionized Our Lives

Compared to 100 years ago, the world of today is becoming so much closer than ever that people can easily attain whatever they want. As Alvin Toffler says in his book, "The Third Wave," modern society is characterized as an information society, in which people's lives are dramatically and unimaginably changed, in fact, to the better. Satellites and computers are good examples of inventions leading to an information society.

Hook: Quote by an expert

Thesis: Satellites and computers are good examples of inventions leading us to be an information society.

Purpose: To show the reader how satellites and computers are inventions which give us information and, as a result, greatly benefit society

Method: Development by example

MAP: Satellites and computers1.

 

The House of Life

How many decisions do people make in their lives? There could be thousands of decisions in one person's life. However, only a few of them will have a great influence. A metaphor of building a house shows how the five most significant decisions are related to one another and reflect on people's lives. The five most important decisions concern education, career, marriage, residence, and religion. (Adapted with permission, Lunging Hsieh, Taiwanese)

 

Good Students

University study is challenging. Some students succeed and some do not. What makes some students more successful at academic study than others? It depends a lot on the attitude of the student. Sandy Calhoun, a master's candidate at the University Of Missouri School Of Journalism, is an example of what professors call a good student. Sandy has a positive attitude about succeeding in an academic setting. He cares about learning, puts in time on his studies, and is interested in the world around him. (Adapted with permission, Varna Wilson, Thai)

Introduction (continuation)

The body

Essay Outline Framework

The body comprises the information in the essay. The body will be two or more paragraphs long, depending on the number of MAP points you have. The following sample of an outline framework shows that there is a correlation between the MAP and the topic sentences in the body paragraphs. The body paragraphs are discussed in the order the points are listed in the MAP Moreover, roman numerals (I, II, III) are used to signify each paragraph in the essay. The capital letters A, B, C, and so on show subtopics in each paragraph. Each subtopic should be introduced with clear signals. The numbers 1, 2, 3, and so on indicate more specific support.

 

I. Introduction

•Hook

• Thesis Statement: X, Y, and Z (Map)

II. Topic Sentence 1 (First Map Point, X)

A. Subtopic Sentence 1

1. Support

2. Support

3. Support

B. Subtopic Sentence 2

1. Support

a. Specific Support

b. Specific Support

2. Support

III. Topic Sentence 2 (Second Map Point, Y)

A. Subtopic Sentence 1
(Support)

B. Subtopic Sentence 2

(Each subtopic sentence should be supported with at least two examples or with one good extended example.) extended example.)

(Support)

IV. Topic Sentence 3 (Third Map Point, Z)

A. Subtopic Sentence 1
(Support)

B. Subtopic Sentence 2
(Support)

V. Conclusion

• Restatement of the Thesis

• Summary of the Map Points

• Closing Remarks (Final Comments)

 

Ex. 3 Composing and ordering topic sentences

• Analyze the following assignment. What is the lead-in? The assignment task?

• Read the introduction and conclusion that follow the assignment.

• On a separate sheet of paper, write three sets of topic sentences.

 

Model Assignment

Most people agree that certain modern inventions, such as the computer, X-ray machine, and laser, have benefited society greatly. However, there are a number of inventions that have hurt society and/or even threaten the existence of life on Earth. Choose three inventions (machines, devices, methods) which are considered dangerous to society and/or the planet Earth. Explain why these things threaten our well-being. Use specific examples, details, and cases (true stories).

I. Introduction

Can people imagine what their lives would be like today without all the inventions and technology of the modern era? Most people emphasize that modern inventions benefit society deeply by making daily life easier. However, only a few people have thought about the negative impact of those inventions. Despite the benefits and all the technological advances that inventions like the automobile, the handgun, and the television bring to our society, such inventions also cause many problems.

V. Conclusion

In summary, the automobile, the handgun, and the television have damaged our society in a substantive way. Some of the problems that these inventions cause are traffic, pollution, crime, and moral and ethical decline. However, these problems can be avoided or at least diminished provided that people learn to make rational use of such inventions. (Adapted with permission, Licette Galietta, Venezuelan)

Introduction (continuation)

The conclusion

Conclusions are longer for essays than they are for single paragraphs. In an essay, you do not need to have a concluding remark in every paragraph since the essay itself has a full conclusion. Following is a review of the rules for effective conclusions. (The element considered optional is underlined.)

Complete conclusions:

• contain a signal (In conclusion. Indeed. To conclude.)

• recall the limited topic and opinion in the thesis (paraphrase)

• summarize the MAP points (paraphrase if possible) in the same order

• contain a final comment (opinion).

Effective conclusions:

• follow the essay logically

• do not bring up new MAP points

• recognize all MAP points in the summary.

Ex. 4 Analyzing essay conclusions.

Analyze each of the following conclusions by answering the questions that follow.

Example

Inventions That Have Revolutionized Our Lives

Introduction

Compared to 100 years ago, the world of today is becoming so much closer than ever that people can easily attain whatever they want. As Alvin Toffler says in his book, "The Third Wave," modern society is characterized as an information society, in which our lives are dramatically and unimaginably changed, in fact, to the better. Satellites and computers are good examples of inventions leading to an information society. [69 words]

Conclusion

In conclusion, material was the sign of power in the past. Today, information is such. Our twentieth-century lives are becoming better and changing dramatically due to inventions such as satellites and computers, opening a road to the information society. Nobody knows what life will be like in the future. [49 words] (Adapted with permission, Jeong-Seog Lee, Korean)

 

Does the conclusion:

• contain a signal (In conclusion, Indeed, To conclude)! Yes

• recall the limited topic and opinion in the thesis (paraphrase)? Yes

• summarize the MAP points (paraphrase if possible)? Yes

• recognize all MAP points in the summary? Yes

• bring up new MAP points? No

• contain a final comment (opinion)? Yes

• follow the essay logically? Yes

The House of Life

Introduction

How many decisions do people make in their lives? There could be thousands of decisions in one person's life. However, only a few of them will have a great influence. A metaphor of building a house shows how the five most significant decisions are related to one another and reflect on people's lives. The five most important decisions concern education, career, marriage, residence, and religion. [65 words]

Conclusion

The above five reasons—education, career, marriage, residence, and religion—control people's expectations in life. This metaphor illustrates how those five decisions are significant to people's lives. Therefore, people should think patiently and carefully before making important decisions. [38 words] (Adapted with permission, Yungjing Hsieh, Taiwanese)





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