Ex. 2 Listen to the tape and answer the question: What seems to be the speaker’s purposes? To inform, persuade, entertain, discuss, or what? 

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Ex. 2 Listen to the tape and answer the question: What seems to be the speaker’s purposes? To inform, persuade, entertain, discuss, or what?

Ex.3 Listen to the tape for the second time and cross out the words which are not spoken.

A summary traditionally contains the main ideas of the original document. Depending on the method of development used by the writer, it might include some major examples. Sometimes a summary contains indirect quotation, but it usually does not contain direct quotation. Therefore, do not use direct quotation of the original wording.

A summary should be written only in your own words. You should not use the original wording. Instead, you should carefully read the original article, book, report, and so on carefully in order to understand the author’s main ideas. Make an outline of the text in your own words. Use phrases in the outline. Then use your own words to say what the author wrote.

A summary usually contains the attitude and opinion of the author, so do not let your opinion interfere with the ideas you are summarizing. Also, do not add any new ideas to the summary that are not in the text being summarized. Do not elaborate with details not used in the original passage.

A summary should be concise, accurate, short, clearly written, complete, and well organized. It should also reflect your ability to understand the meanings of words, the author's attitude, and any implied meanings.

In a summary, never criticize or judge the writer in any way. A well-written summary is not a critique, response, or editorial.


Ex. 4 Now answer the questions to the extract:

  1. What ideas does the summary contain?
  2. What kind of quotation does a summary contain: direct or indirect? Why?
  3. Why should a summary be written in your own words?
  4. How should you analyze the original source?
  5. A summary is to be concise, accurate, clearly written, complete, and well organized, isn’t it?
  6. Why is it not allowed to criticize or judge the writer of the original source in any way?

Ex. 5 Sum up useful tips on writing a summary and make a short report on the topic.

Ex.6 Make a summary of the following text.

Science problems can be roughly classified as analytic and syn­thetic. In analytic problems we seek the principles of the most profound natural processes, the scientist working always at the edge of the un­known. This is the situation today, for instance, within the two ex­tremes of research in physics - elementary particle physics and astro­physics - both concerned with the properties of matter, one on the smallest, and the other on the grandest scale. Research objectives in these fields are determined by the internal logic of the development of the field itself. Revolutionary shocks to the foundations of scientific ideas can be anticipated from these very areas.

In-class Writing Activity

You will be given a time limit in which to write a composition on a topic your instructor will provide (2-3pages every other line).


shortened version to select to delete to criticize
to contain to summarize to rewrite to distinguish
mixture source one’s own words main information
to reduce to rearrange relevant information to simplify concise complete subsidiary information
original document original wording attitude opinion
to elaborate accurate to be clearly written to be well organized


Objectives In this unit you will: learn what plagiarism is;
  learn what a deliberate plagiarism is; learn what an accidental plagiarism is;
  know how to avoid plagiarism when writing.

Starting up

Ex.1Discuss the following questions with your colleagues to share experience on the problem of cheating.

1. Why do some students cheat? List the reasons.

2. How do students cheat? List some examples of cheating behavior.

3. What are the consequences of cheating? List them.

4. Do professionals (e.g., professors and scientists) ever cheat? Why? How?

5. Have you ever heard of plagiarism? What is it?



Plagiarism is a form of cheating that involves borrowing or paraphrasing ideas from another person without acknowledging the source. That is, plagiarism involves stealing from other peoples published or unpublished outlines, paragraphs, essays, papers, or speeches. The plagiarized portion can be anywhere from one or two characteristic words to an entire document.

Plagiarism is a crime in many countries because of copyright laws. A copyright is one's ownership of a created work. Plagiarism is considered a serious matter, therefore, and students who plagiarize are reported and punished.


Script 20 part 1

Ex.2 Listen to some reasons for plagiarism, in Alan Bradshaw opinion. Listen to the first part of his interview, in which he speaks about deliberate plagiarism and number each point in the order in which he mentions it.

Plagiarism can happen for many reasons:

    1. Because you do not have the energy to do the work yourself;
    2. or, perhaps, because you are not able to do the work yourself;
    3. this is when you make the decision to steal someone else's work. For example, this could be either: because you do not have the time to do the work yourself;
    4. because you think your lecturer will not care;
    5. because you think your lecturer will not notice.

Script 20 part 2


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