Ex. 7 In the following article on Nuclear Hazards the signaling words and phrases are missing. Replace them and check your answers. 

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Ex. 7 In the following article on Nuclear Hazards the signaling words and phrases are missing. Replace them and check your answers.

There are three separate sources of hazard related to the use of nuclear reactions to supply us with energy. __________, the radioactive material must travel from its place of manufacture to the power station. __________ the power stations themselves are solidly built, the containers used for the transport of the material are not. __________, there are normally only two methods of transport available, __________ road or rail, and both of these involve close contact with the general public, __________ the routes are bound to pass near, or even through, heavily populated areas. __________, there is the problem of waste. All nuclear power stations produce wastes which in most cases will remain radioactive for thousands of years. It is impossible to de-activate these wastes, and __________ they must be stored in one of the ingenious but cumbersome ways that scientists have invented. __________ they may be buried under the ground, dropped into disused mineshafts, or sunk in the sea. __________ these methods do not solve the problem; they merely store it, __________ an earthquake could crack open the containers like nuts. __________ there is the problem of accidental exposure due to a leak or an explosion at the power station. As with the other two hazards, this is extremely unlikely and __________ does not provide a serious objection to the nuclear programme, __________ it can happen, as the inhabitants of Harrisburg will tell you. Separately, and during short periods, these three types of risk are no great cause for concern. Taken together, __________, and especially over much longer periods, the probability of a disaster is extremely high.


Начало формы

Конец формы


Ex.8 Look at the signaling words below. Sort them out in nine groups:

consequently, undoubtedly, but, fortunately, in most cases, in other words, not only...but also, on the other hand, actually, because of this, in addition, in fact, more importantly, although, in consequence, thus, in detail, notably, particularly, nevertheless, finally, certainly, accordingly, what is more, on the whole, in particular, for example, yet,also, usually, oddly enough, for this reason, owing to this, in conclusion, moreover, normally, as a matter of fact, therefore, so, in contrast, mainly, moreover, in spite of, mainly, too, unfortunately, in addition, furthermore, especially, indeed, hence, accordingly, thus, generally

1. to signal a change in ideas: in contrast, ……

2. to signal a reinforcement of ideas: moreover,……

3. to signal a conclusion: thus, …..

4. to signal attitude: fortunately,.....

5. to signal addition: what is more,......

6. to signal emphasis: mainly,.....

7. to signal support: in fact,......

8. to signal cause and effect: accordingly,......

9. to signal generalization: as a rule,......


Signaling (specialized linking words) are powerful tools for pulling ideas together!

Remember them!


Script 6

Ex. 9 Kate North is Lecturer in English at the University of Edinburg. Listen to the tape and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F).

  1. Coherence in speaking is more difficult to sustain than coherence in writing, because speakers have no nonverbal clues to inform them if their message is clear or not.
  2. Usually we speak about paragraph unity and sentence cohesion.
  3. To achieve paragraph cohesion a writer must ensure a great amount of different factors.

4. To achieve sentence cohesion a writer can use some techniques, for example: collocation, synonymy, enumeration, parallelism, transitions and antonymy.

Ex.10 Now listen to the tape for the second time and answer the questions.

  1. Why is coherence in writing more difficult to sustain than coherence in speech?
  2. What must a writer ensure to achieve paragraph unity?
  3. What techniques can be used to achieve sentence cohesion?

Ex. 11 Watch video aided instruction «Connections and transitions», fulfill the given tasks.

Out-of Class Writing Assignment

What is a good student?

Some writers believe that good students are well focused and diligent. Write a short response (150-200 words, every other line) in which you discuss a different characteristic of good students. Include convincing examples and details.


coherence revision to create transition
choppy compound opinion writer’s purpose
to sound smooth complex fluent to emphasize
confusion relevance to be consistent excessive
aspect device to follow general
specific content stage chronological order
to enhance repetition to link week control
reinforcement to compare progression effective control
substitution ellipse conjunction reference
to signal comparison cause effect
summary conclusion contradiction emphasis
support addition explanation equivalence

Critical writing

Unit Topics:

Critical thinking & writing skills

Academic writing assignments

The process of writing

Peer review and revision

Critical thinking and writing skills

ObjectivesIn this unit you will: discover what critical thinking is;
  learn means of sharpening critical thinking skills;
  discover what critical writing is;
  know the classification of intellectual behavior;
  know how to make connections between theory and practice;
  learn the skills of effective critical writing.

Starting up


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