Ex. 2 Alan Bradshaw gives some basic advice to his students on how to write an outline. Listen to the tape and note down as many as you can recognize.




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Ex. 2 Alan Bradshaw gives some basic advice to his students on how to write an outline. Listen to the tape and note down as many as you can recognize.



 

Ex. 3 Listen to the tape again and complete these extracts.

1. ………. an outline allows you to think before you write.

2. What use is there in writing the entire paper only …….. that, had you done a little more planning beforehand, you would have organized your essay in an …….. …….. way?

3. What if you realize later, after free-writing the essay, that you should have …….. some paragraphs, …….. the progression of your logic, and used more examples and other evidence?

4. You can go back and try to insert major revisions into the essay, but the …….. may be like trying to add a thicker ……. into a building already constructed.

5. When you construct your outline, keep it …….. .

6. If you can't …….. your point into a one-liner, you probably don't have a …… ……. … what you're trying to say.

7. The outline allows you to think …….. what you're going to write so that when you do write it, if you've done your planning right, you won't have to do as much …….

 

Script 16

Ex. 4 Listen to the second part of Alan Bradshaw speech and cross out the words which are not spoken.

Drawing up an outline allows you to see at a glance how each of the paragraphs perfectly fits into the larger picture. When looking at your paragraphs from this perspective, you can easily shift around the order to see how reorganization might be better. Remember that each paragraph in the essay should support the position or convincing argument of your paper.

As you're shifting paragraphs around (maybe like you would a Rubic's cube), you will probably begin to wonder what the best arrangement really is. In general, put what you want the attentive reader to remember either first or last, not in the middle. Studies in rhetoric have shown the readers remember least what is presented in the middle of an essay. Hence, the middle is where you should probably put your weaker arguments and weaker counterarguments.

Some writers urge a climactic arrangement, one that works up to your strongest point, which is delivered as a kind of grand finale. Another successful arrangement is the inductive argument, in which you build up the evidence first, and then draw conclusions. A problem-solution format involves presenting the problem first and then outlining the solution — this works well for some topics because it is a soft version of the scientific method. Whatever your choice, choose an arrangement that absolutely presents a clear, logical argument. (http://www1.aucegypt.edu/academic/writers/outline.htm)

Ex. 5 Listen to the second part of Alan Bradshaw speech once again and decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).

1. Drawing up an outline allows the student to see at a glance how each of the paragraphs perfectly fits into the larger picture.

2. Each paragraph in the essay should support the position or convincing argument of the paper.

3. The readers remember most what is presented in the middle of an essay; hence, the middle is where stronger arguments and counterarguments should be put.

4. Some writers urge a climactic arrangement, one that works up to the strongest point, which is delivered as a kind of grand finale.

5. Another successful arrangement is the deductive argument, in which the evidence is built up first, and then conclusions are draw.

6. A problem-solution format involves presenting the problem first and then outlining the solution.

7. Choosing an arrangement that absolutely presents a clear, logical argument isthe optimal method of outlining.

 

Ex.6 In the second part of his speech Alan Bradshaw gives some more basic advice to his students on how to write an outline. Note down as many as you can recognize.

Ex. 7 Sum up all pieces of advice Alan Bradshaw gives to his students on how to write an outlining. Make a report on the topic «Outlining»

Ex.8 Read text «English Academic Writing» (Unit 1) once again, analyze the outlining to it.

Topic Sentence: First, the "A" paper has convincing content.

A. To begin with, the content is informative and thought provoking.

1. The purpose of academic writing

a. Persuasive approach

b. Formal tone

c. Objective thinking

2. Specific and logical support

a. Details

b. Examples

c. Facts

d. Statistics

e. Case studies

3. Professor's reactions to general support

B. Second, the support is relevant.

1. Direct relation to the thesis and topic sentences

a. Writer's topic

b. Writer's purpose

c. Writer's method

d. Writer's opinion

2. No digression

a. No "by-the-way" statements

b. Well-thought-out ideas and supporting points

C. Third, although objective, academic writing can be creative in that the writer is able to demonstrate effective critical-thinking skills.

1. Depth of thought

a. Analysis of information

b. Interpretation of facts

c. Judgments

d. Conclusions

e. Summaries

f. Defenses

2. Shallow writing

a. Weak critical-thinking skills

b. "Sophomoric" ideas

D.Finally, an "A" paper has a clear purpose, which helps direct the reader, the audience.

1. Clear objectives

2. Control of content

a. Clear ideas

b. Logical support

c. Concise discussion

Concluding Remark: Indeed, papers with strong, unified support which demonstrates effective critical-thinking skills are well received by professors.

 

Ex. 9 Peer-reviewing outlines.

• Study the following outlines.

• Evaluate each of them. Imagine the writer is your classmate. Each outline has its own strengths and weaknesses, do not answer yes to all of the questions.

Assignment:Much has been said about the role TV plays in people's lives. Some people think TV is a bad influence. Others argue that TV is beneficial to people. What do you think? Discuss the advantages or disadvantages of TV. Provide convincing details, examples, and personal experience.

The Benefits of TV Outline 1

TV is so related to our daily lives that we cannot even imagine the world without it. TV can give us benefits such as entertainment, information, and education.

A. One major benefit of TV is entertainment.

1. Joy

a. Large screen

b. Stereo sound

2. Various programs

a. Movies, sports, comedies, shows, music, soap operas, cartoons

b. Choosing favorite programs

3. My favorite programs

a. Watching TV being my pleasure

b. Live sports relay

B.Another major benefit of TV is information.

1. News

a. Community, country, world

b. CNN World Today

2. Living

a. Weather

b. Shopping

c. Utility

d. Recreation

e. My weekend plan according to information from TV

C. Finally, TV benefits us because it provides education.

1. Correspondence class

2. Adult education

a. Why TV?

b. Learning computers

In conclusion, TV is becoming more beneficial in our daily lives when it is used correctly.

 

Outline 2

TV plays an important role in broadcasting the daily weather information.

A.Importance of weather information

1. Increased reliability of weather information
a. improved predictability

2. Making a daily plan according to the weather

a. Support of making a decision

b. Watching the Weather Channel

B. Practical use of the Weather Channel in my life

1. Some activities depending on the weather

a. Cleaning and drying clothes

b. Car wash

c. Wearing clothes

2. Memory of a wrong weather report
a. Rainy picnic

C. Watching warnings on TV about bad weather

1. Effects of bad weather

a. Temperature

b. Wind

c. Rain

2. Types of bad weather

a. Hurricane

b. Tornado

In conclusion, people benefit from the weather information on TV and make use of it in their daily live.

 

Ex. 10 Watch video aided instruction «Organizing your thoughts », fulfill the given tasks.

 

Out-of-class Writing Assignment

The Benefits of TV

Much has been said about the role TV plays in people's lives. Some people think TV is a bad influence. Others argue that TV is beneficial to people. What do you think? Discuss the advantages or disadvantages of TV. Provide convincing details, examples, and personal experience. Use the outlining given in ex. 9 (400-450 words every other line).

 

Vocabulary

to outline explanation to relate to well-thought-out idea
skill entire persuasive approach appropriate
frame visual representation to convince informative
formal to signify content benefit
to shift concluding remark digression depth of thought

Unit4

Using sources

Unit Topics:





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