Ex. 6 Below are definitions of different kinds of written assignments. Read and analyze each case. 

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Ex. 6 Below are definitions of different kinds of written assignments. Read and analyze each case.

An essayis usually written for a teacher and may be written as a follow-up to a class activity. It should be well organized, with an introduction, clear development and an appropriate conclusion. The main purpose of the task is the development of an argument and/or discussion of issues surrounding a certain topic. Candidates will usually be expected to give reasons for their opinions.

A reportis usually written for a superior (e.g. a boss or college principal) or a peer group (e.g. club members or colleagues). Candidates will be expected to give some factual information and make suggestions or recommendations. A report should be clearly organized and may include headings. Students need to be taught a reportformat, with the use of headings where appropriate. They should also work on specific vocabulary areas such as transport, leisure and entertainment, and learn how to make suggestions and recommendations.

A proposalis written for a superior (e.g. a boss or college principal) or a peer group (e.g. club members or colleagues). Candidates will be expected to make one or more suggestions, supported by some factual information, in order to persuade the reader of a course of action. A proposal should be clearly organized and may include headings. Proposalsare often structured in a similar way to reports and should be clearly organized under headings.

A reviewis usually written for an English-language magazine, newspaper or website. The main purpose is to describe and express a personal opinion about something which the writer has experienced (e.g. a film, a holiday, a product, a website, etc.) and to give the reader a clear impression of what the item discussed is like. Description and explanation are key functions for this task, and a review will normally include a recommendation to the reader.

An articleis usually written for an English-language magazine or newspaper, and the reader is assumed to have similar interests to the writer. The main purpose is to interest and engage the reader, so there should be some opinion or comment.

A competition entryis written for a judge or panel of judges. Candidates will usually be expected to nominate somebody for something or propose themselves for selection for something (e.g. a grant to study). A competition entry will include some degree of persuasion and give reason(s) why the candidate’s choice is best.

An annotated bibliography is a short summary of several sources, usually books or articles. For each source, the writer begins with full publication information. Then the writer summarizes the source. The summary can be as long or as short as the prompt dictates.



Script 1

Ex.7 Alan Bradshaw is Lecturer in English at the University of Edinburg, where he counsels students and assesses their work every day. Listen to the Professor’s reasoning about the necessity of academic writing in high school, and then answer the question: What seems to be the speaker’s purposes: to inform, persuade, entertain, discuss, or what?

Ex. 8 Listen to the tape again and answer the questions:

  1. Why is writing necessary for all students in higher education?
  2. What are the stages of academic writing?
  3. Why academic writing is called a social practice?
  4. Why academic writing in English is called linear?
  5. What are the main parts of any written work?
  6. Which sections a written work should have? Describe each in short.

Script 2

Ex.9 Now Alan Bradshaw is presenting his book «Writing Essays». Below are some of the keys to successful writing, which are given in the book. In which order are these points mentioned?

a) the internet

b) stress-free methods of revision

c) word processing

d) proficiency in every aspect of composition from introductions and conclusion down to presentation and printing out

e) impressing tutors with minimum effort

f) knowing exactly what markers look for when they read your work

g) effective library management

In-class writing activity

In Writing Fiction: A Guide to the Narrative Craft, Janet Burroway wrote: "Remember. Writing is easy. Not writing is hard." Write a short organized response to this quotation by explaining two or three major reasons that writing is hard (or not hard) for you. Use details and examples to support your discussion. (150-200 words, every other line).



essay hard course support
academic characteristic to target failure
assignment native speaker example to affect
response to convince to organize persuasive
quotation generalization thesis purpose
instructor opinion relevant skill
creative to interpret judgment sophomoric
content message pattern linear
deductive rhetorical narration description
definition to process classification argumentation
comparison to convey to convert to handle
sophisticated crucial to disrupt misspelling
punctuation lack of smth. imaginative to benefit
to master to look for fundamental bibliography


Audience and tone

ObjectivesIn this unit you will: define what the academic audience is;
  define the levels of formality (audience, tone, vocabulary, style,
  language, content, organization);
  determine appropriate levels of formality;
  learn what colloquial and formal English is;
  analyze what target audience is.

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