Ex. 2 Enumerate and describe each stage of the process of writing. 

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Ex. 2 Enumerate and describe each stage of the process of writing.


Introduction (continuation)

Time Management of the Writing Process

You learned that as a college or university student, you are very busy trying to juggle all of your course work in order to get all of your assignments done on time. Writing a paper may take more time than you think it will. Due to all of the activities involved in the process of writing, you do not want to wait until the last minute to start a paper. Pulling an "all-nighter" or trying to write the paper the morning it is due may well lead to bad results. Not only is such an approach stressful, it is usually unsuccessful. The quality and appearance of the final product reveal the haste in which the paper was done, giving the professor a bad impression. Professors expect papers to be complete, well organized, and clearly presented.

It is a good idea to start the prewriting activities soon after getting an assignment; if you plan time in your daily and/or weekly schedule to complete the assignment, you will feel less stressed and more satisfied with the product. Doing a little bit every day instead of procrastinating will make you a more productive and successful student.


Determining time management of the writing process

Now concentrate on the writing activities. Compare the amount of time you think each activity would take for both out-of-class and in-class writing assignments.

- By yourself, complete Chart 1 by calculating the percentage of time you would need in each activity.

- Then compare your answers to your partners'.

- Figure out the group’s average in each area on Chart 2.

- Report to the class and answer the Discussion Questions that follow.


Chart 1 Your Own Percentages   Chart 2 Your Group’s Averages
  Out-of-Class In-Class     Out-of-Class In-Class
Brainstorming       Brainstorming    
Organizing       Organizing    
Writing       Writing    
Revising       Revising    
Proofreading / Editing       Proofreading / Editing    
  100% 100%     100% 100%


Ex.3 Now discuss these questions with the class.

1. How do the percentages differ in class vs. out of class? Why?

2. Which activity do you think is the most important in each case? Why?

3. Which activities take the least amount of time? Why?

4. Will you be making any changes to your approach to completing assignments? If so, explain.


Ex. 4 Brainstorming for a writing assignment.

To practice analyzing an assignment and determining the audience, do the following.

• Study the following model assignment carefully.

• Discuss the questions that follow.

• Complete the assignment by choosing one of the brainstorming methods.


Model Assignment

The International Student Organization (ISO) at your university or college publishes a newsletter read by students, professors, and administrators. The ISO would like short articles (1 to 2 typed pages, double-spaced) written by nonnative speakers on the benefits they gain by studying in the U.S. or Canada.

Brainstorm for a few minutes alone. Make lists, clusters, and/or charts to find ideas for the article you want to write. After working alone for a few minutes, share your notes with partners. Each of you should discuss your notes and revise them (add or discard ideas) as new ideas occur to you.


Discussion Questions

1. Which part is the lead-in? What is the situation? Who is the audience?

2. Which part is the assignment task? How many things do you have to do? List the imperative verbs.

3. What is the topic? List the important words in the topic.

4. What level of formality (and point of view) should be used in the article?

5. How long should the article be?

6. How should the article be presented (format)?

7. Do you have to write the article yet? Why or why not?

Ex.4 Methods of Brainstorming

Choose one of the following brainstorming methods to generate (create) ideas for the in-class assignment.

Method 1: Listing ideas is one way to brainstorm. First, list the ideas as they occur to you.Example:

self-respect get exercise don't argue
care about self eat well be assertive
polite behavior follow the rules accept criticism
respect for others attend class like yourself
take care of appearance arrive on time obey the laws
avoid bad habits do homework self-regard


After that, organize the lists. Put related ideas together.


Self-respect Care about self Respect for others
1. self-regard 1. take care of appearance 1. polite behavior
2. like yourself 2. get exercise 2. follow the rules
3. confidence 3. eat well 3. obey the laws
4. self-worth 4. avoid bad habits

Method 2: Clustering. If you are a visual learner, you might want to "cluster."

Method 3: Charting

Charts are useful if you know your main points and you want an informal way to move from general to specific.

Example Self-Respect

General Less General Specific More Specific
Care for my well-being   Care about appearance   Cleanliness dress appropriately   Laundry, bathing Work: formal School: informal
    Care about my health     Eat well Sleep well No bad habits   Balanced diet 6-8 hours/night No drinking, smoking, drugs
Show others respect   Sociability   Polite behavior   Conducting daily business, making friends
    Cooperation   Follow rules/laws/ customs   Driving, time commitments, work style


Be careful as you are planning the chart. Do not begin with ideas which are too general; otherwise, it will be difficult for you to find specific support. Notice that the last column (the one on the right) has specific information, such as "get eight hours of sleep a night" and "balanced diet." Finally, all of the points in the chart, even the specific ones, should be explained in the paper.


Script 10

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