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Arabic Vowels Recognition by Modular Arithmetic and Wavelets using Neural Network
The recent rising increase of loudening activity in mobile communication domain draw new opportunities and shed some lights for applications of speech recognition including words and sentences. Text to speech or vice versa is incredibly critical issues in many computer applications. Where, English language has achieved vast success of the major part of interest. However, Arabic language speech recognition has been less attractive than English; because of its many nature difficulties, in term of, several alphabets forms and various dialects
There are 22 Arabic countries with around 350 millions Arabic speakers living in it or distributed all over the world. For this reason, Arabic language considered one of the most important and widely spoken languages in the world. Arabic is Semitic language that is characterized by the existence of particular consonants like pharyngeal, glottal and emphatic consonants. As well as Arabic language has some phonetics characteristics that are built around pattern roots (CVCVCV, CVCCVC, etc.).
The 28 letters can be used in a set of 90 additional combinations, shapes, and vowels. The 28 letters enclose consonants and long vowels such asى and ٱ (both pronounced as /a:/), ي (pronounced as /i:/), andو (pronounced as /u:/). The short vowels and some other phonetic pronouncing like consonant doubling (shadda) are not introduced using letters directly, but by diacritics. The diacritics are short strokes, where each can be located above or below the consonant. Arabic discretization is interpreted by three groups: short vowels, doubled case endings form, and syllabification marks. First set, short vowels are written as symbols above or below the letter in the word using diacritics. We have short vowels: fatha: it pronounce as /a/ sound and is an slanted dash above the letter, damma: it pronounce as /u/ letter sound and has form of a comma above the letter and kasra: it pronounce as /i/ letter sound and is an oblique dash under the letter as tabulated in Table 1.
Table 1. Diacritics above or below consonant letter
Therefore, it is essential to realize that, what we usually denote to “Arabic” is not single linguistic variety; rather, it is a set of separate dialects and communities. Classical Arabic is an older and literary figure of the language, exemplified by the type of Arabic used in the Quran, the holly book for Islam. Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is a version of Classical Arabic based on a modern vocabulary. MSA is a formal standard popular to all Arabic-speaking countries and communities. It is the language utilized in the newspapers, radio and TV, in official speeches, in courtrooms, and in any kind of formal communication.
Though, it is not utilized for everyday speech, informal communication, which is classically applied in one of the particular dialects. The dialects of Arabic may roughly speaking be divided into two sets: Western Arabic, which consists of the dialects spoken in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, and Eastern Arabic, which may be further divided into Egyptian, Levantine, and Gulf Arabic countries. These different dialects differ significantly from each other and from Modern Standard Arabic. Differences influence all levels of language, i.e. pronunciation, phonology, vocabulary, morphology, and syntax.
Проанализируйте и обсудите несколько вариантов перевода. Подумайте, как поможет транскрипция (если поможет) конечному получателю лучше понять смысл текста?
Новый этап обучения переводу начнём с текстов, которые нами уже рассматривались – публицистические. Как говорилось, они обладают особой спецификой и за счёт этого, как представляется, неплохо подходят к тому, чтобы учиться выбору и нивелированию средств выражения различных нюансов смысла.
Упражнение 1. Переведите публицистический текст, постаравшись уложиться в 80–100 мин.
The Moral Instinct
Which of the following people would you say is the most admirable: Mother Teresa, Bill Gates or Norman Borlaug? And which do you think is the least admirable? For most people, it’s an easy question. Mother Teresa, famous for ministering to the poor in Calcutta, has been beatified by the Vatican, awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and ranked in an American poll as the most admired person of the 20th century. Bill Gates, infamous for giving us the Microsoft dancing paper clip and the blue screen of death, has been decapitated in effigy in “I Hate Gates” Web sites and hit with a pie in the face. As for Norman Borlaug… who the heck is Norman Borlaug?
Yet a deeper look might lead you to rethink your answers. Borlaug, father of the “Green Revolution” that used agricultural science to reduce world hunger, has been credited with saving a billion lives, more than anyone else in history. Gates, in deciding what to do with his fortune, crunched the numbers and determined that he could alleviate the most misery by fighting everyday scourges in the developing world like malaria, diarrhea and parasites. Mother Teresa, for her part, extolled the virtue of suffering and ran her well-financed missions accordingly: their sick patrons were offered plenty of prayer but harsh conditions, few analgesics and dangerously primitive medical care.
It’s not hard to see why the moral reputations of this trio should be so out of line with the good they have done. Mother Teresa was the very embodiment of saintliness: white-clad, sad-eyed, ascetic and often photographed with the wretched of the earth. Gates is a nerd’s nerd and the world’s richest man, as likely to enter heaven as the proverbial camel squeezing through the needle’s eye. And Borlaug, now 93, is an agronomist who has spent his life in labs and nonprofits, seldom walking onto the media stage, and hence into our consciousness, at all.
I doubt these examples will persuade anyone to favor Bill Gates over Mother Teresa for sainthood. But they show that our heads can be turned by an aura of sanctity, distracting us from a more objective reckoning of the actions that make people suffer or flourish. It seems we may all be vulnerable to moral illusions the ethical equivalent of the bending lines that trick the eye on cereal boxes and in psychology textbooks. Illusions are a favorite tool of perception scientists for exposing the workings of the five senses, and of philosophers for shaking people out of the naïve belief that our minds give us a transparent window onto the world (since if our eyes can be fooled by an illusion, why should we trust them at other times?). Today, a new field is using illusions to unmask a sixth sense, the moral sense. Moral intuitions are being drawn out of people in the lab, on Web sites and in brain scanners, and are being explained with tools from game theory, neuroscience and evolutionary biology.
Сравните и обсудите несколько вариантов перевода. Было ли вам труднее уложиться во временной лимит, чем это было в рамках шестнадцатого урока?
Упражнение 2. Переведите публицистический текст, постаравшись уложиться в 120–140 мин.
[статья опубликована в начале августа 2006 г. в научно-популярном издании]
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