Ex. 4. Say in a few words what the main text is about. Use the opening phrases from

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Ex. 4. Say in a few words what the main text is about. Use the opening phrases from

Ex. 4 (Unit 1).

Ex. 5. Sum up the content of the main dialogue. Use the phrases from Ex. 5 (Unit 1).

Ex. 6. Read the dialogue, translate the Russian remarks into English and act the dialogue out:

Foreigner. As far as we know, you are Russia's leading provider of accounting and consulting services. The history of your firm mirrors the changes that have taken place in Russia over the recent years.

Russian: Да, вы правы. Наша фирма была основана еще в 1989 году. Все эти годы нам пришлось упорно работать, так как мы начинали практически с нуля. А сейчас мы активно сотрудничаем с Большой Шестеркой, крупнейшие представители нашего бизнеса обращаются к нам за помощью и советом.

F.: What services do you provide?

R.: Мы предоставляем широкий перечень услуг: от услуг в области бухучета и аудита до услуг в области финансового менеджмента и налогообложения. Главным является проведение аудиторских проверок и подтверждение финансовой отчетности.

F.: Who are your clients?

R.: Нашими клиентами являются компании всех форм организации бизнеса, работающие во всех секторах нашей экономики, включая транспорт, торговлю и банковскую деятельность.

F.: We in the UK believe that if auditors are to play their role in economy they must be independent. What are your fundamental principles?

R.: Мы полностью разделяем вашу точку зрения в отношении независимости аудиторов, кроме того, мы уделяем большое внимание повышению их профессионального уровня.

F.: Are there any professional organizations of auditors in Russia?

R.: Да, у нас существуют различные профессиональные организации, помогающие аудиторским фирмам решать различные вопросы, включая повышение квалификации, лицензирование и т.п.

F.: Thank you for the opportunity to learn something about auditing in Russia.

Ex. 7. Work on vocabulary and grammar.

a) Study the key words of the unit in the dictionary at the back of this book:

audit (ing), auditor, auditor's opinion, auditor's report, records;

b)Think of the verbs that are most commonly used with:

opinion, audit, auditor's report, internal controls, substantive testing, payments, evidence;

c) Think of the nouns that are most often used with:

to complete, to perform, to misstate, to omit, to approve, to audit, to conduct, to examine, to prepare, to carry out, to obtain;

d) Think of the English words for the Russian соответствовать, отражать

в отчетности;

e) Make your own sentences with the verbs from (c) and (d).

f) Match the verbs from (a) with the nouns from (b) below:


a) to share b) certificate

to take assumption

to foster responsibility

to seek faults

to submit services

to give advice

to make point of view

to obtain financial statements

to find evidence

to render standards

Ex. 8. a) Supply the articles where necessary.

b) Write down 3-5 questions about the text.

c) Say what you have learned from the text about government auditing in



The Swedish National Audit Office (SNAO) is ... independent institution for central government auditing and accounting in ... Sweden. The main task of ... organisation is to audit the effective fulfilment of central government goals and commitments. In line with this, the organisation analyses revenues and expenditures of ... central government, audits central government activities, examines accounts and performance of all government agencies and ... public organisations. The SNAO selects independently ... agencies and activities to be audited, ... auditing methods to be used, ... content of the audit reports, as well as the audit statements. All audits are carried out in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards. The audits principally have ... control functions, but substantial efforts are also made to ensure that the results of the audit can be used as ... basis for improving efficiency and effectiveness. The SNAO also has ... task of imroving financial management at all levels of ... central government, of fostering high standards of financial management leading to the efficient use of central government funds, efficient cash flows and security of the payment system.

The government and ... Parliament use the information of the SNAO as a basis for their decisions on ... development and transformation of the Swedish public administration. Besides, ... government often turns to the SNAO for ... comments on measures proposed by different public commissions.

In addition, ... SNAO establishes ... norms, develops auditing methods, and offers training and advice on issues related to auditing and financial management.

The staff are recruited on ... basis of educational qualifications and ... professional ability. Almost 95 per cent of the professional staff hold high professional qualifications.

Central government appropriations finance some fifty per cent of ... organisation's activity and the remaining activities are fee-financed. The SNAO is ... active member of INTOSAI (the International Organisation for Supreme Audit Institutions) and its European equivalent EUROSAI (the European Organisation for Supreme Audit Institutions).

Words you may need:

Swedish National Audit OfficeГосударственная ревизионная служба Швеции

fosterv поощрять, благоприятствовать

cash flowпоток наличных средств

public administrationуправление на государственном и местном уровнях

appropriationn ассигнование

fee-financedна хозрасчете

INTOSAIМеждународная организация высших контрольных органов

EUROSAIЕвропейская организация высших контрольных органов

Ex. 9. a) Supply the prepositions where necessary.

b) Say what the auditors checked during the audit in accordance with the instructions given to them.

Auditors' Report


We have examined the books, accounts and vouchers relating the six. months ended 30th September ... (year) which were presented ... us. We have made extensive enquiries ... the system of internal check ... force and are satisfied that it is working efficiently. Particular attention was paid to the methods in force for the authorization of accounts for payment and the handling ... cash. The cash balances ... the 30th September ... (year) were counted and found to be in accordance ... the cashier's books. All bank payments have been verified with the bank statements and certificates of the balances on the accounts obtained ... the bankers.

We have checked all cash and bank payments ... the receipts and have to report that a number of small payments are unsupported ... vouchers. It has been possible, however, to obtain other evidence to show that these disbursements were properly made. The cash books have been cast and all postings... the various ledgers checked ... detail.

All invoices ... respect of goods purchased and expenses incurred have been examined with the appropriate analysis of books, the totals of which have been checked. Several minor errors were detected which have now been rectified. The postings to the Creditors' Ledgers have been test-checked, being far too numerous to do in detail. The balances ... the individual Creditors' accounts have been compared with special audit statements obtained from them and found to be ... order. Our instructions did not require us to examine the Sales Ledgers and Day Books: we therefore report that in such work as we have performed we found no evidence of, or opportunity ... defalcation or fraud.

Words you may need:

vouchern оправдательный денежный документ

authorization of accounts for paymentразрешение на осуществление платежей со счетов

handling of cashиспользование наличности

cash balanceостаток кассовой наличности

cashier's bookжурнал кассовых операций

bank statementвыписка из счета

receiptn квитанция

to obtain evidenceполучить доказательство

disbursementsn pl выплаты

cash bookкассовая книга, журнал кассовых операций

cast v подсчитывать, исчислять, подводить итоги

postingv проводка

ledgern бухгалтерская книга, бухгалтерский регистр

expenses incurredпонесенные расходы

detectv обнаруживать

rectifyv исправлять

Creditors' Ledgerкнига кредиторов

test-checkv проверять с помощью тестов

audit statementаудиторский отчет

Sales Ledgerкнига учета продаж

Day Bookкнига операций рабочего дня

defalcationn присвоение чужих денег

fraudn мошенничество, обман

Ex. 10. a) Open the brackets putting the verbs in the correct form,

b) Discuss the content of the article.

Misuse of Public Funds


It is a universally accepted truth in Russia that the heads of many public funds habitually (to divert) trillions of rubles away from the stated purpose into lucrative deals for personal gain.

Over the first 10 months of this year, the Accounts Chamber, a watchdog of the State Duma, (to reveal) that nearly 1.8 trillion rubles, were not used for their designated purposes.

The auditors (to find) that nearly every fund was not using its money as it was supposed to. For instance, the Moscow branch of Russia's Pension Fund (to buy) a building for about 2 billion rubles, (to spend) 11.5 billion rubles on its renovation and repair, and (to pay) another 6 billion rubles to an intermediary for "selecting the building, preparing the necessary documents, and obtaining the consent of the parties concerned." The Pension Fund (to misuse) more than 660 billion rubles despite the fact that people in some regions were left without pension payments for up to three months.

Many public funds (to set) up their own banks with charter capital running into hundreds of billions of rubles.

In spite of the obvious violations of regulations, all these operations cannot be put down as embezzlement without court rulings, and the violators are unlikely to be sued.

Misappropriations from extrabudgetary funds (to encourage) not only by people with a particular mentality and by a lack of adequate actions on the part of law-enforcement agencies, but also by the very system through which financial resources (to flow) from top to bottom. State extrabudgetary funds (to act) as an intermediary that collects payments and remits them to the recipients. Thus, they (to tempt) to "invest" the money in lucrative fast-yielding deals.

There would probably have been fewer cases of embezzlement and misuse of assets if public funds had initially been granted legal rights to earn money by, for example, transacting in securities and foreign-exchange valuables, and making short-term deposits in banks. So far the funds only (to have) a list of operations barred to them.

Words you may need:

misusen злоупотребление

universally acceptedобщепринятый

habituallyadv обычно

divertv отвлекать, отводить

lucrativeadj прибыльный, выгодный, доходный

personal gainличная выгода

Accounts ChamberСчетная палата

designated purposesуказанные (запланированные) цели

consentn согласие

violationn нарушение

embezzlementn растрата

court rulingпостановление суда

sue v искать в суде, преследовать в судебном порядке

misappropriationn незаконное присвоение, растрата

remitv переводить (средства)

recipientn получатель

fast-yielding dealsсделки, быстро приносящие прибыль

valuablesn ценности

bar v запрещать

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