Read the following words of wisdom. What do they mean?




ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Read the following words of wisdom. What do they mean?



UNIT 1. BREAKING THE ICE

To make the world a friendly place,

one must show it a friendly face.

Lead-in

Read the following words of wisdom. What do they mean?

· The world is a looking glass and gives back to each person a reflection of his attitude.

· Treat everyone with politeness, even those who are rude to you – not because they are nice, but because you are.

· True politeness is perfect ease and freedom. It simply consists in treating others just as you love to be treated yourself. (Chesterfield)

· Ceremonies are different in every country, but true POLITENESS is everywhere the same. (Oliver Goldsmith)

A Short Course in Human Relations

The Six Most Important Words: "I admit I made a mistake"

The Five Most Important Words: "You did a good job”

The Four Most Important Words: "What is your opinion?"

The Three Most Important Words: "If you please"

The Two Most Important Words: "Thank you"

The One Most Important Word: "We"

The Least Important Word: "I"

VOCABULARY

  1. meet (met) (v)
meeting (n)
- встречать(ся); знакомиться - встреча, деловая встреча, свидание
  1. greet (v)
greeting (n)
- приветствовать; здороваться - приветствие
  1. treat (v)
- обращаться, обходиться; относиться
  1. admit (v)
- допускать, соглашаться; признавать
  1. behave (v)
behaviour (n)
- поступать, вести себя - поведение, манеры
  1. polite (a)
politeness (n)
- вежливый, любезный, обходительный - вежливость, учтивость
  1. attitude to / towards (n)
- отношение к чему-л. (кому-л.)
  1. introduce (v)
introduction (n)
- представлять, знакомить - (официальное) представление
  1. name (n)
first name last name, surname, family name full name
- имя; фамилия - имя - фамилия - полное имя
  1. request (v)
request (n) make a request
- просить о чем-л.; запрашивать - просьба; запрос - обратиться с просьбой
  1. respond (v)
response (n)
- отвечать; реагировать - ответ; отклик, реакция
  1. advise (v)
advice (n) turn to somebody for advice follow somebody’s advice
- советовать - совет - обращаться к кому-л. за советом - следовать чьему-л. совету
  1. come from (v)
- быть родом из …
  1. birth (n)
be born
- рождение - родиться
  1. raise (v)
was born and raised
- растить, воспитывать (детей) - родился и вырос
  1. age (n)
at the age of (23)
- возраст - в возрасте (23 лет)
  1. occupation (n)
- род занятий, профессия
  1. graduate from(v)
graduate (n) graduation (n) upon graduation
- окончить (вуз) - выпускник - окончание учебного заведения - по окончании учебного заведения
  1. choose (chose, chosen) (v)
choice (n)
- выбирать - выбор
  1. arrive at / in (v)
arrival (n) on arrival
- прибывать куда-л. - прибытие - по прибытии
  1. move to (v)
- переезжать; переселяться
  1. marry (v)
  get married marriage (n)
- жениться, выходить замуж; женить, выдавать замуж; - жениться, выйти замуж - брак; замужество; женитьба
  1. be good at /with
- быть способным к чему-л. иметь склонность к чему-л.
  1. able (a)
  be able ability (n)
- умелый, умеющий; знающий; способный, талантливый - уметь, мочь, быть в состоянии, в силах - способность; умение; дарование
  1. skill (n)
skilled (a) skilful (a)
- мастерство; умение - квалифицированный, искусный - искусный, умелый
  1. like/dislike doing something (v)
likes and dislikes
- любить/не любить делать что-л. - пристрастия и антипатии
  1. leisure (n)
leisure time activities
- досуг, свободное время - свободное времяпрепровождение
  1. favourite (a)
- любимый
  1. interest (v)
be interested in get / become interested in
- интересовать - интересоваться чем-л. - заинтересоваться чем-л.
  1. be keen on
- страстно увлекаться чем-л.
  1. smart (a)
- умный, остроумный, находчивый
  1. experienced (a)
- опытный
  1. famous (a)
be famous for
- знаменитый - славиться чем-л.
  1. be proud of / inf.
- гордиться

Word building

2. Say how the prefixes dis-, un-, in-, im- change the meaning of the words (a–h).


a) dislike ← like

b) disrespect ← respect

c) unskilled ← skilled

d) unsociable ←sociable

e) inexperienced ← experienced

f) inoccupation ← occupation

g) impolite ← polite

h) impersonal ← personal


Translate the derivatives; say to what part of speech they belong.

  1. event (n) – событие → eventful, eventless
  2. meaning (n) – значение; смысл → meaningful, meaningless
  3. use (n) – польза → useful, useless
  4. skill (n) – умение → skilled, skillful
  5. memory (n) – память → memorable
  6. move (v) – двигаться → movable
  7. polite (a) – вежливый → politeness
  8. rude (a) – грубый, невоспитанный → rudeness
  9. busy (a) – занятой → busyness
  10. able (a) – способный → ability
  11. mobile (a) – подвижный → mobility
  12. arrive (v) – прибывать → arrival
  13. refuse (v) – отказывать → refusal

4. Match the parts of speech (a–d) with the lists of typical suffixes (1–4).

a) verb 1 -able (-ible), -al, -ic, -ent, -ed, -ous, -ive, -ful, -less
b) adjective 2 -age, -er, -ing, -tion, -sion, -ence, -ance, -al, -ity, -ment, -ness
c) noun 3 -ee, -er (-or), -ist, -ian
d) noun (person) 4 -ate, -en, -ify, -ize (-ise)

GRAMMAR

13. Put in am/am not/is/isn’t/are/aren’t.

  1. I ___ from Russia.
  2. Debbie and Mark ___ British. They ___ German.
  3. My friends ___ interested in computers.
  4. His parents ___ around 40.
  5. How old ___ you? I ___ 18.
  6. London ___ situated on the river Evans. It ___ situated on the river Thames.
  7. I ___ keen on sports. But I ___ rather good at basketball.
  8. Her name ___ Jane. It ___ Helen.

14. Give short answers (Yes, I am/No, he isn’t, etc.).

  1. Are you from Russia?
  2. Are all your school friends students now?
  3. Is English difficult?
  4. Is your home town small?
  5. Are you interested in music?
  6. Is your friend good at languages?

SOCIAL ENGLISH

INTRODUCING YOURSELF AND OTHERS

SPEAKING

READING

Politeness Conventions

The basic principle of politeness is to show respect for the partner. The principle can be embodied in a number of maxims1:

1. Do not be dogmatic. Remember that the partner may have a different opinion. This maxim implies2:

a) The use of I think, I believe, I expect as introducers or as tags. If they are unstressed, their use does not indicate uncertainty3 or lack of confidence4.

I think his mother is Italian. She comes from Calabria, I believe.

b) The use of you know, of course to imply that the partner is not ignorant.

Of course, his mother is Italian, you know.

с) The use of tag questions to invite the partner’s agreement (falling intonation) or confirmation5 (rising intonation).

His mother is Italian, isn’t she?

2. Be reluctant6to say what may distress or displease the partner. This maxim implies such strategies as:

a) Expressing the reluctance:

I don’t want to be difficult but … (e.g. this machine doesn’t work).

I don’t like saying so, but … (e.g. the music is too loud).

b) Seeking the partner’s agreement:

I hope you don’t mind …

Don’t you agree that …?

с) Apologizing or expressing regret:

I’m sorry but … (your work is not good enough).

I’m afraid you can’t smoke in here.

3. Do not force the partner to act.Allow him to appear to act voluntarily. This maxim implies:

a) Adding please whenever you call for action by the partner.

Where is the toilet, please? (asking the information)

A return ticket, please. (requesting something)

Sit down, please. (giving instructions, orders)

b) Avoiding7 simple imperatives8 when asking the partner to do something for you. Instead, ask if he

· is willing to act: Will you open the window, please?

· is able to act: Can you open this tin for me, please?

· wishes to act: Would you like to help me, please?

_________________________

1 maxim – максима (краткое изречение, выражающее общеизвестную истину, правило поведения или этический принцип)

2 imply – предполагать, подразумевать, заключать в себе, значить

3 uncertainty – неуверенность, нерешительность

4 confidence – уверенность, убеждённость

5 confirmation – подтверждение

6 reluctant – делающий что-л. с большой неохотой, вынужденный

7 avoid – избегать

8 imperative – повелительное наклонение, императив; повеление; распоряжение

 

TEXT 2

How to Be a Good Listener?

Careful listening can build good relations. It can help you make friends and settle arguments.

Some practical advice

SHOW YOUR INTEREST

a) non-verbally – letting your ‘body lan­guage’ show that you are paying attention: nodding1 your head, frequently looking the person in the eye, etc. When seated lean2 forward slightly. Don’t scowl3, frown, fold your arms, etc.

b) verbally – inviting the speaker to say more, e.g. by saying: I see. Really? Oh? Tell me more.

DO NOT INTERRUPT

Pay attention to the speaker. Don’t inter­rupt4 him/her even though you think you know what the speaker is going to say. Save your thoughtsuntil the other person has fin­ished talking.

SUM UP WHAT HAS BEEN SAID

Restate (paraphrase)what the other person has said in your own words.This will tell the speaker whether you understood what he or she said, and it will give the speaker a chance to explain again and correct any misunderstanding. Ask questions if necessary. Typical phrases used in beginning a clarify­ing5 response: Are you saying (restatein other words)? I heard you say (then summarize).

LISTEN FOR FEELINGS

In paraphrasing the other person’s ideas don’t mimic or parrot6 his/her exact words. Also, avoid any indication of approval7 or disapproval. Refrain from blaming8, giving advice or persuading9. For example, the phrase "Oh, you shouldn’t let that upset10 you!" suggests that the per­son’s feelings are wrong. But feelings are not right or wrong – they just are. Sometimes people just want to express their feelings – they are not looking for advice.

If you have something to offer, ask first. Try to show understanding and acceptanceof the other person’s feelings or experience. For example, say “Yes, I see that this is important to you”, or “I understand (appre­ciate, value) what it means to you (or how it makes you feel)”, or “It’s really sad (great, emotional, amazing, unfair, etc.).”

Especially important is to show under­standing and acceptance of the other per­son’s expressed feelings or opinions when you want to disagree, or when you have dif­ferent opinion or perspective. In this case it is appropriate to say “What you have said is really important (you can repeat the per­son’s statement). There is something that I want to add (point out, mention).

Smiling is one of the most important indi­cators of a good listener! This does not mean laughing at someone, or grinning, or an ironic face. Just keeping a friendly smile on your face, nodding your head and saying "uhm..." from time to time will get you the recognition of a good listener and a nice person. This will be an important message to another person, which will indicate that you are happy to be in his/her company, that you are paying attention to the con­versation, and you are not preoccupied with your own stressful or sad thoughts instead of listening.

_________________________

1 nod – кивнуть головой

2 lean – наклоняться; склоняться

3 scowl – хмуриться, хмурить брови; смотреть сердито

4 inter­rupt – обрывать, прерывать

5 clarify – прояснить

6 parrot – механически повторять

7 approval – одобрение; благоприятное мнение

8 blame – порицать, осуждать, критиковать

9 persuade – убеждать (в чём-л.); урезонивать

10 upset – расстраивать, огорчать

 

DID YOU KNOW?

93 per cent of our communica­tion with others is non-verbal. What we actu­ally say makes up only seven per cent of the picture! That’s what US scientist Ray Birdwhistell found out when he began to study body language back in the 1950s. He filmed conversations and then played them back in slow motion to examine gestures, expressions and posture1. When he noticed the same move­ments happening again and again, he realised that the body can talk too!

We use our bodies to send mes­sages all the time. We nod instead of saying “Yes, shrug our shoulders to mean “I don’t know”, or raise our eye­brows to show surprise.

But even when we don’t want other people to know how we’re feel­ing, our body language can give us away2. The way we sit or stand, the expression on our face can reveal3 far more than words.

_________________________

1 give away – выдавать, разоблачать (кого-л.)

2 posture – положение тела, поза

3 reveal – обнаруживать, показывать

 

Follow-up

Saying it without words

Good manners are manifested not only in the way we speak but also in the way we move. Mind your mimics and your body language, don’t gestic­ulate too much. These are the general rules, but much depends on national traditions. Say, handshaking in Great Britain is not so widely used as in Europe. Older people in Britain usually shake hands when they meet for the first time, but young people don’t do this very often. In France, many people of all ages shake hands every time they see each other – they say the French spend 20 minutes a day shaking hands! In Britain, men often kiss women friends once or twice on the cheek and women sometimes kiss each other too, but men don’t usually kiss each other. However, men in the Arab world often hug and kiss each other on the cheek. Meanwhile, in Japan, people bow when they meet each other; neither men nor women kiss in public.

When Americans meet and speak, there is about a 2–4 feet distance between them. However, if you watch a Japanese speaking to an American you will see him moving towards the American, trying to shorten the distance between them, which makes the American move backwards. Video recordings of this phenomenon give an impression that both men are danc­ing around the conference room. It partly explains why, when negotiating business, Asians and Americans sometimes misunderstand each other, the Americans thinking of the Asians as “too familiar” and the Asians regarding the Americans as “too cold” and “too official”.

Americans like people who smile and agree with them, but Australians are more interested in people who disagree with them. So sometimes Americans think Australians are rude and unfriendly, and Australians think polite friendly Americans are boring! In Europe, it’s friendly to smile at strangers, but in many Asian countries it isn’t polite. And in Japan you must cover your mouth when you smile or laugh.

In Western cultures, young people and adults look each other in the eye during a conversation to show interest and trust, but in many Asian countries, it’s rude to look people in the eye, especially a superior such as a teacher. In Britain and the United States it isn’t polite to stare at strangers, but Indians often look long and thoughtfully at people they don’t know.

In Britain, it’s polite to respond during conversations and to make comments to show that you’re interested. But in parts of Northern Europe and in Japan, it’s quite common for people to stay silent when someone is talking to them. In China, Japan, and Korea, young people don’t usually start conversations with adults and only speak if an adult speaks to them. In contrast, Americans encourage young people to start conversations.

UNIT 2. Daily LIFE

By doing nothing we learn to do ill.

English saying

Lead-in

PLANNING ONE’S DAILY ROUND

Have you ever thought that 24 hours isn’t enough to do all you have to do? All of us have so many duties and obligations! In addition to the daily routine at offices, schools, hospitals, etc., we have always got some housework to do and shopping, we have to cook the meals and keep the house clean. It is really surprising how much work some people manage to do! But it often happens that we don’t have enough time to do everything and put it off till “some other time”. What do you think is the reason? Why do some people manage and not others?

A lot depends on how you plan your daily round. If you plan your day carefully, you’ll be able to do more and it takes you less time.

Planning the day is especially necessary for people who want to make time for important things. Many outstanding people say that a daily timetable has helped them greatly to achieve what they have.

1. Do you agree that 24 hours isn’t enough to do all we have to do?

2. Do you often put off things till some other time? Why?

3. Do you find it necessary to plan your daily round? Give your reasons.

4. Some people say that a strict timetable makes life dull and uninteresting. What do you think?

VOCABULARY

  1. routine (n)
daily routine
- заведенный порядок; определенный режим - повседневный распорядок
  1. round (n)
the daily round
- круг; цикл - круг ежедневных занятий
  1. habit (n)
- привычка, обыкновение
  1. duty (n)
- долг, обязанность
  1. obligation (n)
- обязательность; обязанность; долг
  1. necessary (a)
- необходимый, нужный
  1. important (a)
importance (n)
- важный, значительный, существенный - важность, значительность
  1. time (n)
spend time (spent, spent) waste time save time timetable (n) in time on time What time ...? it’s time to do something
- время - проводить время - тратить время впустую - беречь (экономить) время - расписание (занятий), график (работы) - вовремя, без опоздания - точно к назначенному часу - Когда, в котором часу …? - пора сделать что-л.
  1. enough (a)
have enough time
- достаточный - располагать достаточным запасом времени
  1. schedule (n)
- программа, план; график
  1. put off (put, put)
- откладывать
  1. manage (v)
- справляться, ухитряться, суметь; - управлять
  1. achieve (v)
- достигать
  1. success (n)
be a success successful (a)
- успех - удаться, иметь успех - успешный; удачный
  1. depend on (n)
- зависеть от чего-л.
  1. think (v) (thought, thought)
thought
- думать, обдумывать; мыслить - размышление; мысль
  1. remember (v)
- помнить
  1. forget (v) (forgot, forgotten)
- забывать
  1. late (a, adv)
be late for
- поздний; поздно - опоздать куда-л.
  1. next (a)
next week/month/year
- следующий, будущий - на следующей неделе/в следующем месяце/году
  1. last (a)
last (v)
- последний, прошлый - продолжаться, длиться
  1. be over
- закончиться, завершиться
  1. midday (n)
- полдень
  1. night (n)
midnight (n) tonight (adv)
- ночь, вечер - полночь - сегодня вечером или ночью
  1. get (got, got) (v)
get home get to work get to the university get up get dressed
- получать; достигать, добираться - добраться домой - прибыть на работу - прибыть в университет - вставать, подниматься - одеваться
  1. sleep (v) (slept, slept)
sleep in oversleep(v) sleep (n) go to sleep get a sleep (got, got) asleep (a) be asleep fall asleep (fell, fallen) sleepy (a)
- спать, засыпать - спать дольше обычного - проспать - сон - заснуть - поспать - спящий - спать - заснуть - сонный, сонливый
  1. wake up (v) (woke, woken)
awake (a) be awake
- проснуться, просыпаться - бодрствующий - бодрствовать, не спать
  1. put on (v) (put, put)
- надевать
  1. take off (took, taken)
- снимать
  1. wear (v) (wore, worn)
- быть одетым (во что-л.); носить (одежду и т.п.)
  1. hour (n)
an hour and a half half an hour
- час - полтора часа - полчаса
  1. quarter (n)
- четверть
  1. yesterday (adv)
the day before yesterday
- вчера - позавчера
  1. tomorrow (adv)
the day after tomorrow
- завтра - послезавтра
  1. shower/bath (n)
take/have a shower/bath
- душ/ванна - принять душ/ванну
  1. breakfast/lunch/dinner/supper (n)
- завтрак/обед, ленч/ужин/поздний ужин
  1. bed (n)
go to bed make a bed (made, made)
- кровать, постель - ложиться спать - застилать постель
  1. leave (v) (left, left)
leave house leave for work
- покидать, уходить - выходить из дома - уходить на работу
  1. wash (v)
wash up
- мыть - мыть посуду
  1. bus/trolley bus/tram/taxi (n)
take a bus/tram, etc (took, taken) catch the bus/taxi (caught, caught), etc
- автобус/троллейбус/трамвай/такси - добираться на автобусе/трамвае - успеть на автобус/такси
  1. busy (a)
be busy with something be busy doing something busyness (n)
- деятельный; занятой - быть занятым чем-л. - быть занятым чем-л. - занятость, деловитость
  1. tire (v)
tiring (a) tired (a) tireless (a) tiredness (n)
- утомлять(ся), уставать - утомительный, изнурительный - усталый, утомленный - неутомимый; неустанный - усталость
  1. rest (v)
rest (n) have a rest
- отдыхать - покой; отдых - отдохнуть, передохнуть

Word building

SOCIAL ENGLISH

Time Expressions

— Excuse me, what time is it? — What’s the time? — Can you tell me the time? — Yes, sure. It’s ... o’clock. — I’m sorry. My watch is wrong / slow / fast.  
— Thanks. / Thank you. — You are welcome. / Any time.


Telling the time

Match the time.

  1. It’s three o’clock.
a) 12.25
  1. It’s a quarter past eight.
b) 8.05
  1. It’s ten thirty.
c) 11.25
  1. It’s five to five.
d) 1.58
  1. It’s nine twenty five.
e) 8.15
  1. It’s twenty-five to eleven.
f) 4.55
  1. It’s two to two.
g) 10.35
  1. It’s eleven twenty-five.
h) 9.25
  1. It’s five past eight.
i) 10.30
  1. It’s twenty thirty-five.
j) 3.00

12. What is the difference between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m.? Look at the chart and check your answer.

a.m. morning afternoon 00.00–11.59 12.00–17.59
p.m. evening 18.00–23.59

 

note:

00.00 = midnight

1.00 = midday (noon)

in the morning / in the afternoon / in the evening / in the daytime

BUT: at night / at midnight / at noon

GRAMMAR

Days and Dates

 

What day is it today? — (It’s) Monday.
What date is it today? — (It’s) September 25th.
When is your birthday? — (It’s) in March.
25/09 ... — the twenty-fifth of September or September the twenty-fifth
1919 — nineteen nineteen
1800 — eighteen hundred
1805 — eighteen-oh-five

 

Days Months Seasons
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday January February March April May June July August September October November December winter spring summer autumn
           

Adverbs of frequency

always usually often sometimes never ●●●●●●● ●●●●● ●●● ●   I always usually often sometimes never get to work late.

A: How often do you arrive at work on time?

B: I usually arrive at work on time.

Give personal information.

  1. How punctual are you? Do you always arrive late, early or on time?
  2. Do you think you manage your time wisely? Do you manage time, or does time manage you?
  3. Do you schedule out what you have to do every week?
  4. Do you make a schedule for every day?
  5. Do you have enough time to do things you want to do?
  6. What is the most time-consuming thing you do in your life?
  7. What do you like doing in your spare time?
  8. What would you do if you had a few extra hours in a day?
  9. Which time of day do you feel you are most productive in your work or study? Are you a “night owl” or an “early bird”?

Reading

PAUL BROWN'S DAILY ROUTINE

Friday morning. The alarm clock goes off at 7. Paul usually gets up easily but not this time. It’s not simple to wake up so early if you go to bed at 3 in the morning. He can hardly open his eyes. Half an hour passes before Paul finally makes himself get up. He is still sleepy. He slowly gets dressed and looks out of the window. It’s drizzling1 and the sidewalk is wet. There’s nobody in sight2. The campus looks deserted. But Paul goes jogging every morning, whatever the weather3. He sighs4, puts on his sneakers and goes out. Twenty minutes later he comes back and takes a long shower. As usual jogging and a cold shower do him good. He is wide awake now. Paul looks at the clock. It’s 8.15. Time for breakfast. He goes to the kitchen to make coffee. A cup of coffee is always reviv­ing5, especially after the party like yesterday’s. He smiles at the thought of that delicious birthday cake. But the smile vanishes6 the moment he remembers his schedule for today. He’s got three classes on Friday.

9.00–10.30 – German Class

11.00–12.30 – Political System of Germany

14.00–15.30 – German Literature

Anything else? An appointment with his tutor at 4 o’clock. He completely forgot! And there’s an essay to finish! When in the world can he do that? He suddenly remembers: lunch time (12.30—14.00). Well, he can’t afford7 a regular lunch today, just a quick snack. It gives him at least an extra hour more to finish his essay and get ready for the discussion. His tutor is always very critical of his students’ homework. You must know your subject well enough to answer his tricky questions.

8.50. Paul rushes out of the house. It doesn’t take him long to get to the college. So at 8.55 he is at the universi­ty. All the students in his class are already there. They’re very glad to see Paul. And so is he. At 9 o’clock Mr Lewis comes in and the class starts. Mr Lewis’s classes are Paul’s favourite ones. Time flies quickly. He enjoys the class so much that the end of the class at 10.30 always comes as a surprise. 10.30–11.00. Coffee break. Paul and the other students go to a coffee bar to have a chat over a cup of coffee. 11.00. Back to another class. It’s rather difficult for Paul to concentrate on the subject, all the more so he doesn’t like it too much. It isn’t as in­teresting as Mr Lewis’s German Class. Honestly Paul finds it boring.

12.30. Lunch time. Everybody hurries to the dining hall. But Paul doesn’t. At lunchtime he is at his desk in his room. So much work to do and so little time! Paul opens his essay book and starts writing. When he looks at the clock, it’s ten minutes past 2. He is late for the class but he feels great. His essay is ready! The thought is very comforting. Friday’s last class is German Literature, an­other of Paul’s favourites. It’s always very interesting and instructive. After the class Paul has got half an hour to look through the essay and his notes. He is no longer afraid of the coming meeting. He feels sure of himself.

The session goes well. The students discuss their es­says. The tutor makes some critical remarks but on the whole he’s quite pleased with their work. Finally he sets work for them to do and they part till next time. On his way home Paul drops in at the student pub. He takes a glass of beer and sits down at the table next to his friends. He looks around. The pub is crowded, as usual at this time. Everybody is laughing and talking. Loud music is playing. But nobody is dancing. It’s too early for that. Paul suddenly feels very tired. He says good-bye to his friends and leaves the pub. The thing is that there is a concert of a Spanish guitar player at the club at 8. Paul doesn’t want to miss it but he needs some rest. The con­cert finishes at 11.30. When Paul comes back home, it’s nearly midnight. At long last the hard day is over! He takes off his clothes and goes to bed straightaway. 5 min­utes later he is fast asleep.

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1 drizzle – мелкий дождь; моросить

2 in sight – в поле зрения

3 whatever the weather – в любую погоду

4 sigh – вздыхать

5 reviv­e – восстанавливать (силы, энергию)

6 vanish – исчезать, пропадать

7 afford – (быть в состоянии) позволить себе

 

TIME-SAVING TIPS

Making lists is relaxing. It makes you feel important – all those things to do. It calms you down (it’s OK, it’s on a list somewhere) and it makes you feel good when you cross something off.

The world divides into two types of list-makers. Type A makes orderly lists, prioritises and calmly sets to work on them. Type В waits until panic sets in, grabs the nearest envelope and scribbles1 all over it, sighs with relief2 and promptly loses it.

The more you have to do, the more you need a list, and few people with high-powered jobs get by without them.

Julie Rost, chief executive3 of a large chain of supermarkets, says, “Before I go to bed, I have to write down everything that’s going to stop me sleeping. If I write something down, I feel I won’t forget it, so my lists are a great comfort.”

Jane Levy used to write Lists, but she would forget where she put them and then waste precious time looking for them. Then a couple of years ago she came up with a new system. Now she writes key words on the back of her hand! “At least I can’t lose it,’ she says. True, but too many trips to the bathroom could have disastrous results.

Des O’Brien, a self-employed business consultant, uses another method for organising his time. He writes a list of things to do and then organises them into categories: things that have to be done straight away; other things that it would be good to do today; things that are important but don’t have to be done immediately; and things that he can put off but that he doesn’t want to forget. “Using categories to order the world is the way the human mind works,” he says.

It’s all a question of what works best for you, whether it’s a tidy notebook, a forest of Post-it® notes or the back of your hand. Having tried all these, Kerry Johns, student, relies on her personal organiser. “My personal organiser has changed my life,” she says. “Up to now, I’ve always relied on my good memory, but now that I’m working and studying, I find I’ve got too much to keep in my head.”

So what are you waiting for? There’s no better time than the present to take control of your work and life. So, get out your pencil and paper and make a list.

Sue Kay & Vaughan Jones, New Inside Out, Macmillan

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1 scribble – писать быстро и небрежно

2 relief – облегчение

3 chief executive – президент (компании), директор

FOLLOW-UP

Render the text in Russian.

.

WHAT ARE THE WAYS TO PREVENT TIREDNESS?

(Some important rules suggested by psychologists)

1. Rest before you get tired (not after).

2. Learn to relax. If you are having hard times find a quiet half-hour all for yourself to gain strength.

3. Don’t forget about four good working habits:

· clean your desk of all papers except those you need at hand;

· do things in order of their importance;

· when you face a problem, first analyse the facts, then make a decision;

· learn to organize things.

4. Put enthusiasm into your work; it’s the only way to enjoy what you are doing.

5. Remember: no one was ever killed by doing well-organized work.

6. Don’t be a mental loafer. Don’t be afraid to concentrate on some ideas, to think hard and to exercise your will and memory.

SPEAKING

Everyday routine

Useful Words and Expressions

to get up / to wake up; to wash / to shave; to have a shower/a bath; to put on one’s clothes / to get dressed; to have breakfast; to go to work/university; to have (a) lunch (break); to finish work; to do some shopping / to go shopping; to go home / to come home; to go to bed / to go to sleep.

Person A

My alarm goes off early, and it takes me ten minutes to eat my breakfast, drink two cups of coffee, have a shower, pack my bag and read the post and thirty minutes to (1) get dressed / wear.I start thinking about what I’m going to (2) get dressed / wearwhile I have my breakfast. After a shower, I (3) put on/ wearmy underwear and then I look in my wardrobe and choose a pair of trousers. If they still (4) fit/ lookme, I put them on. If they feel a bit tight around the waist, I (5) try them on / take them offand spend a few minutes feeling guilty about all those chocolates I had last night. Then, I choose a looser pair of trousers and think about a top that (6) goes with / fitsit. I usually (7) have on/ try ontwo or three tops before I find one that (8) looks / wearsright and (9) feels / fitscomfortable. Finding a pair of socks usually takes about five minutes – I can find two dozen odd pairs, but none that (10) look / match.By now, I’m late.

Person В

I get up as late as I possibly can and jump in and out of the shower. I (1) put on/ fitthe trousers I (2) had on/ got dressedyesterday and take a shirt out of the wardrobe – it doesn’t matter which one as long as it’s ironed. I find the jacket that (3) fits / goes withthe trousers, look down and check that my socks (4) match / feel,and that’s it. Nearly all my clothes are either green or brown, because I’ve been told that they are the only colours that (5) suit / matchme. So I never really have to worry about what I (6) look like / go with.The important thing is to make sure I have enough time to enjoy my favourite drink of the day: that first cup of coffee...

UNIT 1. BREAKING THE ICE

To make the world a friendly place,

one must show it a friendly face.

Lead-in

Read the following words of wisdom. What do they mean?

· The world is a looking glass and gives back to each person a reflection of his attitude.

· Treat everyone with politeness, even those who are rude to you – not because they are nice, but because you are.

· True politeness is perfect ease and freedom. It simply consists in treating others just as you love to be treated yourself. (Chesterfield)

· Ceremonies are different in every country, but true POLITENESS is everywhere the same. (Oliver Goldsmith)





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