I. Match words in the text with their definition



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

I. Match words in the text with their definition



What is a computer?

Computers affect your life every day and will continue to do so in the future. New uses for computers and improvements to existing technology are being developed continually.

The first question related to understanding computers and their impact on our lives is, “What is a computer?” A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory unit that can accept data (input), process data arithmetically and logically, produce results (output), and store the results for future use. Most computers also include the capability to communicate by sending and receiving data to other computers and to connect to the Internet. While different definitions of a computer exist, this definition includes a wide range of devices with various capabilities. Often the term computer or computer system is used to describe a collection of devices that function together to process data.

Data is input, processed, output and stored by specific equipment called computer hardware. This equipment consists of input devices, a system unit, output devices, a system unit, output devices, storage devices, and communications devices.

Input devices are used to enter data into a computer. Two common input devices are the keyboard and the mouse. As the data is entered using the keyboard, it is temporarily stored in the computer’s memory and displayed on the screen of the monitor. A mouse is a type of pointing device used to select processing options or information displayed on the screen. The mouse is used to move a small symbol that appears on the screen. This symbol, called a mouse pointer or pointer, can be many shapes but is often in the shape of an arrow.

The system unit is a box-like case that contains the electronic circuits that cause the processing of data to occur. The electronic circuits usually are part of or are connected to a main circuit board called the motherboard or system board. The system board includes the central processing unit, memory and other electronic components. The central processing unit (CPU) contains a control unit that executes the instructions that guide the computer through a task and an arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) that performs math and logic operations. The CPU is sometimes referred to as the processor.

Memory also called RAM (Random Access Memory) or main memory, temporarily stores data and program instructions when they are being processed.

Storage devices, sometimes called secondary storage or auxiliary storage devices, store instructions and data when the system unit is not using them. Storage devices often function as an input source when previously stored data is read into memory. A common storage device on personal computers is called a hard disc drive. A hard disc drive contains a high-capacity disc or discs that provide greater storage capacities than floppy discs. A CD-ROM drive uses a low-powered laser light to read data from removable CD-ROMs.

Communication devices enable a computer to connect to other computers. A modem is a communications device used to connect computers over telephone lines. A network interface card is used to connect computers that are relatively close together, such as those in the same building. A group of computers connected together is called a network.

The devices just discussed are only some of the many types of input, output, storage, and communications devices that can be part of a computer system. A general term for any device connected to the system unit is peripheral device.

Whether small or large, computers can perform four general operations. These four operations are input, process, output, and storage. Together, they comprise the information processing cycle. Each of these four operations can be assisted by a computer’s ability to communicate with other computers. Collectively, these operations describe the procedures that a computer performs to process data into information for immediate use or store it for future use.

All computer processing requires data. Data refers to the raw facts, including numbers, words, images, and sounds, given to a computer during the input operation. In the processing phase, the computer manipulates and organizes the data to create information. As long as information exists only inside our heads, there is no way for it to be processed by a computer. For computer processing, information must be represented by such concrete symbols as words, numbers, drawings, and sounds. Information refers to data that has been processed into a form that has meaning and is useful. The production of information by processing data on a computer is called information processing. During the output operation, the information that has been created is put into some form, such as a printed report or an electronic page that people can use. The information also can be stored electronically for future use.

The people who either use the computer directly or use the information it provides are called computer users, end users, or simply users.

 

Comments:

 

auxiliary (AUX) допоміжний, додатковий

capacity ємність, об’єм

circuit схема, мікросхема, ланцюг

device прилад, пристрій

hardware апаратні засоби, апаратура, обладнання;

загальне позначення сукупності фізичних пристроїв

комп’ютера або його окремих частин на відміну від

програм або даних

network комп’ютерна мережа. Призначена для спільного

використання обчислювальних ресурсів, периферійних

пристроїв, застосувань і даних. Мережі класифікуються за

географічною ознакою (локальні, кампусні, міські,

регіональні, глобальні) топологією, передавальним

середовищем, способом комутації тощо.

pointing device координатно-вказівний пристрій, позицію вальний

пристрій, вказівний пристрій, маніпулятор; клас

периферійних пристроїв, який застосовують для

переміщення курсору на екрані монітора

to process обробляти

storage зовнішня пам’ять; зовнішній пристрій для зберігання

даних; пам’ять (основна).

to store запам’ятовувати, зберігати

unit пристрій, блок, вузол

 

I. Match words in the text with their definition

1. Improvement A. A main circuit board

2. Input B. A control unit together with an arithmetic-logic unit

3. Output C. Making things better

4. Processing D. Something that is put into a computer

5. Motherboard E. Work on information used

6. CPU F. Information retrieval

 

II. Continue the following sentences:

1. A computer is an electronic device …

2. Most computers include the capability to communicate by …

3. Input devices are used to …

4. A mouse is a type of …

5. The system board includes the central processing unit …

6. Storage devices often function as …

7. Communication devices enable a computer to …

8. The computer manipulates and organizes the data to create …

 

III. Identify whether the following statements are true or false. Use the model:

1) Student A: All computer processing requires data. ­– Student B: Yes, that is true.

S. A: The arithmetic/logic unit executes the instructions that guide the computer through a task. – S. B: No, you are wrong. It is the control unit’s function. The arithmetic/logic unit performs math and logic operations.

1. Computer is a collection of devices that function together to process data.

2. The system board includes the central processing unit and memory.

3. Main memory permanently stores data and program instructions when they

are being processed.

4. Information processing cycle comprises input, process and output.

5. For computer processing, information is represented in words, numbers,

are being processed.

 

Topics for Discussion

Examine your attitude towards computers. Are they based on personal experience? Do you fear or distrust computers, and, if so, why? How do you think people’s attitude towards computers might change as computers become more common at home, at school, and on the job?

Computer Generations

The first Generation, 1951-1958:

The Vacuum Tube

The beginning of the computer age may be dated June 14, 1951. In the first generation, vacuum tubes – electronic tubes about the size of light bulbs were used as the internal computer components. They were used for calculation, control, and sometimes for memory. However, because thousands of such tubes were required, they generated a great deal of heat, causing many problems in temperature regulation and climate control. In addition, all the tubes had to be working simultaneously, they were subject to frequent burnout-and the people operating the computer often did not know whether the problem was in the programming or in the machine. In addition, input and output tended to be slow, since both operations were generally performed on punched cards.

Another drawback was that the language, used in programming was machine language, which uses numbers, rather than the present-day higher-level languages, which are more like English. Programming with numbers alone made using the computer difficult and time-consuming.

Therefore, as long as computers were tied down to vacuum tube technology, they could only be bulky, cumbersome, and expensive.

In the first generation the use of magnetism for data storage was pioneered. For primary storage, magnetic core was the principal form of technology used. This consisted of small, doughnut-shaped rings about the size of a pinhead, which were strung like beads on intersecting thin wires. Magnetic core was the dominant form of primary storage technology for two decades. To supplement primary storage, first-generation computers stored data on punched cards. In 1957, magnetic tape was introduced as a faster, more compact method of storing data. The early generation of computers was used primarily for scientific and engineering calculation rather than for business data processing applications. Because of the enormous size, unreliability, and high cost of these computers, many people assumed they would remain very expensive, specialized tools, not destined for general use.

The Second Generation, 1959-1964:

The Transistor

The invention of the transistor, or semiconductor, was one of the most important developments leading to the personal computer revolution. Bell Laboratories engineers John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley invented the transistor in 1948. The transistor, which essentially functions as a solid-state electronic switch, replaced the much less suitable vacuum tube. The transistor revolutionized electronics in general and computer in particular. Not only did transistors shrink the size of the vacuum tube – but they also had numerous other advantages: they needed no warm-up time, consumed less energy, and were faster and more reliable.

The conversion to transistors began the trend toward miniaturization that continues to this day. Today’s small laptop (or palmtop) PC systems, which run on batteries, have more computing power than many earlier systems that filled rooms

During this generation, another important development was the move from machine language to assembly languages. Assembly languages use abbreviations for instructions (for example, “L” for “LOAD”) rather than numbers. This made programming less cumbersome.

After the development of the symbolic languages came higher-level languages. In 1951, mathematician and naval officer Grace Murray Hoper conceived the first compiler program for translating from a higher-level language to the computer’s machine language. The first language to receive widespread acceptance was FORTRAN (for FORmula TRANslator), developed in the mid-1950s as a scientific, mathematical and an engineering language. Higher-level languages allowed programmers to give more attention to solving problems. They no longer had to cope with all details of the machines themselves. Also in 1962 the first removable disc pack was marketed. Disc storage supplemented magnetic tape systems and enabled users to have fast access to desired data.

The rudiments of operating machines were also emerging. Loading programs loaded other programs into main memory from external media such as punched cards, paper tape, or magnetic tape. Monitor programs aided the programmer or computer operator to load other programs, monitor their execution, and examine the contents of memory locations. An input-output control systems consisted of a set of subroutines for manipulating input, output, and storage devices. By calling these subroutines, a program could communicate with external devices without becoming involved in the intricacies of their internal operations.

All these new developments made the second generation of computers less costly to operate – and thus began a surge of growth in computer systems.

The Third Generation, 1965-1970:

The Integrated Circuit

One of the most abundant elements in the earth’s crust is silicon, a nonmetallic substance found in common beach sand as in practically all rocks and clay. The element has given rise to the name “Silicon Valley” for Santa Clara County, which is about 30 miles south of San Francisco. In 1965 Silicon Valley became the principal site of the electronics industry making the so-called silicon chip.

In 1959, engineers at Texas Instruments invented the integrated circuit (IC), a semiconductor circuit that contains more than one transistor on the same base (or substrate material) and connects the transistors without wires. The first IC contained only six transistors. By comparison, the Intel Pentium Pro microprocessor used in many of today's high-end systems has more than 5,5 million transistors, and the integral cache built into some of these chips contains as many as an additional 32 million transistors. Today, many ICs have transistor counts in the multimillion ranges.

An integrated circuit is a complete electronic circuit on a small chip of silicon. The chip may be less than 1/8 inch square and contains hundreds of electronic components. Beginning in 1965, the integrated circuit began to replace the transistor in machines now called third-generation computers.

Silicon is used because it is semiconductor. That is, it is a crystalline substance that will conduct electric current when it has been “doped” with chemical impurities shot into the latticelike structure of the crystal. A cylinder of silicon is sliced into wafers, each about 3 inches in diameter, and wafer is “etched” repeatedly with a pattern of electrical circuitry.

Integrated circuits entered the market with the simultaneous announcement in 1959 by Texas Instruments and Fairchild Semiconductor that they had each independently produced chips containing several complete electronic circuits. The chips were hailed as generation breakthrough because they had four desirable characteristics: reliability, compactness, low cost, low power use.

In 1969, Intel introduced a 1K-bit memory chip, which was much larger than anything else available at the time. (1K bits equals 1,024 bits, and a byte equals 8 bits. This chip, therefore, stored only 128 bytes–not much by today’s standards.) Because of Intel’s success in chip manufacturing and design, Busicomp, a Japanese calculator manufacturing company, asked Intel to produce 12 different logic chips for one of its calculator designs. Rather than produce 12 separate chips, Intel engineers included all the functions of the chips in a single chip.

In addition to incorporating all the functions and capabilities of the 12-chip design into one multipurpose chip, the engineers designed the chip to be controlled by a program that could alter the function of the chip. The chip then was generic in nature, meaning that it could function in designs other than calculators. Previous designs were hard-wired for one purpose, with built-in instructions; this chip would read from memory a variable set of instructions that would control the function of the chip. The idea was to design almost an entire computing device on a single chip that could perform different functions, depending on what instructions it was given.

The third generation saw the advent of computer terminals for communicating with a computer from a remote location.

Operating systems (OS) came into their own in the third generation. The OS was given complete control of the computer system; the computer operator, programmers, and users all obtained services by placing requests with the OS via computer terminals. Turning over control of the computer to the OS made possible models of operation that would have been impossible with manual control. For example, in multiprogramming the computer is switched rapidly from program to program in round-robin fashion, giving the appearance that all programs are being executed simultaneously.

An important form of multiprogramming is time-sharing, in which many users communicate with a single computer from remote terminals.

The Fourth Generation, 1971-Present:

The Microprocessor

Through the 1970s, computers gained dramatically in speed, reliability, and storage capacity, but entry into the fourth generation was evolutionary rather than revolutionary. The fourth generation was, in fact, an extension of third-generation technology. That is, in the early part of the third generation, specialized chips were developed for computer memory and logic. Thus, all the ingredients were in place for the next technological development, the general-purpose processor-on-a-chip, otherwise known as the microprocessor. First developed by an Intel Corporation design team headed by Ted Hoff in 1969, the microprocessor became commercially available in 1971.

Nowhere is the pervasiveness of computer power more apparent than in the explosive use of the microprocessor. In addition to the common applications of digital watches, pocket calculators, and microcomputers – small home and business computers – microprocessors can be anticipated in virtually every machine in the home or business. (To get a sense of how far we have come, try counting up the number of machines, microprocessor controlled or not, that are around your house. Would more than one or two have been in existence 50 years ago?)

The 1970s saw the advent of large-scale integration (LSI). The first LSI chips contained thousands of transistors; later, it became possible to place first tens and then hundreds of thousands of transistors on a single chip. LSI technology led to two innovations: embedded computers, which are incorporated into other appliances, such as cameras and TV sets, and microcomputers or personal computers, which can be bought and used by individuals. In 1975, very large scale integration (VLSI) was achieved. As a result, computers today are 100 times smaller than those of the first generation, and a single chip is far more powerful than ENIAC.

Computer environments have changed, with climate-controlled rooms becoming less necessary to ensure reliability; some recent models (especially minicomputers and microcomputers) can be placed almost anywhere.

Large computers, of course, did not disappear just because small computers entered the market. Mainframe manufacturers have continued to develop powerful machines, such as the UNIVAC 1100, the IBM 3080 series, and the supercomputers from Gray.

Countries around the world have been active in the computer industry; few are as renowned for their technology as Japan. The Japanese have long been associated with chip technology, but recently they announced an entirely new direction.

S. A: Transistors had only one advantage – they consumed less energy. – S. B: No, that is false, because they not only consumed less energy, but they also needed no warm-up time and were faster and more reliable.

 

1. Large computers disappeared just because small computers entered the market.

2. Magnetic core was the secondary form of primary storage technology.

3. In 1957 magnetic disk was introduced as a faster, more compact method of storing data.

4. In the third generation the use of magnetism for data storage was pioneered.

5. The first language to receive widespread acceptance was FORTRAN.

6. The chips had four desirable characteristics: reliability, compactness, low cost, low power use.

7.Turning over control of the computer to the OS made possible models of operation that would have been impossible with manual control.

8. The early generation of computers were used primarily for business data processing applications.

 

Topic for Discussion.

If Charles Babbage succeeded in building a mechanical computer around the middle of the 19th century, how might our present use of computers and our attitudes to them be different?

 

 

What is a computer?

Computers affect your life every day and will continue to do so in the future. New uses for computers and improvements to existing technology are being developed continually.

The first question related to understanding computers and their impact on our lives is, “What is a computer?” A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory unit that can accept data (input), process data arithmetically and logically, produce results (output), and store the results for future use. Most computers also include the capability to communicate by sending and receiving data to other computers and to connect to the Internet. While different definitions of a computer exist, this definition includes a wide range of devices with various capabilities. Often the term computer or computer system is used to describe a collection of devices that function together to process data.

Data is input, processed, output and stored by specific equipment called computer hardware. This equipment consists of input devices, a system unit, output devices, a system unit, output devices, storage devices, and communications devices.

Input devices are used to enter data into a computer. Two common input devices are the keyboard and the mouse. As the data is entered using the keyboard, it is temporarily stored in the computer’s memory and displayed on the screen of the monitor. A mouse is a type of pointing device used to select processing options or information displayed on the screen. The mouse is used to move a small symbol that appears on the screen. This symbol, called a mouse pointer or pointer, can be many shapes but is often in the shape of an arrow.

The system unit is a box-like case that contains the electronic circuits that cause the processing of data to occur. The electronic circuits usually are part of or are connected to a main circuit board called the motherboard or system board. The system board includes the central processing unit, memory and other electronic components. The central processing unit (CPU) contains a control unit that executes the instructions that guide the computer through a task and an arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) that performs math and logic operations. The CPU is sometimes referred to as the processor.

Memory also called RAM (Random Access Memory) or main memory, temporarily stores data and program instructions when they are being processed.

Storage devices, sometimes called secondary storage or auxiliary storage devices, store instructions and data when the system unit is not using them. Storage devices often function as an input source when previously stored data is read into memory. A common storage device on personal computers is called a hard disc drive. A hard disc drive contains a high-capacity disc or discs that provide greater storage capacities than floppy discs. A CD-ROM drive uses a low-powered laser light to read data from removable CD-ROMs.

Communication devices enable a computer to connect to other computers. A modem is a communications device used to connect computers over telephone lines. A network interface card is used to connect computers that are relatively close together, such as those in the same building. A group of computers connected together is called a network.

The devices just discussed are only some of the many types of input, output, storage, and communications devices that can be part of a computer system. A general term for any device connected to the system unit is peripheral device.

Whether small or large, computers can perform four general operations. These four operations are input, process, output, and storage. Together, they comprise the information processing cycle. Each of these four operations can be assisted by a computer’s ability to communicate with other computers. Collectively, these operations describe the procedures that a computer performs to process data into information for immediate use or store it for future use.

All computer processing requires data. Data refers to the raw facts, including numbers, words, images, and sounds, given to a computer during the input operation. In the processing phase, the computer manipulates and organizes the data to create information. As long as information exists only inside our heads, there is no way for it to be processed by a computer. For computer processing, information must be represented by such concrete symbols as words, numbers, drawings, and sounds. Information refers to data that has been processed into a form that has meaning and is useful. The production of information by processing data on a computer is called information processing. During the output operation, the information that has been created is put into some form, such as a printed report or an electronic page that people can use. The information also can be stored electronically for future use.

The people who either use the computer directly or use the information it provides are called computer users, end users, or simply users.

 

Comments:

 

auxiliary (AUX) допоміжний, додатковий

capacity ємність, об’єм

circuit схема, мікросхема, ланцюг

device прилад, пристрій

hardware апаратні засоби, апаратура, обладнання;

загальне позначення сукупності фізичних пристроїв

комп’ютера або його окремих частин на відміну від

програм або даних

network комп’ютерна мережа. Призначена для спільного

використання обчислювальних ресурсів, периферійних

пристроїв, застосувань і даних. Мережі класифікуються за

географічною ознакою (локальні, кампусні, міські,

регіональні, глобальні) топологією, передавальним

середовищем, способом комутації тощо.

pointing device координатно-вказівний пристрій, позицію вальний

пристрій, вказівний пристрій, маніпулятор; клас

периферійних пристроїв, який застосовують для

переміщення курсору на екрані монітора

to process обробляти

storage зовнішня пам’ять; зовнішній пристрій для зберігання

даних; пам’ять (основна).

to store запам’ятовувати, зберігати

unit пристрій, блок, вузол

 

I. Match words in the text with their definition

1. Improvement A. A main circuit board

2. Input B. A control unit together with an arithmetic-logic unit

3. Output C. Making things better

4. Processing D. Something that is put into a computer

5. Motherboard E. Work on information used

6. CPU F. Information retrieval

 

II. Continue the following sentences:

1. A computer is an electronic device …

2. Most computers include the capability to communicate by …

3. Input devices are used to …

4. A mouse is a type of …

5. The system board includes the central processing unit …

6. Storage devices often function as …

7. Communication devices enable a computer to …

8. The computer manipulates and organizes the data to create …

 

III. Identify whether the following statements are true or false. Use the model:

1) Student A: All computer processing requires data. ­– Student B: Yes, that is true.

S. A: The arithmetic/logic unit executes the instructions that guide the computer through a task. – S. B: No, you are wrong. It is the control unit’s function. The arithmetic/logic unit performs math and logic operations.

1. Computer is a collection of devices that function together to process data.

2. The system board includes the central processing unit and memory.

3. Main memory permanently stores data and program instructions when they

are being processed.

4. Information processing cycle comprises input, process and output.

5. For computer processing, information is represented in words, numbers,

are being processed.

 



Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-04-08; Нарушение авторского права страницы; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы!

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 3.236.175.108 (0.04 с.)