ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
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Exercise 10. Read and entitle the text. Render the text.
Exercise 11. Make a dialogue”buying clothes”. Use following word combinations:
to put on – вдягати
to take off – знiмати
to try on – примiряти
to fit – пiдходити (за розмiром)
to suit – пiдходити, пасувати (колiр, форма)
too long – довгий
too short – короткий
changing room – примiрочна
shop assistant – продавець
size – розмiр
Exercise 12. Fill the gaps with suitable words.
1. She decided to wear a …………. and a ………. instead of a dress.
2. I tried on a ……….. ; the jacket was fine but the …………. were too short.
3. It was hot in the office, so I took off my jacket and ……….., and rolled up the
sleeves of my…………….
4. I wanted to buy the jacket, but unfortunately the one I tried on wasn’t big ……..
and they didn’t have it in a bigger …………..
5. I also tried on a new ………, but unfortunately a medium size was too………….
Text A. Getting Ready to Sew
Key Words and Phrases:
notch – зарубка, зубець, позначка; posture – поза; pad – м’яка прокладка, подушечка; cutting – розкрій; laying out – розкладка, розмітка; marking – маркірування; dress stand – манекен; tracing wheel – різець; flaw – дефект, недолік; facing – оздоблювання, облицьовування; alignment – розміщення по одній лінії, співпадання; encounter – зіштовхуватися; be aware – знати (про щось), усвідомлювати; accommodate – пристосовувати; deal with – займатися (чимось), мати справу (з чимось); cope with – справлятися (з чимось); construct – виготовляти, конструювати.
Fashions are constantly changing but the basic principles of garment construction remain the same. There are many things to consider when starting to make clothes. We all want to sew successful; and to produce a pleasing, attractive result is very satisfying. Successful dressmaking begins with a pattern as nearly correct in size as possible. Both the size and type of pattern selected will influence the possible difficulties to be encountered in making a well-fitted garment.
There is a number of decisions to be made before the pattern is selected: the purpose or need for the proposed garment; the style of pattern that fits this purpose; consideration of the pattern, and availablity of the pattern in the type and size that most nearly conforms to the body measurements.
The four measurements – best, waist, hip, and back waist length – may be sufficient for you in determining your pattern size. If you are aware of any problems you have experienced with garments that fit improperly, you may need to take additional measurements to assist you in making this decision.
Pattern Layout, Cutting, Marking
It is essential to check the fabric carefully before laying on the pattern pieces. Open up the fabric and check for flaws in the weaving, printing or dyeing. If the fabric is flawed, mark it with a coloured thread so that it can be avoidedwhen the pattern pieces are laid on.
Check that fabric is on correct grain to avoid distortion of the style lines of the garment; otherwise it will not ‘hang’ correctly on the figure. Check the ‘gain’ on woven fabrics by pulling a crosswise thread at the end of the fabric.
Some fabrics have ‘one-way’ designs such as floral patterns, geometric shapes and irregular checks.
Place all the pattern pieces in the same direction. Checks, stripes or any other patterns in the fabric must be matched at seam lines on corresponding pattern pieces. This is done by matching balance marks (notches) when laying out and when pinning the pattern pieces into position.
When you are sure that the pieces are laid out correctly, pin them to the fabric. Place the pins diagonally just inside the seam lines to prevent the fabric from puckering. Cut out the pieces along the cutting line, cutting the main pieces first.
Before the pattern is removed from each cut garment section, construction match points must be marked. Marking includes a variety of techniques used to temporarily code pattern symbols onto the cut fabric sections: thread marking (tailor’s tacks), tracing wheel, pin and chalk. Marking of the construction match points ensures accurate alignment of fabric sections before the seams are stitched.
Fitting is an important art of dressmaking. Skill in fitting comes with practice in observing every detail of the garment. This is only achieved by building up experience in a variety of situations concerned with the fitting of garments in different fabrics and for different figure types.
The garment must be worn right side out when it is being tried on, and an underslip must be worn for dress and skirt fittings as this enables the garment to hang smoothly over the figure. It is also important to wear the correct shoes as varying heel heights can affect the figure posture and alter the appearance of the overall silhouette.
Exercise 1. Translate into Ukrainian and make ten sentences with following phrazes.
To have a practical knowledge of dressmaking, to create a style on a dress stand, to have a sense of proportion. To observe every detail of the garment; to be comfortable to wear; to tack together on the correct seamlines; to wear right side out; to wear the correct shoes.To determine the patern size; bust, waist, hip, back waist length; to take measurements. To check the fabric; correct grain; ‘one-way’ designs of fabrics; to pin the pattern pieces to the fabric; to cut out the pieces along the cutting line; to transfer the construction marks to the fabric. To accommodate the pattern to a particular figure type; to know the figure problems; to make alterations to the standard pattern; to be accurate; to make alterations before the fabric is cut out.
Exercise 2. Use verbs in brackets in the right tense form.
1. Many women and girls (to like) to sew. 2. When she went to school she (to attend) home economics classes. A professional tailor (to give) them the fashion sewing course then. 3. Persons who (to sew) are interested in fashion. 4. What magazine is she reading? – She (to read) the latest fashion magazine. I ... already ... it (to read) and know what styles and colours (to be) in fashion next season. I usually (to read) the section on fashion sewing which most fashion magazines (to have). 5. Next year she (to enter) the Clothing and Footwear Institute. Like many other students she (to learn) to design and construct clothes.
Exercise 3. Put general questions (“Yes”/“No” questions to every sentence)
A. Is Mary Gostelow a fashion writer? B. Yes, she is.
B. Does the book begin with Contents? A. No, it doesn’t.
Mary Gostelow is a writer. She is also known as an embroiderer, dressmaker and designer. She wrote the book Dress Sense in 1985. The book begins with chapters on style, colour and materials which best suit one’s own personality and figure. The book then divides into chapters on dressing for particular roles. It covers travelling, work, exeecise and holiday clothes. There are sections on dressmaking and alterations. There are also sections on the care of garments of all types. A final chapter looks at clothes of the future. The book will be useful to women of all ages and life-styles. It will tell you how to dress for business, home, travel, sport or entertaining. I have found it very interesting. I advise you to read it.
Text B. Fabrics
Key Words and Phrases
Fabric - тканина, cotton - бавовна, linen - льон, silk - шовк, wool - шерсть, pattern - візерунок, firm - міцний, fine - тонкий, soft - м’який, springy - еластичний, fibrе - волокно, rayon - віскоза, штучний шовк, pulp - маса, wrinkle - зминатися, blended - змішані, repel - відштовхувати, dye - фарбувати.
Natural fabrics.These fabrics are chiefly Cotton, Linen, Silk, Wool. Cotton and Linen come from plants. Silk is the fine thread made by a silk-worm. Wool is the soft-coat of a sheep.
Cotton is the cheapest of these fabrics, and it is used by people in almost every country in the world. You can find what a fabric is made of by looking closely at the threads. You will see that cotton threads are even and rather round. The surface of the cotton fabric has very fine hairs all over it. These can only be seen if it is held up to the light. Cotton fabric is often white, but to make it pretty it is often coloured, either all over or in a pattern. It is usually better to wear coloured materials, for colour helps to make people feel happy.
Linen looks like cotton, but it is stronger, firmer and often heavier. The threads are very smooth and round. No fine hairs can be seen on the surface. Linen is cooler to wear and more expensive than cotton. It can be used for clothing such as dresses or men’s coats, but it is more often used for such articles as tablecloths.
Silk is a beautiful fabric. It is soft and shiny. The threads of silk are so fine that it is hard to see each one separately. Silk is expensive and, although it is so fine, it stands up to hard wear when made into cloths of a fair weight. It is cool to wear and looks very beautiful.
Wool is the best material to wear, for it is the warmest. Wool is very soft and springy. The surface of the fabric is covered with very fine hairs. It is these tiny hairs which help to make it so soft and warm. Wool is also much thicker and heavier than cotton, so that it keeps out the cold. But it is not so easy to wash as cotton. When it is washed badly, the springiness is lost and the wool is then hard and uncomfortable to wear.
In very cold countries, life Greenland, even wool is not thick enough, so the people have to wear fur. Fur is the outside coat of such animals as fox, seal and bear, wolf. It is soft and very thick, so that it keeps out the biting wind and keeps in the warmth of the body.
For thousands of years people used natural fibres. Then people learned to make fibres themselves.
Cellulose fibres. Scientists wanted to find a fibre that would look and act like silk. Their study resulted in the production of a fibre called rayon. Most rayon and acetate fabrics are made from wood pulp. Rayon dyes well and, if treated chemically, it does not wrinkle much.
Non-cellulose fibres are made entirely by chemical processes.nylon was the first non-cellulose fibre. It is made from chemicals and petroleum products. Today, nylon has almost as many uses as cotton has. It is wrinkle-resistened does not shrink and repels water.
Nylon is used for rainwear, camping clothes and equipment, parachutes. But it is not comfortable to wear in hot weather.
Chemical processes are also used to combine two or more fibres into one fabric. Since
cotton has a tendency to wrinkle, combining it with a nonwrinkling fibre reduces this tendency. Cotton for example, is often combined with polyester. It makes a fabric that looks like cotton and is cool to wear like cotton. But, like polyester, this fabric does not wrinkle easily. Fibers combined in this way are called blends. Blended fibres and fabrics can take advantage of each fibres' good qualities.
Exercise 4. Answer the questions:
1. What natural fibres do you know?
2. Identify the sourse of each fibre.
3. What are the main man-made fibres?
4. How do man-made fibres differ from natural fibres?
5. Define and discribe blends.
6. What would be the advantages of wearing a shirt or blouse made of blend?
Exercise 5. Make a dialogue (choosing fabric)
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