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Adjusting the Stitch Tension.
Puckered seams nd looped stitches are two results of unevenly formes stitches. When you are making a stitch, the upper and lower threads should lock or twist in the center between the two layers of fabric, as show. This occurs only when the tension is properly balanced. Using the same thread on both the spool and the bobbin makes it easier to keep the tension balanced.
Thread the machine and stitch a seam. Examine the stitching. If there are loops on the top of the fabric, you need to decrease the upper tension. If there are loops on the bottom, you need to increase the upper tension. To correct a tension problem, adjust your tension dial. If this does not stop the problem, it may be necessary to adjust the bobbin thread tension screw. Ask your teacher for help the first time.
Continue stitching sample seams and adjusting the tension until the loops are centered between the two layers of fabric. When the fabric is smooth and flat on both sides and no loops are visible on top or bottom, the tension is balanced. Different fabrics require different tension settings. Always make a sample stitch on a fabric scrap.
Exercise 2. Answer the questions.
1. What is the purpose of sewing machine?
2. What kind of stitches do you know?
3. How can you change the length of the stitches?
4. Why is it important to adjust the stitch tension?
5. How many threads are used in a sewing machine?
Exercise 3. Match the word combinations with their definitions.
1. spool pins a. moves the fabric under the presser foot
2. thread guide b. holds the fabric against the feed.
3. tension discs c. regulates presser –foot pressure on the fabric
4. needle d. lines up thread to enter needle
5. feed e. holds upper thread; helps form stitch
6. pressure dial f. hold spools of thread
7. presser foot g. lines up thread to enter tension discs
Exercise 4. Put all kinds of questions(5) to each sentence.
The presser foot pressure control regulates how snugly the presser foot holds the fabric against the feed. Some pressure is needed for the feed to grip and move the fabric ahead for the next stitch. The amount of pressure will depend on the fabric weight. Usually, lighter-weight fabrics require less pressure. When sewing novelty fabrics, like vinyls or pile fabrics, you will need a special attachment to feed the fabric evenly. Again, you should make a sample seam.
Exercise 5. Translate in written form.Use the list of words below.
The most important and least expensive part of the sewing machine is the needle. Only a sharp, smooth, straight, correctly sized, and perfectly inserted needle sews perfect stitches. Check your needle regularly for a blunt or burred point. Replace your needle often.
Even a needle has different parts. The needle point may be a sharp-point, a ball-point, or a wedge-point. Select the correct needle for your fabric and thread. Use fine needles for heavyweight fabrics.
Many special machine parts and attachments have been designed to make sewing easier. Some of them are different kinds of presser feet. A change in foot attachments will usually require a chahge in throat plates. The changes allow you to make different kinds of stitches.
Many other kinds of accessories also increase a sewing machine’s abilities. Button-holers, rufflers, and binders are attachments that do very special jobs. Some of the most useful acessories to the sewing machine are the gauges, like the seam gauge, quilting guide-bar, and the blind-hemming guide. By experimenting with your accessories, you can learn to use them. Here is a decriptive list of some of the most useful ones.
1. Straight-stitch presser foot –sews straight stitches.
2. Zigzag foot –sews zigzag and automatic stitches.
3. Buttonhole foot – has built-in guidelines to place stitches to make buttonholes.
4. Buttonhole attachment – stitches specific type and size of buttonhole automatically.
5. Button foot – holds button in place as machine stitches it to fabric.
6. Rolled hemming foot – rolls and holds a narrow hem while the hem is being stitched.
7. Seam gauge –stitches seams a specific width.
8. Ruffler –gathers a length of fabric as it os being sewn. Useful for home decorating projects.
9. Binder –positionsfabric and binding so that they both feed under the needle at the same time.
10.Quilting guide-bar –extends out from presser foot to quide stitching for evenly spaced rows.
Text B. Sewing Tools and Aids
You and your machine cannot do the sewing job alone. There are several tools and aids that you should also know about. Some of these tools or aids are necessary. Others just make your task a bit easier. All of your tools should be organized in one place. A basket or box will hold everything ready for use. Sewing tools are hand-operated instruments used in sewing. They are long-lasting pieces of equipment that make each step in the sewing process easier, faster, and more accurate. There are basically six groups of tools. They are grouped according to their use: measuring tools, pinning tools, cutting tools, marking tools, pressing tools, and stitching and turning tools.
You should learn the names of the tools. Try to use one or two new ones with each garment you sew. Remember, it will take practice to learn to use them skilfully. Take good care of your tools. The proper tools will add to the success of your finished project.
Measuring tools are critical to a properly fitting garment. Three measuring tools are essential: the tape measure, the yardstick or meterstick, and the hem gauge.
Measuring Tools and Aids.
1. Tape measure –a flexible measuring tool for taking body measurements. It measures both round or flat surfaces.
2. Yardstick or meterstick –a rigid tool used to take and mark long straight measurements. It is made of wood, plastic, or metal.
3. Hem gauge – a tool used to accurately mark curved and straight hems. It is metal or plastic. A metal hem gauge can be left in the hem while pressing.
4. Transparent ruler – a ruler that the sewer can see through. The tool is useful for marking pleats.
5. Skirt marker – a device to accurately measure skirt hems. There are different types: pin marker, chalk marker, or combination pin-and-chalk marker.
6. French curve – a tool helpful for redrawing curved pattern lines, such as armholes and necklines.
7. Hip curve –a tool used for redrawing gently curved lines.
You will need an adequate number of good pins. These litle items are essential. Do not use rusty or dull pins.
Straight pins are used for securing the pattern to the fabric while cutting. They also hold two or more layers of fabric together while stitching. Use sharp-point pins for woven fabrics. Ball-point pins are good for knits, since the rounded tip does not snag the fabric.
Straight pins can be purchased with three different types of heads: flats, colored ball, and “T”. The colored ball pins, made of glass or plastic, are easy to pick up. T-pins are good for heavy pile fabrics and loosely woven fabrics. Stainless steel pins are a good choice since they do not rust.
You should use a pin cushion instead of a box. With a pin cushion, pins are easier to handle.
Cutting tools are precision instruments and should be handled carefully. Many people do not know the difference between scissors and shears. They are not the same tool. Scissors are usually smaller and are used for clipping and trimming. Shears have long blades and are used for cutting out fabric pieces. There are many specialized types of scissors and shears. Keep your scissors and shears so they can do their job properly.
Cutting Tools and Aids
1. Sewing scissors –pointed for trimming and clipping work. The two handles are the same size, and the blades are 5 to 6 inches long.
2. Shears –used for cutting fabrics. The two handles are shaped differently, to fit the hand comfortably. The blades are 6 to 12 inches long.
3. Pinking or scalloping shears – used to cut a decorative edge that reduces raveling of the fabric.
4. Embroidery scissors – used for light detail work, like cutting threads, ripping stitches, and cutting buttonholes.
5. Buttonhole scissors – uesd for cutting open buttonholes.
6. Electric scissors – powered by a battery or other source of electricity. These make cutting faster.
7. Seam ripper –aids in removing stitches from fabric; lifts thread away from fabric before cutting.
8. Thread clippers –used for clipping threads quickly.
9. Rotary cutter and cutting mat –used to cut long, straight fabric strips quickly. Be sure to cut on the protective mat.
It will be necessary to transfer markings accurately from the paper pattern to your fabric. The tool most often used is probably the tracing wheel (used with carbon paper).
1. Tracing wheels – used with tailor’s carbon to trasfer pattern markings to fabric. There are three basic types: a sawtooth tracing wheel that marks sheer fabric without carbon paper; a blunt-tooth tracing wheel that can be used on any fabric; and a smoth-edged wheel on knits.
2. Tailor’s carbon paper –used with a tracing wheel to create a temporary marking on fabric. The color of carbon paper used should show but should be close to the color of the fabric.
3. Tailor’s chalk – an oil-free chalk for transferring markings.
4. Tailor’s pencil – an oil-free chalk in pencil form.
Good pressing tools will help you produce a professional-looking finished garment. Some of the pressing tools listed are essential. The most important are the iron, ironing board, and pressing cloths.
1. Iron –an electrically heated appliance for flattening .
2. Ironing board –a padded flat surface for ironing and pressing. The paddingresiststhe heat of the iron.
3. Pressing cloth – used to cover fabric while pressing. It distributes heat, prevents scorching, and, when wet, creates steam.
4. Tailor’s ham –a device used to shape curved seams, darts, and the like whilepressing.
5. Sleeve board –a small ironing board that permits pressing of sleeves without creasing.
6. Point presser –used to press points such as those on collars.
7. Seam roll –used to press seams without creating press marks.
8. Sponge –used to wet press cloth to create steam for pressing.
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