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ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Separate Pillow Throw, Sewn to Spread
⇐ ПредыдущаяСтр 5 из 5
The width of the pillow throw is the same as the width of the spread. Seams are placed to match seams in spread. Side edges are finished in the same manner as on the spread. The pillow throw is lined if the spread is lined.
The pillow throw must be long enough to go over the pillow, to tuck in under the pillow and to tuck in at the headboard. To this length, add 3 inches for hem and seam. Make 2-inch hem at top edge of pillow throw. Finish side edges.
With right sides together, pin bottom edge of pillow throw to spread, about 12 inches from the head edge of the bed. Stitch on pinned line, across entire width. Turn under raw edge of pillow throw, and stitch again.
Place pillow over seam line. When pillow throw is drawn up over pillow, it appears to be tucked in underneath (Fig.53).
To determine size of inner form, cut a rectangular piece of heavy muslin or sailcloth, four times the desired height of the pillow, by top width of bed plus 8 inches.
Stitch long edges together. Gather around the edge of one end, and pull gathering up tight to close the end. Fasten securely. Turn tube right side out. Pack tightly and evenly with stuffing material. Close open end same as the first end.
For the cover, measure inner form for correct length and circumference. Allow l/2 inch for seams. Join long edges. Cut two fabric circles to fit over end sections, adding l/2 -inch seam allowance all around.
Stitch one end section to tube section. Turn right side out. Insert inner form. Stitch other end section to tubing by hand.
Bolster covers may be made in any shape in this same manner. The tubing, cut to the correct circumference, will take the shape of any inner form. Only the end pieces are changed (Fig.54, Fig.55).
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions:
1. Are top and bottom pillow sections the same measurements?
2. What is larger? Why?
3. What decorative edge trimming can be used?
4. What is the width of the pillow throw?
5. Where should you pin bottom edge of pillow throw to spread?
6. What material should be used for inner form of bolster roll?
Exercise 2. Find the English equivalents of such words from the text:
Наволочка, довжина, ширина, згин, оборки, бахрома, галун, лицьовий бік, зворотний бік, бути на підкладці, прямокутний, надійно, набити (напакувати), рівномірно.
Exercise 3. Mark each true statement T and each false one F:
1. Snaps should be sewn on overlapped opening of pillow sham.
2. The width of the pillow throw is bigger than the width of the spread.
3. The pillow throw must be long enough to go over the pillow.
4. For inner form of bolter roll, cut a triangular piece of heavy muslin or sailcloth.
5. The tubing, cut to the correct circumference, will take the shape of any inner form.
Exercise 4. Translate into English:
1. Нижню частину (деталь) подушки виріжте за виміряною шириною, а до довжини добавте 3,5 дюйма.
2. Для оздоблення країв можна використати оборки, бахрому, галун, стрічки і мереживо.
3. Якщо покривало на підкладці, то накидка на подушку також на підкладці.
4. Внутрішню форму валика потрібно набити щільно і рівномірно набивним матеріалом.
5. Покриття валика виготовляють так само, як і внутрішню частину подушки.
Single lapped seam. This seam is used for joining seams in interfacings and interlinings because it gives the least possible bulk. Seam allowances are lapped one over the other/matching seam lines. Stitch on the seam line and trim both seam allowances close to stitching.
Tucked seam. This is a decorative seam finish. The lapped seam is stitched back from the edge to form a tuck.
Plain seam, double top-stitched . This seam is mainly used for a decorative trim, although it does provide a strong seam. Stitch a plain seam and press the seam open. Top-stitch on the right side an equal distance on both sides of the seam line.
Double welt seam. This seam construction for the double welt seam is the same as for the welt seam. It does give a sturdier seam construction, and gives the same appearance as the flat-fell seam. The only difference between this and the welt seam is an additional row of stitching placed close to the seam line through all thicknesses.
Slot seam. This is primarily used as a decorative seam because of the tucked effect, which results. The pattern may have slot seams as part of the design detail, or you may wish to devise your own, using the slot seam on yokes, side skirt seams, sleeves, pockets. A strip of fabric is placed under the seam. It may be the same fabric or a contrasting color or fabric, and may be cut on the straight of the goods or on the bias. To construct the seam, turn under the seam allowances on the seam line and press flat. Cut a strip of fabric on the desired grain, the length of the entire seam, and approximately 1 1/2 inches wide. Place a row of baiting stitches down the center of the strip. With right sides up toward you, place the seam line folds so they meet exactly at the center basting line. Baste in position close to the folded edges. Top-stitch through all thicknesses an even distance from each side of the center marking to produce the desired width tuck.
French seam with one edge hemmed. This seam is used on bodices and areas of a dress made of sheer fabric that requires fitting. Make a plain seam. Trim one edge to 1/4 inch. Turn under raw edge of other seam allowance and hem by hand along stitching line.
Corded seam. This is also used as a decorative finish, and is similar to the piped seam. The corded seam has cording inside the bias strip. Encase the cording inside a bias strip, using the zipper-cording foot. Place the cording on right side of one section of the fabric to be joined, with the stitching on the cording matching the seam line. The cording should face toward the main part of the garment. Baste. Then place the other section in position, right sides together, and stitch, again using the cording foot on the sewing machine. Press seam allowances to one side. If the seam is bulky, grade the seam allowances.
Text E: Special Problems
Key Words and Phrases:
Taping a seam. When a seam must be very sturdy, or when it must be prevented from stretching, the seam is usually taped. This is often necessary with waistline seams and shoulder seams, or when stitching bias seams in loosely woven fabrics. Place a strip of woven seam binding with the center of the binding on the seam line. Stitch in position at the same time you are stitching the seam.
Seam in interfacing. Seams in interfacing are lapped, stitched and trimmed to eliminate bulk.
Stitching seam over tissue. In fabrics such as jersey, sheers, or smooth, slippery fabrics which tend to slip, stretch or pucker, or if the feed dog of the machine mars your fabric, you should stitch through tissue paper. Place a piece of tissue under the fabric, and another on top. After the stitching has been completed, tear the tissue away.
Seams with inward corners. When applying a facing to a square neckline, or at any point where there will be an inward corner in the seam, stitch to within 1/2 inch of the point, change the length of the stitch to a short stitch (14 to 16. to the inch) and stitch to the point. Raise the presser bar, pivot, lower presser bar and stitch for 1/2 inch. Change back to the normal stitch length and continue the seam. Grade the seam allowances and clip diagonally through seam allowance to point.
Seams with outward corners. In collars which have outward points, or any part of the garment where two pieces are seamed together to form an outward corner, stitch to within 1/2 inch of point, shorten stitch to 14 to 16 to the inch and stitch to point. Raise presser bar, pivot, lower presser bar, take two stitches across point, raise presser bar, pivot, stitch for 1/2 inch, then adjust to normal stitch length. Grade seam allowances; clip diagonally across point close to stitching; clip diagonally on each side of point.
Text F: Seam Finishes
Key Words and Phrases:
No garment is complete unless the raw edges of seams are finished. This prevents raveling, and gives the garment a neat appearance on the inside. The type of finish to use will vary according to the fabric and the design of the garment. For example, fabrics which hardly ravel at all can be finished merely by pinking the edges. Those which are very "ravely" and bulky, loosely woven fabrics need a more secure finish. Un-lined jackets need a very neat finish since the inside of the jacket is often on display.
For fabrics that are firmly woven and do not ravel, a pinked or scalloped edge is sufficient. Using pinking or skalloping shears, cut along the raw edge. Hold the shears firmly and cut with long even strokes.
For fabrics that ravel and, need a secure finish, zigzag stitch close to the raw edge, using an automatic machine or a zigzag attachment. The depth and width of the zigzag stitch is determined by the weight and closeness of the weave of the fabric. Use a smaller stitch on firmly woven fabrics and a wider stitch on loosely woven fabrics.
A hand finish similar to the zigzag is made by the overcast stitch. Take small, even stitches over the raw edge and be careful not to pull the stitches tight. If the seam has been stitched with both seam allowances to one side, overcast both edges together. A row of machine-stitching close to the raw edge serves as a guide for keeping overcasting stitches even.
To finish a seam for fabrics that ravel slightly, machine-stitch Vs inch from the raw edge. To give a more secure finish, machine-stitch VA. inch from the edge, and then trim Vs inch from the edge with pinking or skalloping shears.
The turned and stitched edge finish is used for non-bulky fabrics. Fold under the raw edges 14 inch and machine-stitch Vs inch from the edge.
For heavy or bulky fabrics, the edges are bound with woven or bias seam binding depending on whether seam is straight or curved. Fold and press the tape so that the under section is %e inch wider than the upper section. Having the under edge just slightly wider will help insure stitching through both edges of the binding. Place the binding over the edge and machine-stitch close to the edge.
On sheer fabrics, a trim finish is the rolled edge. Stitch a plain seam, press both seam allowances together and trim to % inch. Roll both seam allowances together, using your thumb and forefinger, to the line of stitching. Sew over the edge close to the line of stitching with a whipping stitch. Keep stitches evenly spaced and do not pull tight.
Used as a decorative stitch. The needle is carried back only half the length of the first stitch. This looks like a running stitch on the right side, but stitches overlap on the wrong side.
A variation of back-stitch and half back-stitch, the prick stitch is used for applying zippers by hand. The needle is carried back only one or two threads of fabric.
This is used when a strong, secure and invisible seam is needed. It is often used on table linens, to sew on lace, to patch and for hems. Fold and press back the two seam allowances and place the fabrics right sides together with seam lines matching. Place the needle straight through the back fold and then through the front fold, picking up only one or two threads each time. Bring the needle out straight toward you. This produces a straight stitch. The stitches are kept close together.
This may be used in place of the overhand stitch, since it serves the same purpose, or in tailoring. The only difference between the two stitches is that the whipping stitch is done with slanting stitches, taking stitches over the edge with the needle in a slanted position. Again, take only one or two threads of the fabric.
This stitch is very similar to the diagonal basting stitch. It is a. shorter stitch, and the underside of the stitch is much shorter, catching only one or two threads. It should be almost invisible on the outside. It is used to tack interfacing to collars and lapels of tailored garments.
Direction of stitching
Seams should always be stitched so that both ends and edges match accurately. Stitch on the exact seam line indicated by the pattern piece. Usually this is -Vs inch unless otherwise noted. Stitch seams in the direction of fabric grain, just as you cut and stay-stitch with the grain.
When stitching seams or darts permanently, the machine-stitches should be secured at each end. There are several ways to do this. At the end of a seam, the needle and bobbin threads can be clipped, leaving enough thread to tie the two together several times in a square knot.
When stitching does not reach an edge, the two threads can be pulled to one side of the fabric and tied securely in a square knot. To do this, gently pull the bobbin thread until the loop of needle thread is visible. Catch this with the end of a pin and pull it through, so that both threads are on the same side of the fabric.
Back-stitching is an excellent way to secure threads, but it does require a little practice at the machine. Take several stitches back over the stitches in the seam by adjusting the machine for back-stitching. Since you must stitch directly back over the seam, it is easier to turn the machine wheel by hand to do these backstitches.
Very skilled seamstresses may wish to try the lockstitch. However, if this is not done accurately, the needle thread may jam in the bobbin case of the machine. Practice several times on a scrap of fabric before trying it on a garment. To do the lockstitch, leave the needle in the fabric at the end of stitching. Raise the presser bar very slightly (this is the tricky part—the presser bar must be raised just the slightest bit), hold the fabric securely, and take several stitches right over the last stitch.
After threads have been fastened securely, clip the ends close to the fabric, using very sharp scissors. Be careful not to clip the fabric. You may find the little thread clippers suggested in Chapter 5 very helpful for this operation. Do not neglect clipping these threads. The garment will look much neater, and further sewing will be easier, since there will be no loose threads to catch in other stitching or on the presser foot.
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