ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите, является ли подчеркнутая форма инфинитивом, причастием или герундием. Переведите письменно предложения на русский язык.



Example: The falling water has kinetic energy. Falling – Причастие I. Падающая вода обладает кинетической энергией.

 

1. X-rays can’t be reflected easily by a mirror.

2. As alternative to using a standalone fax machine is to install a PC-fax care in the rack of your PC.

3. The rays traveling through a layer of gas use part of their energy to ionize the gas they pas through.

4. An object was focused through a lens onto the bank of photoelectric cells.

5. The kinetic theory of gases assumes a gas to be made up of particles moving about with random motion.

6. Vacuum tubes are known to have been the principal building blocks of electronic circuits until 1955.

 

II. Раскройте скобки, используя Participle I или Participle II.Переведите письменно предложения на русский язык.

Example: (Heat) magnet loses some of its magnetism. – Heated magnet loses some of its magnetism

1. Water (heat) above 100º C boils.

2. Algol first (introduce) in Europe in 1960, is used for mathematical and scientific purposes.

3. The (result) electron pairs are called covalent bonds.

4. Triode is a vacuum tube (to contain) three electrodes.

 

III. Перепишите данные предложения, подчеркните в них независимый причастный оборот. Переведите предложения письменно.

Example: The day being hot, they decided to go to the river.

1. Various media being used, we can communicate quickly.

2. Free electrons moving along the conductor, an electric current is generated.

3. The electric current passing through a wire, it will be heated.

4. Many substances are semiconductors, germanium and silicon being the most important of them.

 

IV. Прочитайте и перепишите следующие предложения. Определите, к какому типу условного предложения относится каждое из них. Переведите письменно предложение.

Example: Ice will turn into water if you heat it. – Условные предложение I типа. – Лед превратится в воду, если его нагревать.

1. If the new instrument hadn’t been developed, this experiment wouldn’t have been successful.

2. If the model fits well, the observed data will be correct.

3. If radioelectronics were not developed, there would be no cosmonautics, cybernetics and other sciences.

4. Had there been no Earth’s gravitation, the artificial satellites would have moved through airless space in a straight line at a uniform speed.

 

V. Прочитайте текст. Постарайтесь понять его содержание. Выполните задания после текста.

A perspective on Nanotechnology

1. In his famous speech “There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom in 1959”, Richard Feynman discussed the possibility of manipulating and controlling things on a molecular scale in order to achieve electronic and mechanical systems with atomic sized components. He concluded that the development of technologies to construct such small systems would be interdisciplinary, combining fields such as physics, chemistry and biology, and would offer a new world of possibilities that could radically change the technology around us.

2. A few years later, in 1965, Moore noted that the number of transistors on a chip had roughly doubled every other year since 1959, and predicted that the trend was likely to hold as each new generation of microsystems would help to develop the next generation at lower prices and with smaller components. Up till now, the semiconductor industry has been able to fulfill Moore's Law.

The impact on society and our lives of the continuous downscaling of systems is profound, and continues to open up new frontiers and possibilities. However, no exponential growth can continue forever, and the semiconductor industry will eventually reach the atomic limit for downsizing the transistor.

3. Today, as that limit still seems to be some 20 years in the future, the growth is beginning to take new directions, indicating that the atomic limit might not be the limiting factor for technological development in the future, because systems are becoming more diverse and because new effects appear when the systems become so small that quantum effects dominate. The semiconductor devices show an increased diversification, dividing for instance processors into very different systems such as those for cheap disposable chips, low power consumption portable devices, or high processing power devices. Microfabrication is also merging with other branches of science to include for instance chemical and optical micro systems. In addition, microbiology and biochemistry is becoming important for applications of all the developing methods. This diversity seems to be increasing on all levels in technology and many of these cross-disciplinary developments are linked to nanotechnology.

4.As the components become so small that quantum effects become important, the diversity will probably further increase as completely new devices and possibilities begin to open up that are not possible with the bulk materials of today's technology.

The visions of Feynman are today shared by many others: when nanotechnology is seen as a general cross disciplinary technology, it has the potential to create a coming "industrial" revolution that will have a major impact on society and everyday life, comparable or exceeding the impact of electricity and information technology.

Notes:

scale масштаб, уровень
roughly точно
predict предсказать
increase увеличивать
for instance например

VI. Укажите, какие из данных утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста.

1. In 1959 Richard Feyman rejected the idea that it was possible to manipulate and control things on a molecular scale.

2. In 1965 Moore noted that the number of transistors on a chip doubled every two years.

3. The semiconductor industry is supposed to reach the atomic limit for downsizing the transistor.

4. Today, the semiconductor devices show their great diversity.

5. The visions of Feynman are today shared by many other scientists.

 

VII. Выберите правильные ответы на вопросы.

1. What conclusion did Richard Feyman arrive at in 1959?

a) It would be possible to achieve atomic sized components of devices.

b) The size of device components would achieve their limits.

c) It would be possible shrink electronic devices twice.

2. Who noted the doubling in the number of transistors on a chip?

a) Richard Feynman

b) Tomas Moore

c) Isaac Newton

3. What does today’s diversity of semiconductors devices show?

a) It will develop further.

b) It will reach its limits.

c) It will be increasing on all levels in technology.

 

VIII. Прочитайте предложения. Выберите правильный вариант перевода.

1. Moore predicted that the trend was likely to hold.

a) Мур предсказал, что эта тенденція, по всей видимости, будет удерживаться.

b) Мур предсказал, что, вероятно, эта тенденция останется неизменной.

c) Мур предсказал, что это направление будет неизменным.

2. However, no exponential growth can continue forever.

a) Однако, видимый рост не может продолжаться долго.

b) Однако, видимые изменения не будут наблюдаться постоянно.

c) Однако, видимый рост не будет продолжаться вечно.

3. Nanotechnology is seen as a general cross disciplinary technology.

a) Нанотехнология расматривается, как междисциплинарная технология.

b) Нанотехнология рассматривается, как технология, связанная с другими дисциплинами.

c) Нанотехнология рассматривается, как технология, пересекающаяся с другими дисциплинами.

IX. Переведите письменно на русский язык абзацы 1-3.

 

Вариант 4

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите, является ли подчеркнутая форма инфинитивом, причастием или герундием. Переведите письменно предложения на русский язык.

Example: The falling water has kinetic energy. Falling – Причастие I. Падающая вода обладает кинетической энергией.

1. There were many questions to be answered in this field.

2. The cost of using fax is difficult to evaluate.

3. The elements possessing this property make the experiment impossible.

4. In nature X rays are produced by sun, other stars, and pulsars.

5. Nature has many secrets to be discovered yet.

6. Electronics is supposed to have produced significant advances in medicine, automation and space research.

 





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