X. Укажите, какие из данных утверждений являются верными (Т).




ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

X. Укажите, какие из данных утверждений являются верными (Т).



1. The first IC contained a huge amount of transistors.

2. Two US aerospace projects were interested in integrated-circuit technology.

3. In the late 1960s there appeared LSI circuits.

4. At the final step in the IC technology development process VLSI circuits were fabricated and, thus, it was quite possible to develop and produce CPU.

5. In SOC design circuits all components are wired on a printed circuit board and compose the whole electronic system.

 

XI. Выберите правильные ответы на вопросы.

1. Why were the first ICs called SSI circuits?

a)because they were of small size.

b) because they contained only tens of transistors.

c) because they were of little use

2. What were the advantages of MSI circuits?

a) they cost less.

b) they needed no further development

c) they allowed to produce more complex systems and needed less assembly work.

3. What is the most extreme integrated technique?

a) ULSI.

b) WSI.

c) SOC design.

 

XII. Прочитайте предложения. Выберите и запишите правильный вариант их перевода.

1. The Apolo guidance computer motivated the integrated-circuit technology, while the Minuteman missile forced it into mass production.

a) Компьютер наведения ракетApolo продвинул технологию интегральных схем, а ракета Minuteman ускорила ее массовое производство.

b) Компьютер наведения ракет Apolo мотивировал технологию интегральных схем, а ракета Minuteman форсировала ее массовое производство.

с) Компьютер Apolo выдвинул технологию интегральных схем, в то время, как Minuteman ускорил ее массовое производство.

2. For the first time it became possible to fabricate a CPU on a single IC.

a) Впервые стало возможным фабриковать ЦПУ на одной ИС.

b) Впервые стало возможным создавать ЦПУ на одиночной ИС.

с) Впервые представилась возможность создавать ЦПУ на одной ИС.

3. The term ULSI that stands for “Ultra-Large Integration” was proposed for chips of complexity more than 1 million transistors.

a) Термин СБИС, который подразумевает интегральную схему со сверх большой степенью интеграции, был предложен для схем , содержащих более, чем 1 миллион транзисторов.

b) Название СБИС, означающее сверхбольшую интегральную схему, было предложено для схем со степенью интеграции более 1 миллиона транзисторов.

с) Название СБИС было предложено для чипов со степенью интеграции более 1 миллиона транзисторов.

 

XIII. Переведите письменно абзацы 3-5 текста.

 

Bариант 4

I. Выберите правильный вариант видовременной формы глагола, перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, указав, в какой видовременной форме выбранный вами глагол.

Example: The teacher … by his behaviour.

a)was shocked; b) have been shocked; c) are shocking; d)has shocked

The teacher was shocked by his behaviour. - Учитель был потрясен (возмущен) его поведением. (Past Simple, Passive Voice)

1 The first digital disks … in 1982 as compact disks for music.

a) were produce; c) were produced;

b) are produced; d) were been produced

2 Satellite transmission … for international telegraphy.

a) is now widely used; c) is now widely using;

b) have now widely used; d) is now been used widely

3 The data … towards its destination by special computers called routers.

a) is constantly directed; c) are constantly being directed;

b) have constantly directed; d) are constantly been directed

4 When the conditions for fusion …, the energy released appears as intense ultraviolet radiation which heats up the surface of the reactor wall.

a) have been met; c) are been met;

b) have met; d) were been met

5 The intensity of a laser … to encode very complex signals.

a) can rapidly changed; c) can be rapidly changed;

b) can be rapidly changing; d) can have rapidly changed

 

II. Прочитайте предложения, перепишите их, обращая внимание на многофункциональность «that». Переведите письменно предложения на русский язык.

Example: We know that a computer is a complex electronic device. – Мы знаем, что вычислительная машина является сложным электронным устройством.

1. That new mechanism could control many operations.

2. That torch doesn’t work. The batteries must have been used up.

3. Telecommunications embraces all devices and systems that transmit electronic signals across long distances.

4. That Gagarin was the first space man is quite evident.

5. Each hole will behave in a manner similar to that of an electron.

III. Прочитайте предложения, перепишите их, обращая внимание на выделенные местоимения it, переведите предложения на русский язык и укажите его функции в предложениях.

Example: Radio-electronics has made it possible to test various equipment.

Радио электроника дала возможность испытывать различное оборудование.

1. You can’t use the lift. It’s out of work.

2. It is no secret that John wants to take over as director. He has told everyone.

3. Since the cuts in the rail network, it is no longer possible to get to Glasgow by a direct train.

4. It was Mendeleyev who formulated the periodic law.

5. This is a complex problem, but we can solve it.

 

IV. Прочитайте предложения, перепишите их, обращая внимание на выделенные слова ones, one, переведите предложения на русский язык.

Example: One should pay more attention to the use of artificial satellites for communication. - Следует уделять больше внимания применению искусственных спутников для связи.

1. One must realize that the increasing number of cars brings air pollution.

2. We shall replace the old machines by newer ones.

3. Nowadays, many people have a mobile phone, but I’ve never used one.

4. The new technologies that are being developed must be connected with traditional ones.

 

V. Перепишите предложения, употребив глаголы в правильной видовременной форме, переведите предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на функции глагола to have, to do, to be в предложениях.

Example: Many years (to pass) since the day when radio was invented.

Many years have passed since the day when radio was invented. - Прошло много лет с тех пор, как было изобретено радио.

1. Computer integrated telephony, for example, (to have) great applications for telephone banking.

2. All of this work (to have) to be done before the end of the day.

3. A revolution in information storage (to be) underway with optical disk technology.

4. There (to be) projects to use lasers for long distance communication and for transmission of energy to space stations.

6. The professor (to be) to make a report at the conference.

7. The pressure changed, so (to do) the temperature.

8.I think, David (to do) something to the computer. I can’t get it to work.

VI. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните инфинитив, определив, какие функции он выполняет. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

Example: To solve the problem is very important. (функции подлежащего) – Решить эту проблему очень важно.

The only way to solve the problem was to change the algorithm. (функция определения) – Единственное, что можно было сделать в этой ситуации – изменить алгоритм.

1. To translate this text takes much time.

2. The laser beam must heat the fuel to the required temperature so quickly that the plasma doesn’t have time to disintegrate.

4. In 1984 a formal decision was made to build a space station for the Western World.

5. To form the image a second disk will be needed.

6. Shall I leave the window open or would you like me to shut it?

VII. Перепишите предложения, обращая внимание на субъектный инфинитивный оборот. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

Example: It is known that the atom emits rays of different length. – The atom isknown to emit rays of different length. Известно, что атом испускает лучи разной длины.

1. The brakes have been discovered to be badly worn.

2. The sun is known to represent a mass of compressed gases.

3. The new rocket is reported to go into operation next year.

4. He appeared to be an ideal man.

5. These two young men are sure to be good friends.

6. In the middle of the lecture Dr. Sommer happened to pause and looked out of the window.

7. He is certain to acknowledge your talent.

 

IX. Прочитайте текст, используя пояснения к тексту. Выполните упражнения к тексту.

Semiconductor

1. A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. Semiconductors are tremendously important technologically and economically. Semiconductors are essential materials in all modern electrical devices, from computers to cellular phones to digital audio players. Silicon is the most commercially important semiconductor.

2. Semiconductors are very similar to insulators. The two categories of solids differ only in that insulators have larger band gaps energies that electrons must acquire to be free to flow. In semiconductors at room temperature, just as in insulators, very few electrons gain enough thermal energy to leap the band gap, which is necessary for conduction. For this reason, pure semiconductors and insulators, in the absence of applied fields, have roughly identical electrical properties. The smaller bandgaps of semiconductors, however, allow for many other means besides temperature to control their electrical properties.

3. Semiconductors' intrinsic electrical properties are very often permanently modified by introducing impurities, in a process known as doping. Upon the addition of a sufficiently large proportion of dopants, semiconductors conduct electricity nearly as well as metals.

4. In certain semiconductors, when electrons fall from the conduction band to the valence band (the energy levels above and below the band gap), they often emit light. This photoemission process underlies the light emitting diode (LED) and the semiconductor laser, both of which are tremendously important commercially. Conversely, semiconductor absorption of light in photodetectors excites electrons from the valence band to the conduction band, facilitating reception of fiber optic communications, and providing the basis for energy from solar cells.

Semiconductors may be elemental materials, such as silicon, compound semiconductors such as gallium arsenide, or alloys, such as silicon germanium or aluminium gallium arsenide.

Notes:

semiconductor полупроводник
silicon кремний
insulator диэлектрик
band gap запрещенная зона
impurity примесь
light-emitting diode светодиод

 

X. Укажите, какие из данных утверждений, являются верными (Т).

1. A semiconductor is a liquid which electric conductivity can’t be controlled.

2. A semiconductor possesses the same properties as insulators.

3. Electric properties of semiconductors can’t be modified by anything.

4. Electric properties of semiconductors are modified by applying electric fields and doping.

5. Some semiconductors can emit light.

XI. Выберите правильные ответы на вопросы.

1. What is a semiconductor?

a) a gas;

b) a solid;

c) a liquid.

2. How are semiconductors` intrinsic electrical properties modified?

a) by doping;

b) by oxidation;

c) by etching.

3. What materials represent semiconductors?

a) elemental materials;

b) alloys;

c) elemental materials, compound semiconductors or alloys.

XII. Прочитайте предложения. Выберите и запишите правильный вариант их перевода.

1. Silicon is the most commercially important semiconductor, though dozens of others are important as well.

a) Кремний – самый важный полупроводник, хотя десятки других важны также.

b) Кремний – самый важный широко распространенный полупроводник, хотя десятки других также важны.

c) Кремний – распространенный полупроводник, хотя дюжины других также важны.

2. Semiconductor’s intrinsic electrical properties are very often permanently modified by introducing impurities in a process known as doping.

a) Собственные электрические свойства полупроводников очень часто модифицируются внесением примесей в процессе, известном как легирование.

b) Собственные электрические свойства полупроводников очень часто постоянно изменяются внесением примесей посредством процесса, называемого легированием.

c) Собственные электрические свойства полупроводников постоянно изменяются посредством внесения примесей в процессе легирования.

3. This photoemission process underlies the light emitting diode (LED) and the semiconductor laser, both of which are tremendously important commercially.

a) Этот процесс фотоэффекта лежит в основе светодиода и полупроводникового лазера, оба из которых чрезвычайно важны коммерчески.

b) Этот процесс фотоэффекта лежит в основе светодиода и полупроводникового лазера, оба из которых чрезвычайно для широкого применения.

c) Этот процесс фотоэффекта лежит в основе светодиода и полупроводникового лазера, оба из которых чрезвычайно важны для торговли.

 

XIII. Переведите письменно абзацы 1-3 текста.

 

Bариант 5

I. Выберите правильный вариант видовременной формы глагола, перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, указав, в какой видовременной форме выбранный вами глагол.

Example: The teacher … by his behaviour.

a)was shocked b) have been shocked c) are shocking d)has shocked

The teacher was shocked by his behaviour. - Учитель был потрясен (возмущен) его поведением. (Past Simple, Passive Voice)

1. In the late 18th century optical telegraphs … by Claude Chappe in France and by George Murray in England.

a) has been invented; c) invented;

b) were invented; d) is being invented

2. In radio telephones such as cellular mobile telephones, voice signals … across town or over long distances by microwaves.

a) are sent; c) have sent;

b) is being sent; d) have being sent

3. Optical fibers … in a wide variety of sensing devices, ranging from thermometers to gyroscopes.

a) use; c) are also being used;

b) have been also using; d) also are use

4. Some projects … into effect, because of the great technological difficulties to be overcome.

a) have not yet put; c) are not yet putting;

b) have not yet been put; d) are not yet been put

5. Since satellite systems do not require the construction of intermediate relay or repeater stations they … into service much more rapidly.

a) can be put; c) can had put;

b) can put; d) can being put

 





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